woodland Dan, a place probably somewhere in the direction of
Dan, near the sources of the Jordan (2 Sam. 24:6). The LXX. and
the Vulgate read "Dan-ja'ar", i.e., "Dan in the forest."
(Dan. 3:21), a tunic or undergarment.
(Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.
weighed (Dan. 5:27).
suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan (Josh. 19:42).
Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel by
Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:7).
(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Dan. 7:28 literally
means), earnest meditation.
Chald. karb'ela, (Dan. 3:21), properly mantle or pallium. The
Revised Version renders it "tunic."
Judg. 18:12 = "camp of Dan" 13:25 (R.V., "Mahaneh-dan"), a place
behind (i.e., west of) Kirjath-jearim, where the six hundred
Danites from Zorah and Eshtaol encamped on their way to capture
the city of Laish, which they rebuilt and called "Dan, after the
name of their father" (18:11-31). The Israel Explorers point
to a ruin called 'Erma, situated about 3 miles from the great
corn valley on the east of Samson's home.
(Dan. 1:12, 16), R.V. "herbs," vegetable food in general.
the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3), the
"Rabsaris" of the court. His position was similar to that of the
Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.
Heb. hartumim, (dan. 1:20) were sacred scribes who acted as
interpreters of omens, or "revealers of secret things."
servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of
Daniel's three companions (Dan. 2:49). With Shadrach and
Meshach, he was delivered from the burning fiery furnace
tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to
the work of preparing materials for the tabernacle (Ex. 31:6;
35:34; 36:1, 2; 38:23).
a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:44). It was fortified by
Solomon (1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chr. 8:6). Some have identified it with
Bel'ain, in Wady Deir Balut.
God is its fear, a city in the tribe of Dan. It was a city of
refuge and a Levitical city (Josh. 21:23). It has been
identified with Beit-Likia, north-east of latrum.
beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in
2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament.
waters of yellowness, or clear waters, a river in the tribe of
Dan (Josh. 19:46). It has been identified with the river 'Aujeh,
which rises at Antipatris.
probably a Persian word meaning master of wine, i.e., chief
butler; the title of an officer at the Babylonian court (Dan.
1:11, 16) who had charge of the diet of the Hebrew youths.
(Dan. 5:25, 26), numbered, one of the words of the mysterious
inscription written "upon the plaister of the wall" in
Belshazzar's palace at Babylon. The writing was explained by
Daniel. (See BELSHAZZAR ¯T0000519.)
divided, one of the mysterious words "written over against the
candlestick upon the plaster of the wall" of king Belshazzar's
palace (Dan. 5:28). (See MENE ¯T0002481.)
Three presidents are mentioned, of whom Daniel was the first
(Dan. 6:2-7). The name in the original is _sarkhin_, probably a
Persian word meaning perfects or ministers.
(Chald. sabkha; Gr. sambuke), a Syrian stringed instrument
resembling a harp (Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15); not the modern sackbut,
which is a wind instrument.
Shalim, Land of
land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem
(1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan
the houses or magazines built for the safe keeping of treasure
and valuable articles of any kind (Ezra 5:17; 7:20; Neh. 10:38;
and they divide, one of the words written by the mysterious hand
on the wall of Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:25). It is a pure
Chaldean word. "Peres" is only a simple form of the same word.
(Dan. 8:12; 11:31; 12:11), a burnt offering of two lambs of a
year old, which were daily sacrificed in the name of the whole
Israelitish people upon the great altar, the first at dawn of
day, and the second at evening (Dan. 9:21), or more correctly,
"between the two evenings." (See SACRIFICE ¯T0003179.)
a judge. (1.) The fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah,
Rachel's maid (Gen. 30:6, "God hath judged me", Heb. dananni).
The blessing pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall
judge his people" (49:16), probably in allusion to the judgeship
of Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan.
The tribe of Dan had their place in the march through the
wilderness on the north side of the tabernacle (Num. 2:25, 31;
10:25). It was the last of the tribes to receive a portion in
the Land of Promise. Its position and extent are described in
The territory of Dan extended from the west of that of Ephraim
and Benjamin to the sea. It was a small territory, but was very
fertile. It included in it, among others, the cities of Lydda,
Ekron, and Joppa, which formed its northern boundary. But this
district was too limited. "Squeezed into the narrow strip
between the mountains and the sea, its energies were great
beyond its numbers." Being pressed by the Amorites and the
Philistines, whom they were unable to conquer, they longed for a
wider space. They accordingly sent out five spies from two of
their towns, who went north to the sources of the Jordan, and
brought back a favourable report regarding that region. "Arise,"
they said, "be not slothful to go, and to possess the land," for
it is "a place where there is no want of any thing that is in
the earth" (Judg. 18:10). On receiving this report, 600 Danites
girded on their weapons of war, and taking with them their wives
and their children, marched to the foot of Hermon, and fought
against Leshem, and took it from the Sidonians, and dwelt
therein, and changed the name of the conquered town to Dan
(Josh. 19:47). This new city of Dan became to them a new home,
and was wont to be spoken of as the northern limit of Israel,
the length of which came to be denoted by the expression "from
Dan to Beersheba", i.e., about 144 miles.
"But like Lot under a similar temptation, they seem to have
succumbed to the evil influences around them, and to have sunk
down into a condition of semi-heathenism from which they never
emerged. The mounds of ruins which mark the site of the city
show that it covered a considerable extent of ground. But there
remains no record of any noble deed wrought by the degenerate
tribe. Their name disappears from the roll-book of the natural
and the spiritual Israel.", Manning's Those Holy Fields.
This old border city was originally called Laish. Its modern
name is Tell el-Kady, "Hill of the Judge." It stands about four
miles below Caesarea Philippi, in the midst of a region of
surpassing richness and beauty.
(2.) This name occurs in Ezek 27:19, Authorize Version; but
the words there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised
Version, "Vedan," an Arabian city, from which various kinds of
merchandise were brought to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been
the city of Aden in Arabia. (See MAHANEH-DAN ¯T0002375.)
brother of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The chief of the tribe of
Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25; 10:25).
(2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to
David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
(Dan. 1:20; 2:2, 10, 27, etc.) Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter,
one who professes to divine future events by the appearance of
the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was
positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut. 4:19; 18:10; Isa.
faltering; bashful, Rachel's handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob
(Gen. 29:29). She was the mother of Dan and Naphtali (Gen.
30:3-8). Reuben was cursed by his father for committing adultry
with her (35:22; 49:4). He was deprived of the birth-right,
which was given to the sons of Joseph.
(1) An open profession of faith (Luke 12:8). (2.) An
acknowledment of sins to God (Lev. 16:21; Ezra 9:5-15; Dan.
9:3-12), and to a neighbour whom we have wronged (James 5:16;
a musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes,
mentioned Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15.
In Matt. 9:23, 24, notice is taken of players on the flute,
here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players").
Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians.
as attributed to God, is a figurative expression for dispensing
afflictive judgments (Lev. 26:28; Job 20:23; Isa. 63:3; Jer.
4:4; Ezek. 5:13; Dan. 9:16; Zech. 8:2).
press of the pomegranate. (1.) A Levitical city in the tribe of
Dan (Josh. 19:45; 21:24; 1 Chr. 6:69).
(2.) Another city of the same name in Manasseh, west of the
Jordan (Josh. 21:25), called also Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70).
(Heb. Madai), a Median or inhabitant of Media (Dan. 11:1). In
Gen. 10:2 the Hebrew word occurs in the list of the sons of
Japheth. But probably this is an ethnic and not a personal name,
and denotes simply the Medes as descended from Japheth.
the title given to Mishael, one of the three Hebrew youths who
were under training at the Babylonian court for the rank of Magi
(Dan. 1:7; 2:49; 3:12-30). This was probably the name of some
a place upon the shore, a town belonging to Dan (Josh. 19:46).
It is now Tell er-Rakkeit, 6 miles north of Joppa, on the
sea-shore, near the mouth of the river 'Aujeh, i.e., "yellow
water." (See KANAH ¯T0002155.)
(Josh. 6:9), the troops in the rear of an army on the march, the
rear-guard. This word is a corruption of the French
arriere-garde. During the wilderness march the tribe of Dan
formed the rear-guard (Num. 10:25; comp. 1 Sam. 29:2; Isa.
or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan
(Josh. 19:42; Judg. 1:35). It was one of the chief towns from
which Solomon drew his supplies (1 Kings 4:9). It is probably
the modern village of Selbit, 3 miles north of Ajalon.
of God, his absolute right to do all things according to his own
good pleasure (Dan. 4:25, 35; Rom. 9:15-23; 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev.
the title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The
"princes of the provinces" (1 Kings 20:14) were the governors or
lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the "princes"
mentioned in Dan. 6:1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were the officers who
administered the affairs of the provinces; the "satraps" (as
rendered in R.V.). These are also called "lieutenants" (Esther
3:12; 8:9; R.V., "satraps"). The promised Saviour is called by
Daniel (9:25) "Messiah the Prince" (Heb. nagid); compare Acts
3:15; 5:31. The angel Micheal is called (Dan. 12:1) a "prince"
(Heb. sar, whence "Sarah," the "princes").
meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of
Israel, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of
Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and
importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a
metropolis (2 Sam. 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2 Sam.
20:14), by Benhadad (1 Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2
Kings 15:29) about B.C. 734. It is elsewhere called Abel-maim,
meadow of the waters, (2 Chr. 16:4). Its site is occupied by the
modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on a rising ground to the east of
the brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into
the Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan.
a lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of
Israel (Judg. 18:7, 14); called also Leshem (Josh. 19:47) and
Dan (Judg. 18:7, 29; Jer. 8:16). It lay near the sources of the
Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike
tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded
this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified
with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, "the mound of the judge," to the
north of the Waters of Merom (Josh. 11:5).
(2.) A place mentioned in Isa. 10:30. It has been supposed to
be the modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem.
(3.) The father of Phalti (1 Sam. 25:44).
blowing from the four quarters of heaven (Jer. 49:36; Ezek.
37:9; Dan. 8:8; Zech. 2:6). The east wind was parching (Ezek.
17:10; 19:12), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a
strong wind (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8). This wind prevails in
Israel from February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54)
does from November to February. The south was a hot wind (Job
37:17; Luke 12:55). It swept over the Arabian peninsula. The
rush of invaders is figuratively spoken of as a whirlwind (Isa.
21:1); a commotion among the nations of the world as a striving
of the four winds (Dan. 7:2). The winds are subject to the
divine power (Ps. 18:10; 135:7).
father of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The second of the three
sons of Hammoleketh, the sister of Gilead. He was the grandson
of Manasseh (1 Chr. 7:18). From his family Gideon sprang (Josh.
17:2; comp. Judg. 6:34; 8:2). He was also called Jeezer (Num.
(2.) One of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:27; comp. 1
(3.) The prince of the tribe of Dan at the Exodus (Num. 1:12).
to worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of
adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Ex. 3:5;
Josh. 5:15), and prostration (Gen. 17:3; Ps. 95:6; Isa. 44:15,
17, 19; 46:6). To "kiss the Son" in Ps. 2:12 is to adore and
worship him. (See Dan. 3:5, 6.) The word itself does not occur
Alexander the Great
the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented
in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard
and the he-goat (7:6; 11:3,4). He succeeded his father Philip,
and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of
intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four
a "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in
whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57, 60; John 19:38).
It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the
birth-place of Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1, 19). Others identify it with
Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).
lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate
with Chedorlamer (Gen. 14:1,9). The tablets recently discovered
by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA ¯T0000758) show the true reading is
Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the
moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O
moon-god." (2.) Dan. 2:14.
mistress; city. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29),
elsewhere called Balah (Josh. 19:3) and Bilhah (1 Chr. 4:29).
Now Khurbet Zebalah.
(2.) A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah
(Josh. 15:10), called also Kirjath-jearim, q.v. (15:9; 1 Chr.
13:6), now Kuriet-el-Enab, or as some think, 'Erma.
(3.) A mountain on the north-western boundary of Judah and Dan
a lair of wild beasts (Ps. 10:9; 104:22; Job 37:8); the hole of
a venomous reptile (Isa. 11:8); a recess for secrecy "in dens
and caves of the earth" (Heb. 11:38); a resort of thieves (Matt.
21:13; Mark 11:17). Daniel was cast into "the den of lions"
(Dan. 6:16, 17). Some recent discoveries among the ruins of
Babylon have brought to light the fact that the practice of
punishing offenders against the law by throwing them into a den
of lions was common.
Desolation, Abomination of
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of
the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an
abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site
of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under
the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See
(Heb. sumphoniah), a musical instrument mentioned in Dan. 3:5,
15, along with other instruments there named, as sounded before
the golden image. It was not a Jewish instrument. In the margin
of the Revised Version it is styled the "bag-pipe." Luther
translated it "lute," and Grotius the "crooked trumpet." It is
probable that it was introduced into Babylon by some Greek or
Western-Asiatic musician. Some Rabbinical commentators render it
by "organ," the well-known instrument composed of a series of
pipes, others by "lyre." The most probable interpretation is
that it was a bag-pipe similar to the zampagna of Southern
the circle, the plain near Babylon in which Nebuchadnezzar set
up a golden image, mentioned in Dan. 3:1. The place still
retains its ancient name. On one of its many mounds the pedestal
of what must have been a colossal statue has been found. It has
been supposed to be that of the golden image.
oak. (1.) A city of Dan (Josh. 19:43). (2.) A Hittite, father of
Bashemath, Esau's wife (Gen. 26:34). (3.) One of the sons of
Zebulun (Gen. 46:14). (4.) The eleventh of the Hebrew judges. He
held office for ten years (Judg. 12:11, 12). He is called the
champion of God, used as a proper name to designate the angel
who was sent to Daniel (8:16) to explain the vision of the ram
and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the
seventy weeks (Dan. 9:21-27).
He announced also the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:11),
and of the Messiah (26). He describes himself in the words, "I
am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of God" (1:19).
a height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan,
given to the Kohathites (Josh. 19:44; 21:23). Nadab the king of
Israel, while besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha,
one of his own officers (1 Kings 15:27). It was in the
possession of the Philistines after the secession of the ten
tribes (2 Chr. 11:13, 14).
(1.) The fourth "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants
settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in
Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan"
(rendered "Grecia," Dan. 8:21; 10:20; comp. 11:2; Zech. 9:13).
This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the
generic name of the Greek race.
(2.) A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the
Syrians obtained iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezek. 27:19).
cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and
grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).
(2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan
(1 Chr. 27:22).
(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on
(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.
After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the
country west of the Jordan (Hag. 1:1, 14; 2:2). But under the
Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of
the three divisions of Israel (Matt. 2:1, 5; 3:1; 4:25),
although it was also sometimes used for Israel generally
The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and
Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of Judah,
Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans it
was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a
(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant. 4:8), was that
great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of
Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its
fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6),
its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer.
13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6;
who is like God! (1.) A Levite; the eldest of the three sons of
Uzziel (Ex. 6:22).
(2.) One of the three Hebrew youths who were trained with
Daniel in Babylon (Dan. 1:11, 19), and promoted to the rank of
Magi. He and his companions were afterwards cast into the
burning fiery furnace for refusing to worship the idol the king
had set up, from which they were miraculously delivered
(3:13-30). His Chaldean name was Meshach (q.v.).
a musical instrument, supposed to have been a kind of lyre, or a
harp with twelve strings. The Hebrew word nebhel, so rendered,
is translated "viol" in Isa. 5:12 (R.V., "lute"); 14:11. In Dan.
3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word thus rendered is Chaldaic, pesanterin,
which is supposed to be a word of Greek origin denoting an
instrument of the harp kind.
a prophetic period mentioned in Dan. 9:24, and usually
interpreted on the "year-day" theory, i.e., reckoning each day
for a year. This period will thus represent 490 years. This is
regarded as the period which would elapse till the time of the
coming of the Messiah, dating "from the going forth of the
commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" i.e., from the
close of the Captivity.
from the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells
the lot of others. (See DIVINATION ¯T0001047.)
In Dan. 2:2 it is the rendering of the Hebrew mekhashphim,
i.e., mutterers, men who professed to have power with evil
spirits. The practice of sorcery exposed to severest punishment
(Mal. 3:5; Rev. 21:8; 22:15).
a portion. (1.) A town of Judah (Josh. 15:10). The Philistines
took possession of it in the days of Ahaz (2 Chr. 28:18). It was
about 20 miles west of Jerusalem. It has been identified with
Timnatha of Dan (Josh. 19:43), and also with Timnath (Judg.
(2.) A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh.15:57)= Tibna near
(3.) A "duke" or sheik of Edom (Gen. 36:40).
mentioned in Dan. 2:12 included three classes, (1) astrologers,
(2) Chaldeans, and (3) soothsayers. The word in the original
(hakamim) probably means "medicine men. In Chaldea medicine was
only a branch of magic. The "wise men" of Matt. 2:7, who came
from the East to Jerusalem, were magi from Persia or Arabia.
(1.) Heb. nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his
capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2 Chr. 28:7; comp. 1
Kings 4:6), chief of the temple (1 Chr. 9:11; Jer. 20:1), the
leader of the Aaronites (1 Chr. 12:27), keeper of the sacred
treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1 Sam.
9:16), the Messiah (Dan. 9:25).
(2.) Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs of
families (Num. 3:24, 30, 32, 35); also of tribes (2:3; 7:2;
3:32). These dignities appear to have been elective, not
(3.) Heb. pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of the
delegate of the high priest (2 Chr. 24:11), the Levites (Neh.
11:22), a military commander (2 Kings 25:19), Joseph's officers
in Egypt (Gen. 41:34).
(4.) Heb. shallit, one who has power, who rules (Gen. 42:6;
Ezra 4:20; Eccl. 8:8; Dan. 2:15; 5:29).
(5.) Heb. aluph, literally one put over a thousand, i.e., a
clan or a subdivision of a tribe. Used of the "dukes" of Edom
(Gen. 36), and of the Jewish chiefs (Zech. 9:7).
(6.) Heb. moshel, one who rules, holds dominion. Used of many
classes of rulers (Gen. 3:16; 24:2; 45:8; Ps. 105:20); of the
Messiah (Micah 5:2); of God (1 Chr. 29:12; Ps. 103:19).
(7.) Heb. sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use.
It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Gen. 40:16); of the
chief butler (40:2, etc. See also Gen. 47:6; Ex. 1:11; Dan. 1:7;
Judg. 10:18; 1 Kings 22:26; 20:15; 2 Kings 1:9; 2 Sam. 24:2). It
is used also of angels, guardian angels (Dan. 10:13, 20, 21;
12:1; 10:13; 8:25).
(8.) Pehah, whence _pasha_, i.e., friend of the king;
adjutant; governor of a province (2 Kings 18:24; Isa. 36:9; Jer.
51: 57; Ezek. 23:6, 23; Dan. 3:2; Esther 3: 12), or a perfect
(Neh. 3:7; 5:14; Ezra 5:3; Hag. 1:1). This is a foreign word,
Assyrian, which was early adopted into the Hebrew idiom (1 Kings
(9.) The Chaldean word _segan_ is applied to the governors of
the Babylonian satrapies (Dan. 3:2, 27; 6:7); the prefects over
the Magi (2:48). The corresponding Hebrew word _segan_ is used
of provincial rulers (Jer. 51:23, 28, 57); also of chiefs and
rulers of the people of Jerusalem (Ezra 9:2; Neh. 2:16; 4:14,
19; 5:7, 17; 7:5; 12:40).
In the New Testament there are also different Greek words
(1.) Meaning an ethnarch (2 Cor. 11:32), which was an office
distinct from military command, with considerable latitude of
(2.) The procurator of Judea under the Romans (Matt. 27:2).
(Comp. Luke 2:2, where the verb from which the Greek word so
rendered is derived is used.)
(3.) Steward (Gal. 4:2).
(4.) Governor of the feast (John 2:9), who appears here to
have been merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to
have presided at the marriage banquet in his stead.
(5.) A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, (James 3:4).
means simply presence, as when it is recorded that Adam and Eve
hid themselves from the "face [R.V., 'presence'] of the Lord
God" (Gen. 3:8; comp. Ex. 33:14, 15, where the same Hebrew word
is rendered "presence"). The "light of God's countenance" is his
favour (Ps. 44:3; Dan. 9:17). "Face" signifies also anger,
justice, severity (Gen. 16:6, 8; Ex. 2:15; Ps. 68:1; Rev. 6:16).
To "provoke God to his face" (Isa. 65:3) is to sin against him
The Jews prayed with their faces toward the temple and
Jerusalem (1 Kings 8:38, 44, 48; Dan. 6:10). To "see God's face"
is to have access to him and to enjoy his favour (Ps. 17:15;
27:8). This is the privilege of holy angels (Matt. 18:10; Luke
1:19). The "face of Jesus Christ" (2 Cor. 4:6) is the office and
person of Christ, the revealer of the glory of God (John 1:14,
a lily, the Susa of Greek and Roman writers, once the capital of
Elam. It lay in the uplands of Susiana, on the east of the
Tigris, about 150 miles to the north of the head of the Persian
Gulf. It is the modern Shush, on the northwest of Shuster. Once
a magnificent city, it is now an immense mass of ruins. Here
Daniel saw one of his visions (Dan. 8); and here also Nehemiah
(Neh. 1) began his public life. Most of the events recorded in
the Book of Esther took place here. Modern explorers have
brought to light numerous relics, and the ground-plan of the
splendid palace of Shushan, one of the residences of the great
king, together with numerous specimens of ancient art, which
illustrate the statements of Scripture regarding it (Dan. 8:2).
The great hall of this palace (Esther 1) "consisted of several
magnificent groups of columns, together with a frontage of 343
feet 9 inches, and a depth of 244 feet. These groups were
arranged into a central phalanx of thirty-six columns (six rows
of six each), flanked on the west, north, and east by an equal
number, disposed in double rows of six each, and distant from
them 64 feet 2 inches." The inscriptions on the ruins represent
that the palace was founded by Darius and completed by
occurs in Lev. 19:36 and Isa. 46:6, as the rendering of the
Hebrew _kanch'_, which properly means "a reed" or "a cane," then
a rod or beam of a balance. This same word is translated
"measuring reed" in Ezek. 40:3,5; 42:16-18. There is another
Hebrew word, _mozena'yim_, i.e., "two poisers", also so rendered
(Dan. 5:27). The balances as represented on the most ancient
Egyptian monuments resemble those now in use. A "pair of
balances" is a symbol of justice and fair dealing (Job 31:6; Ps.
62:9; Prov. 11:1). The expression denotes great want and
scarcity in Rev. 6:5.
the rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word
_tarshish_, a precious stone; probably so called as being
brought from Tarshish. It was one of the stones on the
breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:20; R.V. marg.,
"chalcedony;" 39:13). The colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's
vision was as the colour of a beryl stone (1:16; 10:9; R.V.,
"stone of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in Cant. 5:14; Dan. 10:6;
Rev. 21:20. In Ezek. 28:13 the LXX. render the word by
"chrysolite," which the Jewish historian Josephus regards as its
proper translation. This also is the rendering given in the
Authorized Version in the margin. That was a gold-coloured gem,
the topaz of ancient authors.
for the measurement of time, only once mentioned in the Bible,
erected by Ahaz (2 Kings 20:11; Isa. 38:8). The Hebrew word
(ma'aloth) is rendered "steps" in Ex. 20:26, 1 Kings 10:19, and
"degrees" in 2 Kings 20:9, 10, 11. The _ma'aloth_ was probably
stairs on which the shadow of a column or obelisk placed on the
top fell. The shadow would cover a greater or smaller number of
steps, according as the sun was low or high.
Probably the sun-dial was a Babylonian invention. Daniel at
Babylon (Dan. 3:6) is the first to make mention of the "hour."
firm-rooted, the most northerly of the five towns belonging to
the lords of the Philistines, about 11 miles north of Gath. It
was assigned to Judah (Josh. 13:3), and afterwards to Dan
(19:43), but came again into the full possession of the
Philistines (1 Sam. 5:10). It was the last place to which the
Philistines carried the ark before they sent it back to Israel
(1 Sam. 5:10; 6:1-8). There was here a noted sanctuary of
Baal-zebub (2 Kings 1: 2, 3, 6, 16). Now the small village Akir.
It is mentioned on monuments in B.C. 702, when Sennacherib set
free its king, imprisoned by Hezekiah in Jerusalem, according to
the Assyrian record.
narrow pass or recess, a town (Josh. 15:33) in the low country,
the She-phelah of Judah. It was allotted to the tribe of Dan
(Josh. 19:41), and was one of their strongholds. Here Samson
spent his boyhood, and first began to show his mighty strength;
and here he was buried in the burying-place of Manoah his father
(Judg. 13:25; 16:31; 18:2, 8, 11, 12). It is identified with the
modern Yeshua, on a hill 2 miles east of Zorah. Others, however,
identify it with Kustul, east of Kirjath-jearim.
orginally consisted of the four provinces of Macedonia, Epirus,
Achaia, and Peleponnesus. In Acts 20:2 it designates only the
Roman province of Macedonia. Greece was conquered by the Romans
B.C. 146. After passing through various changes it was erected
into an independent monarchy in 1831.
Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan (Gen.
10:2-5); and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament
till the time of Joel (3:6). Then the Greeks and Hebrews first
came into contact in the Tyrian slave-market. Prophetic notice
is taken of Greece in Dan. 8:21.
The cities of Greece were the special scenes of the labours of
the apostle Paul.
(Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual
signification (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more
frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa.
20:6, R.V.," coastland;" 23:2, 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, 7).
(See CHITTIM ¯T0000811.) The shores of the Mediterranean are
called the "islands of the sea" (Isa. 11:11), or the "isles of
the Gentiles" (Gen. 10:5), and sometimes simply "isles" (Ps.
72:10); Ezek. 26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan. 11:18).
(Isa. 41:19; Neh. 8:15; Zech. 1:8), Hebrew hadas, known in the
East by the name _as_, the Myrtus communis of the botanist.
"Although no myrtles are now found on the mount (of Olives),
excepting in the gardens, yet they still exist in many of the
glens about Jerusalem, where we have often seen its dark shining
leaves and white flowers. There are many near Bethlehem and
about Hebron, especially near Dewir Dan, the ancient Debir. It
also sheds its fragrance on the sides of Carmel and of Tabor,
and fringes the clefts of the Leontes in its course through
Galilee. We meet with it all through Central Israel"
street; broad place. (1.) The father of Hadadezer, king of Tobah
(2 Sam. 8:3, 12).
(2.) Neh. 10:11.
(3.) The same, probably, as Beth-rehob (2 Sam. 10:6, 8; Judg.
18:28), a place in the north of Israel (Num. 13:21). It is
now supposed to be represented by the castle of Hunin,
south-west of Dan, on the road from Hamath into Coele-Syria.
(4.) A town of Asher (Josh. 19:28), to the east of Zidon.
(5.) Another town of Asher (Josh. 19:30), kept possession of
by the Canaanites (Judg. 1:31).
(Heb. tsur), employed as a symbol of God in the Old Testament (1
Sam. 2:2; 2 Sam. 22:3; Isa. 17:10; Ps. 28:1; 31:2,3; 89:26;
95:1); also in the New Testament (Matt. 16:18; Rom. 9:33; 1 Cor.
10:4). In Dan. 2:45 the Chaldaic form of the Hebrew word is
translated "mountain." It ought to be translated "rock," as in
Hab. 1:12 in the Revised Version. The "rock" from which the
stone is cut there signifies the divine origin of Christ. (See
Simeon, The tribe of
was "divided and scattered" according to the prediction in Gen.
49:5-7. They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a
position of insignificance among the other tribes. They
decreased in the wilderness by about two-thirds (comp. Num.
1:23; 26:14). Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is
passed by in silence (Deut. 33).
This tribe received as their portion a part of the territory
already allotted to Judah (Josh. 19:1-9). It lay in the
south-west of the land, with Judah on the east and Dan on the
north; but whether it was a compact territory or not cannot be
determined. The subsequent notices of this tribe are but few (1
Chr. 4:24-43). Like Reuben on the east of Jordan, this tribe had
little influence on the history of Israel.
Son of man
(1.) Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their
weakness and frailty (Job 25:6; Ps. 8:4; 144:3; 146:3; Isa.
(2.) It is a title frequently given to the prophet Ezekiel,
probably to remind him of his human weakness.
(3.) In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a
distinctive title of the Saviour. In the Old Testament it is
used only in Ps. 80:17 and Dan. 7:13 with this application. It
denotes the true humanity of our Lord. He had a true body (Heb.
2:14; Luke 24:39) and a rational soul. He was perfect man.
one who pretends to prognosticate future events. Baalam is so
called (Josh. 13:22; Heb. kosem, a "diviner," as rendered 1 Sam.
6:2; rendered "prudent," Isa. 3:2). In Isa. 2:6 and Micah 5:12
(Heb. yonenim, i.e., "diviners of the clouds") the word is used
of the Chaldean diviners who studied the clouds. In Dan. 2:27;
5:7 the word is the rendering of the Chaldee gazrin, i.e.,
"deciders" or "determiners", here applied to Chaldean
astrologers, "who, by casting nativities from the place of the
stars at one's birth, and by various arts of computing and
divining, foretold the fortunes and destinies of individuals.",
Gesenius, Lex. Heb. (See SORCERER ¯T0003482.)
gift, a Persian governor (Heb. pehah, i.e., "satrap;" modern
"pasha") "on this side the river", i.e., of the whole tract on
the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title _pehah_ is given to
governors of provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah (5:14)
and to Zerubbabel (Hag. 1:1). It is sometimes translated
"captain" (1 Kings 20:24; Dan. 3:2, 3), sometimes also "deputy"
(Esther 8:9; 9:3). With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of
the temple (Ezra 5:6); but at the command of Darius, he assisted
the Jews (6:1-13).
From the beginning, time was divided into weeks, each consisting
of six days of working and one of rest (Gen. 2:2, 3; 7:10; 8:10,
12; 29:28). The references to this division of days becomes
afterwards more frequent (Ex. 34:22; Lev. 12:5; Num. 28:26;
Deut. 16:16; 2 Chr. 8:13; Jer. 5:24; Dan. 9:24-27; 10:2, 3). It
has been found to exist among almost all nations.
place of wasps, a town in the low country of Judah, afterwards
given to Dan (Josh. 19:41; Judg. 18:2), probably the same as
Zoreah (Josh. 15:33). This was Samson's birthplace (Judg. 13:2,
25), and near it he found a grave (16:31). It was situated on
the crest of a hill overlooking the valley of Sorek, and was
fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:10). It has been identified
with Sur'ah, in the Wady Surar, 8 miles west of Jerusalem. It is
noticed on monuments in the fifteenth century B.C. as attacked
by the Abiri or Hebrews.
Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Dan.
5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the
daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer.
When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his
lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his
"father" (Dan. 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried
away from the temple in Jerusalem, and he and his princes drank
out of them. In the midst of their mad revelry a hand was seen
by the king tracing on the wall the announcement of God's
judgment, which that night fell upon him. At the instance of the
queen (i.e., his mother) Daniel was brought in, and he
interpreted the writing. That night the kingdom of the Chaldeans
came to an end, and the king was slain (Dan. 5:30). (See
The absence of the name of Belshazzar on the monuments was
long regarded as an argument against the genuineness of the Book
of Daniel. In 1854 Sir Henry Rawlinson found an inscription of
Nabonidus which referred to his eldest son. Quite recently,
however, the side of a ravine undermined by heavy rains fell at
Hillah, a suburb of Babylon. A number of huge, coarse
earthenware vases were laid bare. These were filled with
tablets, the receipts and contracts of a firm of Babylonian
bankers, which showed that Belshazzar had a household, with
secretaries and stewards. One was dated in the third year of the
king Marduk-sar-uzur. As Marduk-sar-uzar was another name for
Baal, this Marduk-sar-uzur was found to be the Belshazzar of
Scripture. In one of these contract tablets, dated in the July
after the defeat of the army of Nabonidus, we find him paying
tithes for his sister to the temple of the sun-god at Sippara.
Heb. Madai, which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1)
"Madai," Gen. 10:2; (2) "Medes," 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11; (3)
"Media," Esther 1:3; 10:2; Isa. 21:2; Dan. 8:20; (4) "Mede,"
only in Dan. 11:1.
We first hear of this people in the Assyrian cuneiform
records, under the name of Amada, about B.C. 840. They appear to
have been a branch of the Aryans, who came from the east bank of
the Indus, and were probably the predominant race for a while in
the Mesopotamian valley. They consisted for three or four
centuries of a number of tribes, each ruled by its own chief,
who at length were brought under the Assyrian yoke (2 Kings
17:6). From this subjection they achieved deliverance, and
formed themselves into an empire under Cyaxares (B.C. 633). This
monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and
invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh
(B.C. 625), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nah.
1:8; 2:5,6; 3:13, 14).
Media now rose to a place of great power, vastly extending its
boundaries. But it did not long exist as an independent kingdom.
It rose with Cyaxares, its first king, and it passed away with
him; for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the
Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two
nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian (B.C.
The "cities of the Medes" are first mentioned in connection
with the deportation of the Israelites on the destruction of
Samaria (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). Soon afterwards Isaiah (13:17;
21:2) speaks of the part taken by the Medes in the destruction
of Babylon (comp. Jer. 51:11, 28). Daniel gives an account of
the reign of Darius the Mede, who was made viceroy by Cyrus
(Dan. 6:1-28). The decree of Cyrus, Ezra informs us (6:2-5), was
found in "the palace that is in the province of the Medes,"
Achmetha or Ecbatana of the Greeks, which is the only Median
city mentioned in Scripture.
(1.) Heb. sar (1 Sam. 22:2; 2 Sam. 23:19). Rendered "chief,"
Gen. 40:2; 41:9; rendered also "prince," Dan. 1:7; "ruler,"
Judg. 9:30; "governor,' 1 Kings 22:26. This same Hebrew word
denotes a military captain (Ex. 18:21; 2 Kings 1:9; Deut. 1:15;
1 Sam. 18:13, etc.), the "captain of the body-guard" (Gen.
37:36; 39:1; 41:10; Jer. 40:1), or, as the word may be rendered,
"chief of the executioners" (marg.). The officers of the king's
body-guard frequently acted as executioners. Nebuzar-adan (Jer.
39:13) and Arioch (Dan. 2:14) held this office in Babylon.
The "captain of the guard" mentioned in Acts 28:16 was the
Praetorian prefect, the commander of the Praetorian troops.
(2.) Another word (Heb. katsin) so translated denotes
sometimes a military (Josh. 10:24; Judg. 11:6, 11; Isa. 22:3
"rulers;" Dan. 11:18) and sometimes a civil command, a judge,
magistrate, Arab. _kady_, (Isa. 1:10; 3:6; Micah 3:1, 9).
(3.) It is also the rendering of a Hebrew word (shalish)
meaning "a third man," or "one of three." The LXX. render in
plural by _tristatai_; i.e., "soldiers fighting from chariots,"
so called because each war-chariot contained three men, one of
whom acted as charioteer while the other two fought (Ex. 14:7;
15:4; 1 Kings 9:22; comp. 2 Kings 9:25). This word is used also
to denote the king's body-guard (2 Kings 10:25; 1 Chr. 12:18; 2
Chr. 11:11) or aides-de-camp.
(4.) The "captain of the temple" mentioned in Acts 4:1 and
5:24 was not a military officer, but superintendent of the guard
of priests and Levites who kept watch in the temple by night.
(Comp. "the ruler of the house of God," 1 Chr. 9:11; 2 Chr.
31:13; Neh. 11:11.)
(5.) The Captain of our salvation is a name given to our Lord
(Heb. 2:10), because he is the author and source of our
salvation, the head of his people, whom he is conducting to
glory. The "captain of the Lord's host" (Josh. 5:14, 15) is the
name given to that mysterious person who manifested himself to
Abraham (Gen. 12:7), and to Moses in the bush (Ex. 3:2, 6, etc.)
the Angel of the covenant. (See ANGEL ¯T0000240.)
(Ps. 140:3; Rom. 3:13, "asp") is the rendering of, (1.) Akshub
("coiling" or "lying in wait"), properly an asp or viper, found
only in this passage. (2.) Pethen ("twisting"), a viper or
venomous serpent identified with the cobra (Naja haje) (Ps.
58:4; 91:13); elsewhere "asp." (3.) Tziphoni ("hissing") (Prov.
23:32); elsewhere rendered "cockatrice," Isa. 11:8; 14:29; 59:5;
Jer. 8:17, as it is here in the margin of the Authorized
Version. The Revised Version has "basilisk." This may have been
the yellow viper, the Daboia xanthina, the largest and most
dangerous of the vipers of Israel. (4.) Shephiphon
("creeping"), occurring only in Gen. 49:17, the small speckled
venomous snake, the "horned snake," or cerastes. Dan is compared
to this serpent, which springs from its hiding-place on the
against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The
word is used only by the apostle John. Referring to false
teachers, he says (1 John 2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 John 1:7), "Even now
are there many antichrists."
(1.) This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the
"king of fierce countenance" (Dan. 7:24, 25; 8:23-25).
(2.) It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spoken of
by our Lord (Matt. 24:5, 23, 24).
(3.) To the "man of sin" described by Paul (2 Thess. 2:3, 4,
(4.) And to the "beast from the sea" (Rev. 13:1; 17:1-18).
happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
(Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded
beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;
46:17; Ex. 1:4, etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine
percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of
this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan
and Naphtali (Num. 2:27). The boundaries of the inheritance
given to it, which contained some of the richest soil in
Israel, and the names of its towns, are recorded in Josh.
19:24-31; Judg. 1:31, 32. Asher and Simeon were the only tribes
west of the Jordan which furnished no hero or judge for the
nation. Anna the prophetess was of this tribe (Luke 2:36).
a symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors (Ezek. 17:3,
10; Dan. 11:7); of prosperity (Job 8:16); of the Messiah, a
branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isa. 11:1), the
"beautiful branch" (4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jer. 23:5), "the
Branch" (Zech. 3:8; 6:12).
Disciples are branches of the true vine (John 15:5, 6). "The
branch of the terrible ones" (Isa. 25:5) is rightly translated
in the Revised Version "the song of the terrible ones," i.e.,
the song of victory shall be brought low by the destruction of
Babylon and the return of the Jews from captivity.
The "abominable branch" is a tree on which a malefactor has
been hanged (Isa. 14:19). The "highest branch" in Ezek. 17:3
represents Jehoiakim the king.
employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old
Testament, viz., Dan. 2:4-7, 28; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; Gen.
31:46; Jer. 10:11. It is the Aramaic dialect, as it is sometimes
called, as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect. It was the
language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia,
and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular language of
Israel. It is called "Syrian" in 2 Kings 18:26. Some isolated
words in this language are preserved in the New Testament (Matt.
5:22; 6:24; 16:17; 27:46; Mark 3:17; 5:41; 7:34; 14:36; Acts
1:19; 1 Cor. 16:22). These are specimens of the vernacular
language of Israel at that period. The term "Hebrew" was also
sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had become the
language of the Hebrews (John 5:2; 19:20).
Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of
its sound (1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps. 98:6; Hos. 5:8). It
is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It
denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long.
The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the
cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the
day of Atonement. In Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word (keren) so
rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in 2 Sam. 6:5 (Heb.
mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument
played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of
rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.
the hill, (2 Sam. 5:25 [1 Chr. 14:16, "Gibeon"]; 2 Kings 23:8;
Neh. 11:31), a Levitical city of Benjamin (1 Kings 15:22; 1 Sam.
13:16; 14:5, wrongly "Gibeah" in the A.V.), on the north border
of Judah near Gibeah (Isa. 10:29; Josh. 18:24, 28). "From Geba
to Beersheba" expressed the whole extent of the kingdom of
Judah, just as "from Dan to Beersheba" described the whole
length of Israel (2 Kings 23:8). It has been identified with
Gaba (Josh. 18:24; Ezra 2:26; Neh. 7:30), now Jeb'a, about 5 1/2
miles north of Jerusalem.
Jehovah has given. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr.
8:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4,23). (3.) One
of Uzziah's military officers (2 Chr. 26:11). (4.) Grandfather
of the captain who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 37:13). (5.) Jer.
36:12. (6.) Neh. 10:23. (7.) Shadrach, one of the "three Hebrew
children" (Dan. 1; 6:7). (8.) Son of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:19,
21). (9.) Ezra 10:28. (10.) The "ruler of the palace; he was a
faithful man, and feared God above many" (Neh. 7:2). (11.) Neh.
3:8. (12.) Neh. 3:30 (13.) A priest, son of Jeremiah (Neh.
12:12). (14.) A false prophet contemporary with Jeremiah (28:3,
First found in Dan. 3:6; 4:19, 33;5:5. It is the rendering of
the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look." It is used in
the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season
(Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39).
With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were
"morning, evening, and noon-day" (Ps. 55:17, etc.). The Greeks,
following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours.
The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the
Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became
subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of
reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches (Luke
12:38; Matt. 14:25; 13:25). Frequent allusion is also made to
hours (Matt. 25:13; 26:40, etc.). (See DAY ¯T0000984.)
An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from
sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in
of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen. 8:11. The barren
fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13). The
oak-leaf is mentioned Isa. 1:30; 6:13. There are numerous
allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their
restoration (Lev. 26:36; Isa. 34:4; Jer. 8:13; Dan. 4:12, 14,
21; Mark 11:13; 13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity
(Ps. 1:3; Jer. 17:8; Ezek. 47:12); the faded, of decay (Job
13:25; Isa. 1:30; 64:6; Jer. 8:13).
Leaf of a door (1 Kings 6:34), the valve of a folding door.
Leaf of a book (Jer. 36:23), perhaps a fold of a roll.