occurs only in Prov. 30:15 (Heb. 'alukah); the generic name for
any blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the
marshes and pools of Israel. That here referred to, the
Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is
therefore not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in
the East with feelings of aversion and horror, because of their
propensity to fasten on the tongue and nostrils of horses when
they come to drink out of the pools. The medicinal leech (Hirudo
medicinalis), besides other species of leeches, are common in
the waters of Syria.
a gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge,
leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28; Jer. 31:40).
master of the horse, a "fellow-soldier" of Paul's (Philemon
1:2), whom he exhorts to renewed activity (Col. 4:17). He was a
member of Philemon's family, probably his son.
village of the horse, the same as Sansannah, one of Solomon's
"chariot cities" (Josh. 15:31; 2 Chr. 1:14), a depot in the
south border of Judah.
Heb. ba'al parash, "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned
Ex. 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The
army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We
find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry
(2 Chr. 12:3). (See HORSE ¯T0001825.)
always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike
operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job
39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the
Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition,
Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2
Sam. 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly
multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this,
horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7;
9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of
a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).
a cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Ex. 10:26; Ezek. 32:13); hence
also of the horse, though not cloven (Isa. 5:28). The "parting
of the hoof" is one of the distinctions between clean and
unclean animals (Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:7).
(Isa. 60:6), an African or Arabian species of camel having only
one hump, while the Bactrian camel has two. It is distinguished
from the camel only as a trained saddle-horse is distinguished
from a cart-horse. It is remarkable for its speed (Jer. 2:23).
Camels are frequently spoken of in partriarchal times (Gen.
12:16; 24:10; 30:43; 31:17, etc.). They were used for carrying
burdens (Gen. 37:25; Judg. 6:5), and for riding (Gen. 24:64).
The hair of the camel falls off of itself in spring, and is
woven into coarse cloths and garments (Matt. 3:4). (See CAMEL
(Prov. 30:31), the rendering of the Hebrew _zarzir mothnayim_,
meaning literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V.
marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions
render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also
"stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and
"wrestler." The greyhound, however, was evidently known in
ancient times, as appears from Egyptian monuments.
Three Hebrew words are thus rendered in the Authorized Version.
(1.) Heb. _mahsom'_ signifies a muzzle or halter or bridle, by
which the rider governs his horse (Ps.39:1).
(2.) _Me'theg_, rendered also "bit" in Ps. 32:9, which is its
proper meaning. Found in 2 Kings 19:28, where the restraints of
God's providence are metaphorically styled his "bridle" and
"hook." God's placing a "bridle in the jaws of the people" (Isa.
30:28; 37:29) signifies his preventing the Assyrians from
carrying out their purpose against Jerusalem.
(3.) Another word, _re'sen_, was employed to represent a
halter or bridle-rein, as used Ps. 32:9; Isa. 30:28. In Job
30:11 the restraints of law and humanity are called a bridle.
=Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines
(Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam. 6:17). It stood on the shore of the
Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an
inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king
Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the
judges (Judg. 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of
Judah; but it was soon after retaken by the Philistines (2 Sam.
1:20), who were not finally dispossessed till the time of
Alexander the Great. Samson went down to this place from
Timnath, and slew thirty men and took their spoil. The prophets
foretold its destruction (Jer. 25:20; 47:5, 7). It became a
noted place in the Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a
bloody battle between the Saracens and the Crusaders. It was
beseiged and taken by Richard the Lion-hearted, and "within its
walls and towers now standing he held his court." Among the Tell
Amarna tablets (see EGYPT ¯T0001137) are found letters or
official despatches from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of
the king's feet," to the "great king" of Egypt, dated from
Ascalon. It is now called 'Askalan.
from the Hebrew _gamal_, "to repay" or "requite," as the camel
does the care of its master. There are two distinct species of
camels, having, however, the common characteristics of being
"ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming
oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and
extensile, the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by
claws, the limbs long, the abdomen drawn up, while the neck,
long and slender, is bent up and down, the reverse of that of a
horse, which is arched."
(1.) The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a
native of the high table-lands of Central Asia.
(2.) The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek _dromos_,
"a runner" (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 2:23), has but one hump, and is a
native of Western Asia or Africa.
The camel was early used both for riding and as a beast of
burden (Gen. 24:64; 37:25), and in war (1 Sam. 30:17; Isa.
21:7). Mention is made of the camel among the cattle given by
Pharaoh to Abraham (Gen. 12:16). Its flesh was not to be eaten,
as it was ranked among unclean animals (Lev. 11:4; Deut. 14:7).
Abraham's servant rode on a camel when he went to fetch a wife
for Isaac (Gen. 24:10, 11). Jacob had camels as a portion of his
wealth (30:43), as Abraham also had (24:35). He sent a present
of thirty milch camels to his brother Esau (32:15). It appears
to have been little in use among the Jews after the conquest. It
is, however, mentioned in the history of David (1 Chr. 27:30),
and after the Exile (Ezra 2:67; Neh. 7:69). Camels were much in
use among other nations in the East. The queen of Sheba came
with a caravan of camels when she came to see the wisdom of
Solomon (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 9:1). Benhadad of Damascus also
sent a present to Elisha, "forty camels' burden" (2 Kings 8:9).
To show the difficulty in the way of a rich man's entering
into the kingdom, our Lord uses the proverbial expression that
it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle
To strain at (rather, out) a gnat and swallow a camel was also
a proverbial expression (Matt. 23:24), used with reference to
those who were careful to avoid small faults, and yet did not
hesitate to commit the greatest sins. The Jews carefully
filtered their wine before drinking it, for fear of swallowing
along with it some insect forbidden in the law as unclean, and
yet they omitted openly the "weightier matters" of the law.
The raiment worn by John the Baptist was made of camel's hair
(Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6), by which he was distinguished from those
who resided in royal palaces and wore soft raiment. This was
also the case with Elijah (2 Kings 1:8), who is called "a hairy
man," from his wearing such raiment. "This is one of the most
admirable materials for clothing; it keeps out the heat, cold,
and rain." The "sackcloth" so often alluded to (2 Kings 1:8;
Isa. 15:3; Zech. 13:4, etc.) was probably made of camel's hair.
The subject of colours holds an important place in the
White occurs as the translation of various Hebrew words. It is
applied to milk (Gen. 49:12), manna (Ex. 16:31), snow (Isa.
1:18), horses (Zech. 1:8), raiment (Eccl. 9:8). Another Hebrew
word so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6), and a
cognate word to the lily (Cant. 2:16). A different term, meaning
"dazzling," is applied to the countenance (Cant. 5:10).
This colour was an emblem of purity and innocence (Mark 16:5;
John 20:12; Rev. 19:8, 14), of joy (Eccl. 9:8), and also of
victory (Zech. 6:3; Rev. 6:2). The hangings of the tabernacle
court (Ex. 27:9; 38:9), the coats, mitres, bonnets, and breeches
of the priests (Ex. 39:27,28), and the dress of the high priest
on the day of Atonement (Lev. 16:4,32), were white.
Black, applied to the hair (Lev. 13:31; Cant. 5:11), the
complexion (Cant. 1:5), and to horses (Zech. 6:2,6). The word
rendered "brown" in Gen. 30:32 (R.V., "black") means properly
"scorched", i.e., the colour produced by the influence of the
sun's rays. "Black" in Job 30:30 means dirty, blackened by
sorrow and disease. The word is applied to a mourner's robes
(Jer. 8:21; 14:2), to a clouded sky (1 Kings 18:45), to night
(Micah 3:6; Jer. 4:28), and to a brook rendered turbid by melted
snow (Job 6:16). It is used as symbolical of evil in Zech. 6:2,
6 and Rev. 6:5. It was the emblem of mourning, affliction,
calamity (Jer. 14:2; Lam. 4:8; 5:10).
Red, applied to blood (2 Kings 3;22), a heifer (Num. 19:2),
pottage of lentils (Gen. 25:30), a horse (Zech. 1:8), wine
(Prov. 23:31), the complexion (Gen. 25:25; Cant. 5:10). This
colour is symbolical of bloodshed (Zech. 6:2; Rev. 6:4; 12:3).
Purple, a colour obtained from the secretion of a species of
shell-fish (the Murex trunculus) which was found in the
Mediterranean, and particularly on the coasts of Phoenicia and
Asia Minor. The colouring matter in each separate shell-fish
amounted to only a single drop, and hence the great value of
this dye. Robes of this colour were worn by kings (Judg. 8:26)
and high officers (Esther 8:15). They were also worn by the
wealthy and luxurious (Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:7; Luke 16:19; Rev.
17:4). With this colour was associated the idea of royalty and
majesty (Judg. 8:26; Cant. 3:10; 7:5; Dan. 5:7, 16,29).
Blue. This colour was also procured from a species of
shell-fish, the chelzon of the Hebrews, and the Helix ianthina
of modern naturalists. The tint was emblematic of the sky, the
deep dark hue of the Eastern sky. This colour was used in the
same way as purple. The ribbon and fringe of the Hebrew dress
were of this colour (Num. 15:38). The loops of the curtains (Ex.
26:4), the lace of the high priest's breastplate, the robe of
the ephod, and the lace on his mitre, were blue (Ex. 28:28, 31,
Scarlet, or Crimson. In Isa. 1:18 a Hebrew word is used which
denotes the worm or grub whence this dye was procured. In Gen.
38:28,30, the word so rendered means "to shine," and expresses
the brilliancy of the colour. The small parasitic insects from
which this dye was obtained somewhat resembled the cochineal
which is found in Eastern countries. It is called by naturalists
Coccus ilics. The dye was procured from the female grub alone.
The only natural object to which this colour is applied in
Scripture is the lips, which are likened to a scarlet thread
(Cant. 4:3). Scarlet robes were worn by the rich and luxurious
(2 Sam. 1:24; Prov. 31:21; Jer. 4:30. Rev. 17:4). It was also
the hue of the warrior's dress (Nah. 2:3; Isa. 9:5). The
Phoenicians excelled in the art of dyeing this colour (2 Chr.
These four colours--white, purple, blue, and scarlet--were
used in the textures of the tabernacle curtains (Ex. 26:1, 31,
36), and also in the high priest's ephod, girdle, and
breastplate (Ex. 28:5, 6, 8, 15). Scarlet thread is mentioned in
connection with the rites of cleansing the leper (Lev. 14:4, 6,
51) and of burning the red heifer (Num. 19:6). It was a crimson
thread that Rahab was to bind on her window as a sign that she
was to be saved alive (Josh. 2:18; 6:25) when the city of
Jericho was taken.
Vermilion, the red sulphuret of mercury, or cinnabar; a colour
used for drawing the figures of idols on the walls of temples
(Ezek. 23:14), or for decorating the walls and beams of houses