daughter of many, the name of one of the gates of the city of
Heshbon, near which were pools (Cant.7:4).
lord of dwelling, a town of Reuben (Num. 32:38), called also
Beth-meon (Jer. 48:23) and Beth-baal-meon (Josh. 13:17). It is
supposed to have been the birth-place of Elisha. It is
identified with the modern M'ain, about 3 miles south-east of
God has ascended, a place in the pastoral country east of
Jordan, in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:3, 37). It is not again
mentioned till the time of Isaiah (15:4; 16:9) and Jeremiah
(48:34). It is now an extensive ruin called el-A'al, about one
mile north-east of Heshbon.
(Cant. 7:4) should be simply "pools," as in the Revised Version.
The reservoirs near Heshbon (q.v.) were probably stocked with
fish (2 Sam. 2:13; 4:12; Isa. 7:3; 22:9, 11).
ore of gold or silver. (1.) A city of the Reubenites; one of the
three cities of refuge on the east of Jordan (Deut. 4: 43; Josh.
20:8). It has been identified with the modern ruined village of
Burazin, some 12 miles north of Heshbon; also with
Kasur-el-Besheir, 2 miles south-west of Dibon.
(2.) A descendant of Asher (1 Chr. 7:37).
coolness; fragrance, a town in Reuben, in the territory of Moab,
on the east of Jordan (Josh. 13:19); called also Shebam and
Shibmah (Num. 32:3, 38). It was famous for its vines (Isa. 16:9;
Jer. 48:32). It has been identified with the ruin of Sumieh,
where there are rock-cut wine-presses. This fact explains the
words of the prophets referred to above. It was about 5 miles
east of Heshbon.
proclaimer; prophet. (1.) A Chaldean god whose worship was
introduced into Assyria by Pul (Isa. 46:1; Jer. 48:1). To this
idol was dedicated the great temple whose ruins are still seen
at Birs Nimrud. A statue of Nebo found at Calah, where it was
set up by Pul, king of Assyria, is now in the British Museum.
(2.) A mountain in the land of Moab from which Moses looked
for the first and the last time on the Promised Land (Deut.
32:49; 34:1). It has been identified with Jebel Nebah, on the
eastern shore of the Dead Sea, near its northern end, and about
5 miles south-west of Heshbon. It was the summit of the ridge of
Pisgah (q.v.), which was a part of the range of the "mountains
of Abarim." It is about 2,643 feet in height, but from its
position it commands a view of Western Israel. Close below it
are the plains of Moab, where Balaam, and afterwards Moses, saw
the tents of Israel spread along.
(3.) A town on the east of Jordan which was taken possession
of and rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:3,38; 1 Chr.
5:8). It was about 8 miles south of Heshbon.
(4.) The "children of Nebo" (Ezra 2:29; Neh. 7:33) were of
those who returned from Babylon. It was a town in Benjamin,
probably the modern Beit Nubah, about 7 miles north-west of
intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites
(Josh. 3:10; 13:17). It was taken by Moses (Num. 21:23-26), and
became afterwards a Levitical city (Josh. 21:39) in the tribe of
Reuben (Num. 32:37). After the Exile it was taken possession of
by the Moabites (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:2, 34, 45). The ruins of
this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the
north end of the Dead Sea. There are reservoirs in this
district, which are probably the "fishpools" referred to in
he (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan,
and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad (Num.
32:1, 35; Josh. 13:25). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites
(21:39). In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites,
i.e., the descendants of Kohath (1 Chr. 26:31). It is mentioned
in the "burdens" proclaimed over Moab (Isa. 16:8, 9; Jer.
48:32). Its site is marked by the modern ruin called Sar or
Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and 12 from Heshbon. "The
vineyards that once covered the hill-sides are gone; and the
wild Bedawin from the eastern desert make cultivation of any
waters of quiet, an ancient Moabite town (Num. 21:30). It was
assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Josh. 13:16). Here was fought
the great battle in which Joab defeated the Ammonites and their
allies (1 Chr. 19:7-15; comp. 2 Sam. 10:6-14). In the time of
Isaiah (15:2) the Moabites regained possession of it from the
Ammonites. (See HANUN ¯T0001632.)
The ruins of this important city, now Madeba or Madiyabah, are
seen about 8 miles south-west of Heshbon, and 14 east of the
Dead Sea. Among these are the ruins of what must have been a
large temple, and of three cisterns of considerable extent,
which are now dry. These cisterns may have originated the name
Medeba, "waters of quiet." (See OMRI ¯T0002785.)
one of the most important products of Israel. The first
mention of it is in the history of Noah (Gen. 9:20). It is
afterwards frequently noticed both in the Old and New
Testaments, and in the ruins of terraced vineyards there are
evidences that it was extensively cultivated by the Jews. It was
cultivated in Israel before the Israelites took possession of
it. The men sent out by Moses brought with them from the Valley
of Eshcol a cluster of grapes so large that "they bare it
between two upon a staff" (Num. 13: 23). The vineyards of
En-gedi (Cant. 1:14), Heshbon, Sibmah, Jazer, Elealeh (Isa.
16:8-10; Jer. 48:32, 34), and Helbon (Ezek. 27:18), as well as
of Eshcol, were celebrated.
The Church is compared to a vine (Ps. 80:8), and Christ says
of himself, "I am the vine" (John 15:1). In one of his parables
also (Matt. 21:33) our Lord compares his Church to a vineyard
which "a certain householder planted, and hedged round about,"
Hos. 10:1 is rendered in the Revised Version, "Israel is a
luxuriant vine, which putteth forth his fruit," instead of
"Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself,"
of the Authorized Version.
a pond, or reservoir, for holding water (Heb. berekhah; modern
Arabic, birket), an artificial cistern or tank. Mention is made
of the pool of Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:13); the pool of Hebron (4:12);
the upper pool at Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17; 20:20); the pool of
Samaria (1 Kings 22:38); the king's pool (Neh. 2:14); the pool
of Siloah (Neh. 3:15; Eccles. 2:6); the fishpools of Heshbon
(Cant. 7:4); the "lower pool," and the "old pool" (Isa.
The "pool of Bethesda" (John 5:2,4, 7) and the "pool of
Siloam" (John 9:7, 11) are also mentioned. Isaiah (35:7) says,
"The parched ground shall become a pool." This is rendered in
the Revised Version "glowing sand," etc. (marg., "the mirage,"
etc.). The Arabs call the mirage "serab," plainly the same as
the Hebrew word _sarab_, here rendered "parched ground." "The
mirage shall become a pool", i.e., the mock-lake of the burning
desert shall become a real lake, "the pledge of refreshment and
joy." The "pools" spoken of in Isa. 14:23 are the marshes caused
by the ruin of the canals of the Euphrates in the neighbourhood
The cisterns or pools of the Holy City are for the most part
excavations beneath the surface. Such are the vast cisterns in
the temple hill that have recently been discovered by the
engineers of the Israel Exploration Fund. These underground
caverns are about thirty-five in number, and are capable of
storing about ten million gallons of water. They are connected
with one another by passages and tunnels.
the designation of a tribe descended from Moab, the son of Lot
(Gen. 19:37). From Zoar, the cradle of this tribe, on the
south-eastern border of the Dead Sea, they gradually spread over
the region on the east of Jordan. Rameses II., the Pharaoh of
the Oppression, enumerates Moab (Muab) among his conquests.
Shortly before the Exodus, the warlike Amorites crossed the
Jordan under Sihon their king and drove the Moabites (Num.
21:26-30) out of the region between the Arnon and the Jabbok,
and occupied it, making Heshbon their capital. They were then
confined to the territory to the south of the Arnon.
On their journey the Israelites did not pass through Moab, but
through the "wilderness" to the east (Deut. 2:8; Judg. 11:18),
at length reaching the country to the north of the Arnon. Here
they remained for some time till they had conquered Bashan (see
SIHON ¯T0003427; OG ¯T0002771). The Moabites were alarmed, and
their king, Balak, sought aid from the Midianites (Num. 22:2-4).
It was while they were here that the visit of Balaam (q.v.) to
Balak took place. (See MOSES ¯T0002602.)
After the Conquest, the Moabites maintained hostile relations
with the Israelites, and frequently harassed them in war (Judg.
3:12-30; 1 Sam. 14). The story of Ruth, however, shows the
existence of friendly relations between Moab and Bethlehem. By
his descent from Ruth, David may be said to have had Moabite
blood in his veins. Yet there was war between David and the
Moabites (2 Sam. 8:2; 23:20; 1 Chr. 18:2), from whom he took
great spoil (2 Sam. 8:2, 11, 12; 1 Chr. 11:22; 18:11).
During the one hundred and fifty years which followed the
defeat of the Moabites, after the death of Ahab (see MESHA
¯T0002505), they regained, apparently, much of their former
prosperty. At this time Isaiah (15:1) delivered his "burden of
Moab," predicting the coming of judgment on that land (comp. 2
Kings 17:3; 18:9; 1 Chr. 5:25, 26). Between the time of Isaiah
and the commencement of the Babylonian captivity we have very
seldom any reference to Moab (Jer. 25:21; 27:3; 40:11; Zeph.
After the Return, it was Sanballat, a Moabite, who took chief
part in seeking to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Neh.
2:19; 4:1; 6:1).