lofty men; giants, (Gen. 14:5; 2 Sam. 21:16, 18, marg. A.V.,
Rapha, marg. R.V., Raphah; Deut. 3:13, R.V.; A.V., "giants").
The aborigines of Israel, afterwards conquered and
dispossessed by the Canaanite tribes, are classed under this
general title. They were known to the Moabites as Emim, i.e.,
"fearful", (Deut. 2:11), and to the Ammonites as Zamzummim. Some
of them found refuge among the Philistines, and were still
existing in the days of David. We know nothing of their origin.
They were not necessarily connected with the "giants" (R.V.,
"Nephilim") of Gen. 6:4. (See GIANTS ¯T0001474.)
(Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33, R.V.), giants, the Hebrew word left
untranslated by the Revisers, the name of one of the Canaanitish
tribes. The Revisers have, however, translated the Hebrew
gibborim, in Gen. 6:4, "mighty men."
the descendants of Anak (Josh. 11:21; Num. 13:33; Deut. 9:2).
They dwelt in the south of Israel, in the neighbourhood of
Hebron (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 15:13). In the days of Abraham (Gen.
14:5, 6) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and
Moab, east of the Jordan. They were probably a remnant of the
original inhabitants of Israel before the Canaanites, a
Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the
Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings. Their formidable
warlike appearance, as described by the spies sent to search the
land, filled the Israelites with terror. They seem to have
identified them with the Nephilim, the "giants" (Gen. 6:4; Num.
13:33) of the antediluvian age. There were various tribes of
Anakim (Josh. 15:14). Joshua finally expelled them from the
land, except a remnant that found a refuge in the cities of
Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod (Josh. 11:22). The Philistine giants whom
David encountered (2 Sam. 21:15-22) were descendants of the
Anakim. (See GIANTS ¯T0001474.)
terrors, a warlike tribe of giants who were defeated by
Chedorlaomer and his allies in the plain of Kiriathaim. In the
time of Abraham they occupied the country east of Jordan,
afterwards the land of the Moabites (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:10).
They were, like the Anakim, reckoned among the Rephaim, and were
conquered by the Moabites, who gave them the name of Emims,
i.e., "terrible men" (Deut. 2:11). The Ammonites called them
a race of giants; "a people great, and many, and tall, as the
Anakims" (Deut. 2:20, 21). They were overcome by the Ammonites,
"who called them Zamzummims." They belonged to the Rephaim, and
inhabited the country afterwards occupied by the Ammonites. It
has been conjectured that they might be Ham-zuzims, i.e., Zuzims
dwelling in Ham, a place apparently to the south of Ashteroth
(Gen. 14:5), the ancient Rabbath-ammon.
(1.) Heb. nephilim, meaning "violent" or "causing to fall" (Gen.
6:4). These were the violent tyrants of those days, those who
fell upon others. The word may also be derived from a root
signifying "wonder," and hence "monsters" or "prodigies." In
Num. 13:33 this name is given to a Canaanitish tribe, a race of
large stature, "the sons of Anak." The Revised Version, in these
passages, simply transliterates the original, and reads
(2.) Heb. rephaim, a race of giants (Deut. 3:11) who lived on
the east of Jordan, from whom Og was descended. They were
probably the original inhabitants of the land before the
immigration of the Canaanites. They were conquered by
Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:5), and their territories were promised as
a possession to Abraham (15:20). The Anakim, Zuzim, and Emim
were branches of this stock.
In Job 26:5 (R.V., "they that are deceased;" marg., "the
shades," the "Rephaim") and Isa. 14:9 this Hebrew word is
rendered (A.V.) "dead." It means here "the shades," the departed
spirits in Sheol. In Sam. 21:16, 18, 20, 33, "the giant" is
(A.V.) the rendering of the singular form _ha raphah_, which may
possibly be the name of the father of the four giants referred
to here, or of the founder of the Rephaim. The Vulgate here
reads "Arapha," whence Milton (in Samson Agonistes) has borrowed
the name "Harapha." (See also 1 Chron. 20:5, 6, 8; Deut. 2:11,
20; 3:13; Josh. 15:8, etc., where the word is similarly rendered
"giant.") It is rendered "dead" in (A.V.) Ps. 88:10; Prov. 2:18;
9:18; 21:16: in all these places the Revised Version marg. has
"the shades." (See also Isa. 26:14.)
(3.) Heb. 'Anakim (Deut. 2:10, 11, 21; Josh. 11:21, 22; 14:12,
15; called "sons of Anak," Num. 13:33; "children of Anak,"
13:22; Josh. 15:14), a nomad race of giants descended from Arba
(Josh. 14:15), the father of Anak, that dwelt in the south of
Israel near Hebron (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 15:13). They were a
Cushite tribe of the same race as the Philistines and the
Egyptian shepherd kings. David on several occasions encountered
them (2 Sam. 21:15-22). From this race sprung Goliath (1 Sam.
(4.) Heb. 'emin, a warlike tribe of the ancient Canaanites.
They were "great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims" (Gen.
14:5; Deut. 2:10, 11).
(5.) Heb. Zamzummim (q.v.), Deut. 2:20 so called by the
(6.) Heb. gibbor (Job 16:14), a mighty one, i.e., a champion
or hero. In its plural form (gibborim) it is rendered "mighty
men" (2 Sam. 23:8-39; 1 Kings 1:8; 1 Chr. 11:9-47; 29:24.) The
band of six hundred whom David gathered around him when he was a
fugitive were so designated. They were divided into three
divisions of two hundred each, and thirty divisions of twenty
each. The captians of the thirty divisions were called "the
thirty," the captains of the two hundred "the three," and the
captain over the whole was called "chief among the captains" (2
Sam. 23:8). The sons born of the marriages mentioned in Gen. 6:4
are also called by this Hebrew name.
stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30
miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of
Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the
extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over
by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New
Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the
Israelites (Deut. 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the
Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space
of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive.
Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without
cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron;
the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by
ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having
been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have
more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken
possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace.
Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect,
as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs
unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These
ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest
specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant
Cities). (See BASHAN ¯T0000461.)
highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of
one of the sons of Canaan (Gen. 14:7), called Amurra or Amurri
in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early
Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Israel, is known as
"the land of the Amorites." The southern slopes of the mountains
of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" (Deut. 1:7, 19,
20). They seem to have originally occupied the land stretching
from the heights west of the Dead Sea (Gen. 14:7) to Hebron (13.
Comp. 13:8; Deut. 3:8; 4:46-48), embracing "all Gilead and all
Bashan" (Deut. 3:10), with the Jordan valley on the east of the
river (4:49), the land of the "two kings of the Amorites," Sihon
and Og (Deut. 31:4; Josh. 2:10; 9:10). The five kings of the
Amorites were defeated with great slaughter by Joshua (10:10).
They were again defeated at the waters of Merom by Joshua, who
smote them till there were none remaining (Josh. 11:8). It is
mentioned as a surprising circumstance that in the days of
Samuel there was peace between them and the Israelites (1 Sam.
7:14). The discrepancy supposed to exist between Deut. 1:44 and
Num. 14:45 is explained by the circumstance that the terms
"Amorites" and "Amalekites" are used synonymously for the
"Canaanites." In the same way we explain the fact that the
"Hivites" of Gen. 34:2 are the "Amorites" of 48:22. Comp. Josh.
10:6; 11:19 with 2 Sam. 21:2; also Num. 14:45 with Deut. 1:44.
The Amorites were warlike mountaineers. They are represented on
the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes,
aquiline noses, and pointed beards. They are supposed to have
been men of great stature; their king, Og, is described by Moses
as the last "of the remnant of the giants" (Deut. 3:11). Both
Sihon and Og were independent kings. Only one word of the
Amorite language survives, "Shenir," the name they gave to Mount
Hermon (Deut. 3:9).
(1.) Heb. bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deut. 8:7; 11:11;
Ps. 104:8; Isa. 41:18); also a low plain bounded by mountains,
as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources
of the Jordan (Josh. 11:17; 12:7), and the valley of Megiddo (2
(2.) 'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10, 21; Ps.
65:13; Cant. 2:1), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley
of giants" (Josh. 15:8), usually translated "valley of Rephaim"
(2 Sam. 5:18); of Elah (1 Sam. 17:2), of Berachah (2 Chr.
20:26); the king's "dale" (Gen. 14:17); of Jehoshaphat (Joel
3:2, 12), of Achor (Josh. 7:24; Isa. 65:10), Succoth (Ps. 60:6),
Ajalon (Josh. 10:12), Jezreel (Hos. 1:5).
(3.) Ge, "a bursting," a "flowing together," a narrow glen or
ravine, such as the valley of the children of Hinnom (2 Kings
23:10); of Eshcol (Deut. 1:24); of Sorek (Judg. 16:4), etc.
The "valley of vision" (Isa. 22:1) is usually regarded as
denoting Jerusalem, which "may be so called," says Barnes (Com.
on Isa.), "either (1) because there were several valleys within
the city and adjacent to it, as the vale between Mount Zion and
Moriah, the vale between Mount Moriah and Mount Ophel, between
these and Mount Bezetha, and the valley of Jehoshaphat, the
valley of the brook Kidron, etc., without the walls of the city;
or (2) more probably it was called the valley in reference to
its being compassed with hills rising to a considerable
elevation above the city" (Ps. 125:2; comp. also Jer. 21:13,
where Jerusalem is called a "valley").
(4.) Heb. nahal, a wady or water-course (Gen. 26:19; Cant.