And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin:
Related Topics and Bible Verses
The process of refining metals is referred to by way of
illustrations in Isa. 1:25; Jer. 6:29; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2, 3.
Heb. bedil (Num. 31:22; Ezek. 22:18, 20), a metal well known in
ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of
Tyre and Sidon obtained their supplies of tin from the British
Isles. In Ezek. 27:12 it is said to have been brought from
Tarshish, which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with
commodities from other places. In Isa. 1:25 the word so rendered
is generally understood of lead, the alloy with which the silver
had become mixed (ver. 22). The fire of the Babylonish Captivity
would be the means of purging out the idolatrous alloy that had
corrupted the people.
The "bow of steel" in (A.V.) 2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34
is in the Revised Version "bow of brass" (Heb.
kesheth-nehushah). In Jer. 15:12 the same word is used, and is
also rendered in the Revised Version "brass." But more correctly
it is copper (q.v.), as brass in the ordinary sense of the word
(an alloy of copper and zinc) was not known to the ancients.
smelting-shop, "a workshop for the refining and smelting of
metals", a small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile
from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and
Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great
famine," when the "heaven was shut up three years and six
months" (Luke 4:26; 1 Kings 17:10). It is called Sarepta in the
New Testament (Luke 4:26).
(Jer. 2:22; Mal. 3:2; Heb. borith), properly a vegetable alkali,
obtained from the ashes of certain plants, particularly the
salsola kali (saltwort), which abounds on the shores of the Dead
Sea and of the Mediterranean. It does not appear that the
Hebrews were acquainted with what is now called "soap," which is
a compound of alkaline carbonates with oleaginous matter. The
word "purely" in Isa. 1:25 (R.V., "throughly;" marg., "as with
lye") is lit. "as with _bor_." This word means "clearness," and
hence also that which makes clear, or pure, alkali. "The
ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil, instead of soap
(Job 9:30), and also in smelting metals, to make them melt and
flow more readily and purely" (Gesenius).
which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the
thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture
is properly copper (Deut. 8:9). It was used for fetters (Judg.
16:21; 2 Kings 25:7), for pieces of armour (1 Sam. 17:5, 6), for
musical instruments (1 Chr. 15:19; 1 Cor. 13:1), and for money
It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isa.
48:4; Jer. 6:28; Ezek. 22:18), and of strength (Ps. 107:16;
The Macedonian empire is described as a kingdom of brass (Dan.
2:39). The "mountains of brass" Zechariah (6:1) speaks of have
been supposed to represent the immutable decrees of God.
The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God
(Num. 21:4-9), and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen
by all the people when wounded by the bite of the serpents that
were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings against
God and against Moses. It was afterwards carried by the Jews
into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of Hezekiah,
who caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to be
viewed by the people with superstitious reverence (2 Kings
18:4). (See NEHUSHTAN ¯T0002700.)
The brazen serpent is alluded to by our Lord in John 3:14, 15.
(See SERPENT ¯T0003287.)