forelock or fawn, a Moabitess, the wife of Chilion (Ruth 1:4;
4:10). On the death of her husband she accompanied Naomi, her
mother-in-law, part of the way to Bethlehem, and then returned
the lovable; my delight, the wife of Elimelech, and mother of
Mahlon and Chilion, and mother-in-law of Ruth (1:2, 20, 21;
2:1). Elimelech and his wife left the district of
Bethlehem-Judah, and found a new home in the uplands of Moab. In
course of time he died, as also his two sons Mahlon and Chilion,
who had married women of Moab, and three widows were left
mourning the loss of their husbands. Naomi longs to return now
to her own land, to Bethlehem. One of her widowed
daughters-in-law, Ruth, accompanies her, and is at length
married to Boaz (q.v.).
(1.) The queen-mother of King Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2). (See MAACAH
(2.) One of those sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the
people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7).
(3.) 2 Kings 22:12.
(4.) The son of Gemariah. He reported to the king's officers
Jeremiah's prediction, which he had heard Baruch read (Jer.
36:11, 13) from his father Gemariah's chamber in the temple.
(5.) A Levite (Neh. 12:35).
(6.) A priest (Neh. 12:41).
a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father,
Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab. On the death of
Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law,
who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which
Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to
whom Ruth was eventually married. She became the mother of Obed,
the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the
maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5). The story of "the
gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good
Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of
transferring property from one person to another, the working of
the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families;
but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love,
the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen
race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38:29; Matt. 1:3)
and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the
ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'"
flight, or, according to others, stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's
handmaid (Gen. 16:1; 21:9, 10), whom she gave to Abraham (q.v.)
as a secondary wife (16:2). When she was about to become a
mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending
apparently to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the
desert of Shur, which lay between. Wearied and worn she had
reached the place she distinguished by the name of
Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the visible God"), where the angel
of the Lord appeared to her. In obedience to the heavenly
visitor she returned to the tent of Abraham, where her son
Ishmael was born, and where she remained (16) till after the
birth of Isaac, the space of fourteen years. Sarah after this
began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child.
Ishmael's conduct was insulting to Sarah, and she insisted that
he and his mother should be dismissed. This was accordingly
done, although with reluctance on the part of Abraham (Gen.
21:14). They wandered out into the wilderness, where Ishmael,
exhausted with his journey and faint from thirst, seemed about
to die. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the angel of
the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted
and delivered out of her distresses (Gen. 21:18, 19).
Ishmael afterwards established himself in the wilderness of
Paran, where he married an Egyptian (Gen. 21:20,21).
"Hagar" allegorically represents the Jewish church (Gal.
4:24), in bondage to the ceremonial law; while "Sarah"
represents the Christian church, which is free.
doubled cakes, the mother of Gomer, who was Hosea's wife (Hos.
eager, the father of Meshullemeth, the wife of king Manasseh (2
Kings 21:19) and mother of king Amon.
able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of
King Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:3).
Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of
King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).
possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of
Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).
friend, the wife of Manasseh, and the mother of Amon (2 Kings
21:19), Kings of Judah.
given, the wife of Josiah and mother of Jehoiakim (2 Kings
stricken, mother of Jeroboam, the first king of the ten tribes
(1 Kings 11:26).
the mother of King Joash (2 Kings 12:1; 2 Chr. 24:1).
shadow, one of the wives of Lamech, of the line of Cain, and
mother of Tubal-cain (Gen. 4:19, 22).
drooping, Leah's handmaid, and the mother of Gad and Asher (Gen.
bridle of the mother, a figurative name for a chief city, as in
2 Sam. 8:1, "David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the
Philistines" (R.V., "took the bridle of the mother-city"); i.e.,
subdued their capital or strongest city, viz., Gath (1 Chr.
in Rom. 2:27, 29 means the outward form. The "oldness of the
letter" (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal
outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules
of conduct. In 2 Cor. 3:6, "the letter" means the Mosaic law as
a written law. (See WRITING ¯T0003841.)
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen.
41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;
deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18, 19).
(2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1
a heifer, one of David's wives, and mother of Ithream (2 Sam.
3:5; 1 Chr. 3:3). According to a Jewish tradition she was
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was
brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of
Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1 Kings 11:20.
kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of
king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31), also
of king Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:18).
my delight is in her. (1.) The wife of Hezekiah and mother of
king Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1).
(2.) A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord's
favour toward her (Isa. 62:4).
a woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts
16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of Felix, and
daughter of Herod Agrippa I.
dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov.
31:1-9). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis
identified him with Solomon.
a rose, the damsel in the house of Mary, the mother of John
Mark. She came to hearken when Peter knocked at the door of the
gate (Acts 12:12-15).
favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the
mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at
Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to
Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to
attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law
(Ex. 23:15; 34:18; Deut. 16:16), probably at the feast of the
Passover (comp. Ex. 13:10). On occasion of one of these "yearly"
visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct toward
her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the
sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at
the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and
misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct
(1 Sam. 1:14-16). After hearing her explanation he retracted his
injurious charge and said to her, "Go in peace: and the God of
Israel grant thee thy petition." Perhaps the story of the wife
of Manoah was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his
family retired to their quiet home, and there, before another
Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son, whom, in grateful memory
of the Lord's goodness, she called Samuel, i.e., "heard of God."
After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she
brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to
Eli the aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by
thee here, praying unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and
the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him:
therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as long as he
liveth he is granted to the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:27, 28, R.V.). Her
gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic
song (2:1-10; comp. Luke 1:46-55) which contains the first
designation of the Messiah under that name (1 Sam. 2:10,
"Annointed" = "Messiah"). And so Samuel and his parents parted.
He was left at Shiloh to minister "before the Lord." And each
year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent
child "a little coat" (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the
"robe" of the ephod worn by the high priest, Ex. 28:31), a
priestly robe, a long upper tunic (1 Chr. 15:27), in which to
minister in the tabernacle (1 Sam. 2:19; 15:27; Job 2:12). "And
the child Samuel grew before the Lord." After Samuel, Hannah had
three sons and two daughters.
consideration in judging, stood at Ezra's left hand when he read
the law (Neh. 8:4).
dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the
people (Neh. 8:7; 10:10).
an interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in
Shushan (Esther 9:7).
a man of Timnah. Samson's father-in-law is so styled (Judg.
Law of Moses
is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1 Kings 2:3; 2
Kings 23:25; Ezra 3:2). It is called by way of eminence simply
"the Law" (Heb. Torah, Deut. 1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:18, 19; 27:3, 8).
As a written code it is called the "book of the law of Moses" (2
Kings 14:6; Isa. 8:20), the "book of the law of God" (Josh.
The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is
essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at once to the
commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.
Jehovah is renowned or remembered. (1.) A prophet of Judah, the
eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like Ezekiel, he was of
priestly extraction. He describes himself (1:1) as "the son of
Berechiah." In Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 he is called "the son of Iddo,"
who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began
in the second year of Darius (B.C. 520), about sixteen years
after the return of the first company from exile. He was
contemporary with Haggai (Ezra 5:1).
His book consists of two distinct parts, (1) chapters 1 to 8,
inclusive, and (2) 9 to the end. It begins with a preface
(1:1-6), which recalls the nation's past history, for the
purpose of presenting a solemn warning to the present
generation. Then follows a series of eight visions (1:7-6:8),
succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a
symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to
the returned exiles and stir up hope in their minds. The
symbolical action, the crowning of Joshua (6:9-15), describes
how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of God's
Chapters 7 and 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to
the question whether the days of mourning for the destruction of
the city should be any longer kept, and an encouraging address
to the people, assuring them of God's presence and blessing.
The second part of the book (ch. 9-14) bears no date. It is
probable that a considerable interval separates it from the
first part. It consists of two burdens.
The first burden (ch. 9-11) gives an outline of the course of
God's providential dealings with his people down to the time of
The second burden (ch. 12-14) points out the glories that
await Israel in "the latter day", the final conflict and triumph
of God's kingdom.
(2.) The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the
times of Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he
boldly condemned both the king and the people for their
rebellion against God (2 Chr. 24:20), which so stirred up their
resentment against him that at the king's commandment they
stoned him with stones, and he died "in the court of the house
of the Lord" (24:21). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in
Matt. 23:35, Luke 11:51. (See ZACHARIAS ¯T0003862 .)
(3.) A prophet, who had "understanding in the seeing of God,"
in the time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise
counsel (2 Chr. 26:5).
Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in
Scripture bearing this name of whom nothing is known.
(4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:7).
(5.) One of the porters of the tabernacle (1 Chr. 9:21).
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:37.
(7.) A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from
the house of Obededom (1 Chr. 15:20-24).
(8.) A Kohathite Levite (1 Chr. 24:25).
(9.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 27:21).
(10.) The father of Iddo (1 Chr. 27:21).
(11.) One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in
the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:7).
(12.) A Levite of the sons of Asaph (2 Chr. 20:14).
(13.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(14.) The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2
(15.) One of the sons of Asaph (2 Chr. 29:13).
(16.) One of the "rulers of the house of God" (2 Chr. 35:8).
(17.) A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted
him about the return from captivity (Ezra 8:16); probably the
same as mentioned in Neh. 8:4,
(18.) Neh. 11:12.
(19.) Neh. 12:16.
(20.) Neh. 12:35,41.
(21.) Isa. 8:2.
a rule of action. (1.) The Law of Nature is the will of God as
to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and
discoverable by natural light (Rom. 1:20; 2:14, 15). This law
binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the
term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the
moral relations of things.
(2.) The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the
rites and ceremonies of worship. This law was obligatory only
till Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his
work (Heb. 7:9, 11; 10:1; Eph. 2:16). It was fulfilled rather
than abrogated by the gospel.
(3.) The Judicial Law, the law which directed the civil policy
of the Hebrew nation.
(4.) The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human
conduct, binding on all men to the end of time. It was
promulgated at Sinai. It is perfect (Ps. 19:7), perpetual (Matt.
5:17, 18), holy (Rom. 7:12), good, spiritual (14), and exceeding
broad (Ps. 119:96). Although binding on all, we are not under it
as a covenant of works (Gal. 3:17). (See COMMANDMENTS
(5.) Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of
God. They are right because God commands them.
(6.) Moral positive laws are commanded by God because they are
ornament. (1.) The first of Lamech's two wives, and the mother
of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:19, 20, 23).
(2.) The first of Esau's three wives, the daughter of Elon the
Hittite (Gen. 36:2,4), called also Bashemath (26:34).
dweller in a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau
(Gen. 36:12; 1 Chr. 1:36); the chief of an Idumean tribe (Gen.
36:16). His mother was a Horite, a tribe whose territory the
descendants of Esau had seized.
faltering; bashful, Rachel's handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob
(Gen. 29:29). She was the mother of Dan and Naphtali (Gen.
30:3-8). Reuben was cursed by his father for committing adultry
with her (35:22; 49:4). He was deprived of the birth-right,
which was given to the sons of Joseph.
God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5). She was
a descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.)
"were both righteous before God" (Luke 1:5, 13). Mary's visit to
Elisabeth is described in 1:39-63.
whom God has given. (1.) An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father
of Nehushta, who was the mother of king Jehoiachin (2 Kings
24:8). Probably the same who tried to prevent Jehoiakim from
burning the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies (Jer. 26:22; 36:12).
(2.) Ezra 8:16.
happily conquering, the mother of Timothy, a believing Jewess,
but married to a Greek (Acts 16:1). She trained her son from his
childhood in the knowledge of the Scriptures (2 Tim. 3:15). She
was distinguished by her "unfeigned faith."
festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah
(2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Kings 1:5, 11; 2:13; 1 Chr. 3:2), who, like
Absalom, was famed for his beauty.
Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of
Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the
sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Ex. 6:20; comp. 16, 18;
my wrestling, the fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah,
Rachel's handmaid (Gen. 30:8). When Jacob went down into Egypt,
Naphtali had four sons (Gen. 46:24). Little is known of him as
appointed; a substitute, the third son of Adam and Eve (Gen.
4:25; 5:3). His mother gave him this name, "for God," said she,
"hath appointed me [i.e., compensated me with] another seed
instead of Abel, whom Cain slew."
watchman. (1.) The mother of Jehozabad, who murdered Joash (2
Kings 12:21); called also Shimrith, a Moabitess (2 Chr. 24:26).
(2.) A man of Asher (1 Chr. 7:32); called also Shamer (34).
God is my light. (1.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (1 Chr.
(2.) The chief of the Kohathites at the time when the ark was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:5, 11).
(3.) The father of Michaiah, one of Rehoboam's wives, and
mother of Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2).
stricken of the Lord, David's sister, and the mother of Abishai,
Joab, and Asahel (1 Chr. 2:16), who were the three leading
heroes of David's army, and being his nephews, they were
admitted to the closest companionship with him.
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal
by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which
we had broken.
(1.) Neh. 3:10. (2.) One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to
interpret the law to the people (Neh. 9:5).
distinguished of the Lord. (1.) One of David's posterity (1 Chr.
(2.) A Levite who expounded the law (Neh. 8:7).
friend of God, (Num. 10:29)=Reuel (q.v.), Ex. 2:18, the
father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro
good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to
instruct the people of Judah in the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
drawn (or Egypt. mesu, "son;" hence Rameses, royal son). On the
invitation of Pharaoh (Gen. 45:17-25), Jacob and his sons went
down into Egypt. This immigration took place probably about 350
years before the birth of Moses. Some centuries before Joseph,
Egypt had been conquered by a pastoral Semitic race from Asia,
the Hyksos, who brought into cruel subjection the native
Egyptians, who were an African race. Jacob and his retinue were
accustomed to a shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt
were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the
"best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos
or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his
family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis).
Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly"
(Gen. 47:27), and extended to the west and south. At length the
supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end. The descendants of Jacob
were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed,
but after the death of Joseph their position was not so
favourable. The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period
of their "affliction" (Gen. 15:13) commenced. They were sorely
oppressed. They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and
"the land was filled with them" (Ex. 1:7). The native Egyptians
regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship
of a struggle for existence.
In process of time "a king [probably Seti I.] arose who knew
not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8). (See PHARAOH ¯T0002923.) The
circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it
necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them,
and by degrees reducing their number. They were accordingly made
public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous
buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples,
and palaces. The children of Israel were made to serve with
rigour. Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all
their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour"
(Ex. 1:13, 14). But this cruel oppression had not the result
expected of reducing their number. On the contrary, "the more
the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew"
The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the
guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the
Hebrew male children that might be born. But the king's wish was
not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the
midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever. Thus
baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the
people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting
them into the river (Ex. 1:22). But neither by this edict was
the king's purpose effected.
One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of
the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of
the Kohathites (Ex. 6:16-20), who with his wife Jochebed and two
children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and
Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the
capital city of that time. In this quiet home a male child was
born (B.C. 1571). His mother concealed him in the house for
three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities. But
when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed
contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of
the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she
laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the
spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe. Her
plan was successful. The king's daughter "saw the child; and
behold the child wept." The princess (see PHARAOH'S DAUGHTER
¯T0002924 ) sent Miriam, who was standing by, to fetch a
nurse. She went and brought the mother of the child, to whom the
princess said, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I
will give thee thy wages." Thus Jochebed's child, whom the
princess called "Moses", i.e., "Saved from the water" (Ex.
2:10), was ultimately restored to her.
As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he
was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal
palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the
princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still
for him. He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the
Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant
fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance
as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren."
His education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he
would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body
and his mind. He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of
the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22). Egypt had then two chief seats of
learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of
Heliopolis, his education was completed. Moses, being now about
twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into
prominence in Bible history. These twenty years were probably
spent in military service. There is a tradition recorded by
Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged
between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a
skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" (Acts 7:22).
After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned
to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected
to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth. But "beneath
the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate
luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in
the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from
childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret
discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his
Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to
forget, that he was a Hebrew." He now resolved to make himself
acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out
unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" (Ex. 2:11).
This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and
bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail
to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding
them. The time had arrived for his making common cause with
them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage.
He made his choice accordingly (Heb. 11:25-27), assured that God
would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people. He now
left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in
his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for
forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the
He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around
him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was
roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew. He
rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his
body in the sand. Next day he went out again and found two
Hebrews striving together. He speedily found that the deed of
the previous day was known. It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the
"great Rameses," Rameses II.), who "sought to slay Moses" (Ex.
2:15). Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself
to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of
Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty
years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai. He was
providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel,
where he remained for forty years (Acts 7:30), under training
unconsciously for his great life's work.
Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning
bush (Ex. 3), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and
"bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage. He was at
first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the
heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian (4:18-26). On the
way he was met by Aaron (q.v.) and the elders of Israel (27-31).
He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with
them (ch. 7-12), and the ransomed host went forth in triumph.
(See EXODUS ¯T0001283.) After an eventful journey to and fro in
the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of
Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land.
There Moses addressed the assembled elders (Deut. 1:1-4;
5:1-26:19; 27:11-30:20), and gives the people his last counsels,
and then rehearses the great song (Deut. 32), clothing in
fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and
in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had
acted so conspicious a part. Then, after blessing the tribes
(33), he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo (q.v.), to the top of
Pisgah, that is over against Jericho" (34:1), and from thence he
surveys the land. "Jehovah shewed him all the land of Gilead,
unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and
Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and
the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of
palm trees, unto Zoar" (Deut. 34:2-3), the magnificient
inheritance of the tribes of whom he had been so long the
leader; and there he died, being one hundred and twenty years
old, according to the word of the Lord, and was buried by the
Lord "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor"
(34:6). The people mourned for him during thirty days.
Thus died "Moses the man of God" (Deut. 33:1; Josh. 14:6). He
was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness,
and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible." "There arose
not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord
knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the
Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all
his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand,
and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of
all Israel" (Deut. 34:10-12).
The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets
as the chief of the prophets.
In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative
of the law and as a type of Christ (John 1:17; 2 Cor. 3:13-18;
Heb. 3:5, 6). Moses is the only character in the Old Testament
to whom Christ likens himself (John 5:46; comp. Deut. 18:15, 18,
19; Acts 7:37). In Heb. 3:1-19 this likeness to Moses is set
forth in various particulars.
In Jude 1:9 mention is made of a contention between Michael
and the devil about the body of Moses. This dispute is supposed
to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so
as to prevent idolatry.
perfect. (1.) The wife of Zebedee and mother of James and John
(Mat. 27:56), and probably the sister of Mary, the mother of our
Lord (John 19:25). She sought for her sons places of honour in
Christ's kingdom (Matt. 20:20, 21; comp. 19:28). She witnessed
the crucifixion (Mark 15:40), and was present with the other
women at the sepulchre (Matt. 27:56).
(2.) "The daughter of Herodias," not named in the New
Testament. On the occasion of the birthday festival held by
Herod Antipas, who had married her mother Herodias, in the
fortress of Machaerus, she "came in and danced, and pleased
Herod" (Mark 6:14-29). John the Baptist, at that time a prisoner
in the dungeons underneath the castle, was at her request
beheaded by order of Herod, and his head given to the damsel in
a charger, "and the damsel gave it to her mother," whose
revengeful spirit was thus gratified. "A luxurious feast of the
period" (says Farrar, Life of Christ) "was not regarded as
complete unless it closed with some gross pantomimic
representation; and doubtless Herod had adopted the evil fashion
of his day. But he had not anticipated for his guests the rare
luxury of seeing a princess, his own niece, a grand-daughter of
Herod the Great and of Mariamne, a descendant, therefore, of
Simon the high priest and the great line of Maccabean princes, a
princess who afterwards became the wife of a tetrarch [Philip,
tetrarch of Trachonitis] and the mother of a king, honouring
them by degrading herself into a scenic dancer."
The dissolution of the marriage tie was regulated by the Mosaic
law (Deut. 24:1-4). The Jews, after the Captivity, were reguired
to dismiss the foreign women they had married contrary to the
law (Ezra 10:11-19). Christ limited the permission of divorce to
the single case of adultery. It seems that it was not uncommon
for the Jews at that time to dissolve the union on very slight
pretences (Matt. 5:31, 32; 19:1-9; Mark 10:2-12; Luke 16:18).
These precepts given by Christ regulate the law of divorce in
the Christian Church.
beloved, the Kenite, has been usually identified with Jethro
(q.v.), Ex. 18:5, 27; comp. Num. 10:29, 30. In Judg. 4:11, the
word rendered "father-in-law" means properly any male relative
by marriage (comp. Gen. 19:14, "son-in-law," A.V.), and should
be rendered "brother-in-law," as in the R.V. His descendants
followed Israel to Canaan (Num. 10:29), and at first pitched
their tents near Jericho, but afterwards settled in the south in
the borders of Arad (Judg. 1:8-11, 16).
God is my judge, or judge of God. (1.) David's second son, "born
unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess" (1 Chr. 3:1). He
is called also Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3).
(2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once
spoken of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and
prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended
from one of the noble families of Judah (Dan. 1:3), and was
probably born in Jerusalem about B.C. 623, during the reign of
Josiah. At the first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar
(the kingdom of Israel had come to an end nearly a century
before), or immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at
the second battle of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign
of Jehoiakim (B.C. 606), Daniel and other three noble youths
were carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of
the temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of
the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the
age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of
Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was
very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified
with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right
bank of the river.
His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Dan.
1:4) was to fit him for service to the empire. He was
distinguished during this period for his piety and his stict
observance of the Mosaic law (1:8-16), and gained the confidence
and esteem of those who were over him. His habit of attention
gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him soon to
master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to
excel his compeers.
At the close of his three years of discipline and training in
the royal schools, Daniel was distinguished for his proficiency
in the "wisdom" of his day, and was brought out into public
life. He soon became known for his skill in the interpretation
of dreams (1:17; 2:14), and rose to the rank of governor of the
province of Babylon, and became "chief of the governors" (Chald.
Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. He made known and
also interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years
afterwards, when he was now an old man, amid the alarm and
consternation of the terrible night of Belshazzar's impious
feast, he was called in at the instance of the queen-mother
(perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret
the mysterious handwriting on the wall. He was rewarded with a
purple robe and elevation to the rank of "third ruler." The
place of "second ruler" was held by Belshazzar as associated
with his father, Nabonidus, on the throne (5:16). Daniel
interpreted the handwriting, and "in that night was Belshazzar
the king of the Chaldeans slain."
After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all
Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a
Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose
reign Daniel held the office of first of the "three presidents"
of the empire, and was thus practically at the head of affairs,
no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive
Jews (Dan. 9), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing
restored to their own land, although he did not return with
them, but remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God exposed
him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was
miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree
enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (6:26). He
"prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the
Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of
the decree which put an end to the Captivity (B.C. 536).
He had a series of prophetic visions vouch-safed to him which
opened up the prospect of a glorious future for the people of
God, and must have imparted peace and gladness to his spirit in
his old age as he waited on at his post till the "end of the
days." The time and circumstances of his death are not recorded.
He probably died at Susa, about eighty-five years of age.
Ezekiel, with whom he was contemporary, mentions him as a
pattern of righteousness (14:14, 20) and wisdom (28:3). (See
originally called Simon (=Simeon ,i.e., "hearing"), a very
common Jewish name in the New Testament. He was the son of Jona
(Matt. 16:17). His mother is nowhere named in Scripture. He had
a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus
(John 1:40-42). His native town was Bethsaida, on the western
coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged. Here
he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was
trained to the occupation of a fisher. His father had probably
died while he was still young, and he and his brother were
brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome (Matt.
27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1). There the four youths, Simon, Andrew,
James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in
constant fellowship. Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all
the advantages of a religious training, and were early
instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the
great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. They did
not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study
of the law under any of the rabbis. When Peter appeared before
the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13).
"Simon was a Galilean, and he was that out and out...The
Galileans had a marked character of their own. They had a
reputation for an independence and energy which often ran out
into turbulence. They were at the same time of a franker and
more transparent disposition than their brethren in the south.
In all these respects, in bluntness, impetuosity, headiness, and
simplicity, Simon was a genuine Galilean. They spoke a peculiar
dialect. They had a difficulty with the guttural sounds and some
others, and their pronunciation was reckoned harsh in Judea. The
Galilean accent stuck to Simon all through his career. It
betrayed him as a follower of Christ when he stood within the
judgment-hall (Mark 14:70). It betrayed his own nationality and
that of those conjoined with him on the day of Pentecost (Acts
2:7)." It would seem that Simon was married before he became an
apostle. His wife's mother is referred to (Matt. 8:14; Mark
1:30; Luke 4:38). He was in all probability accompanied by his
wife on his missionary journeys (1 Cor. 9:5; comp. 1 Pet. 5:13).
He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ
entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the
age of thirty. His house was large enough to give a home to his
brother Andrew, his wife's mother, and also to Christ, who seems
to have lived with him (Mark 1:29, 36; 2:1), as well as to his
own family. It was apparently two stories high (2:4).
At Bethabara (R.V., John 1:28, "Bethany"), beyond Jordan, John
the Baptist had borne testimony concerning Jesus as the "Lamb of
God" (John 1:29-36). Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus,
and abode with him where he was. They were convinced, by his
gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he
was the Messiah (Luke 4:22; Matt. 7:29); and Andrew went forth
and found Simon and brought him to Jesus (John 1:41).
Jesus at once recognized Simon, and declared that hereafter he
would be called Cephas, an Aramaic name corresponding to the
Greek Petros, which means "a mass of rock detached from the
living rock." The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the
name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our
Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him
(Matt. 17:25; Mark 14:37; Luke 22:31, comp. 21:15-17). We are
not told what impression the first interview with Jesus produced
on the mind of Simon. When we next meet him it is by the Sea of
Galilee (Matt. 4:18-22). There the four (Simon and Andrew, James
and John) had had an unsuccessful night's fishing. Jesus
appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him
launch forth and let down the nets. He did so, and enclosed a
great multitude of fishes. This was plainly a miracle wrought
before Simon's eyes. The awe-stricken disciple cast himself at
the feet of Jesus, crying, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful
man, O Lord" (Luke 5:8). Jesus addressed him with the assuring
words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work. Simon
responded at once to the call to become a disciple, and after
this we find him in constant attendance on our Lord.
He is next called into the rank of the apostleship, and
becomes a "fisher of men" (Matt. 4:19) in the stormy seas of the
world of human life (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:13-16),
and takes a more and more prominent part in all the leading
events of our Lord's life. It is he who utters that notable
profession of faith at Capernaum (John 6:66-69), and again at
Caesarea Philippi (Matt. 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-20).
This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and
our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art
Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church."
"From that time forth" Jesus began to speak of his sufferings.
For this Peter rebuked him. But our Lord in return rebuked
Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any
other of his disciples (Matt. 16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33). At the
close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and
James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was
transfigured before them. Peter on that occasion, under the
impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it
is good for us to be here: let us make three tabernacles" (Matt.
On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a
didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of
twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Ex. 30:15), came to
Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matt.
17:24-27). Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in
the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the
tax, viz., a stater, or two half-shekels. "That take," said our
Lord, "and give unto them for me and thee."
As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John
(Luke 22:7-13) into the city to prepare a place where he should
keep the feast with his disciples. There he was forewarned of
the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell (22:31-34). He
accompanied our Lord from the guest-chamber to the garden of
Gethsemane (Luke 22:39-46), which he and the other two who had
been witnesses of the transfiguration were permitted to enter
with our Lord, while the rest were left without. Here he passed
through a strange experience. Under a sudden impulse he cut off
the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth
to take Jesus. Then follow the scenes of the judgment-hall
(54-61) and his bitter grief (62).
He is found in John's company early on the morning of the
resurrection. He boldly entered into the empty grave (John
20:1-10), and saw the "linen clothes laid by themselves" (Luke
24:9-12). To him, the first of the apostles, our risen Lord
revealed himself, thus conferring on him a signal honour, and
showing how fully he was restored to his favour (Luke 24:34; 1
Cor. 15:5). We next read of our Lord's singular interview with
Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked
him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?" (John 21:1-19). (See
After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he
again appears with the others at the ascension (Acts 1:15-26).
It was he who proposed that the vacancy caused by the apostasy
of Judas should be filled up. He is prominent on the day of
Pentecost (2:14-40). The events of that day "completed the
change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall
and all the lengthened process of previous training had been
slowly making. He is now no more the unreliable, changeful,
self-confident man, ever swaying between rash courage and weak
timidity, but the stead-fast, trusted guide and director of the
fellowship of believers, the intrepid preacher of Christ in
Jerusalem and abroad. And now that he is become Cephas indeed,
we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5, 32;
15:14), and he is known to us finally as Peter."
After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3) persecution
arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. He
boldly defended himself and his companions at the bar of the
council (4:19, 20). A fresh outburst of violence against the
Christians (5:17-21) led to the whole body of the apostles being
cast into prison; but during the night they were wonderfully
delivered, and were found in the morning teaching in the temple.
A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts
5:29-32), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten
them, let them go."
The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem. After
labouring for some time in Samaria, he returned to Jerusalem,
and reported to the church there the results of his work (Acts
8:14-25). Here he remained for a period, during which he met
Paul for the first time since his conversion (9:26-30; Gal.
1:18). Leaving Jerusalem again, he went forth on a missionary
journey to Lydda and Joppa (Acts 9:32-43). He is next called on
to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the
admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch. 10).
After remaining for some time at Caesarea, he returned to
Jerusalem (Acts 11:1-18), where he defended his conduct with
reference to the Gentiles. Next we hear of his being cast into
prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an angel of
the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found
refuge in the house of Mary.
He took part in the deliberations of the council in Jerusalem
(Acts 15:1-31; Gal. 2:1-10) regarding the relation of the
Gentiles to the church. This subject had awakened new interest
at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council
of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem. Here Paul and Peter met
We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the
Apostles. He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the
council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of
dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Gal.
2:11-16), who "rebuked him to his face."
After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east,
and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1
Pet. 5:13). There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever
at Rome. Where or when he died is not certainly known. Probably
he died between A.D. 64 and 67.
a parapet wall or balustrade surrounding the flat roofs of the
houses, required to be built by a special law (Deut. 22:8). In
Jer. 5:10, it denotes the parapet of a city wall.
contact with a, made an Israelite ceremonially unclean, and made
whatever he touched also unclean, according to the Mosaic law
(Hag. 2:13; comp. Num. 19:16, 22; Lev. 11:39).
opulent. (1.) Ezra 2:19; Neh. 7:22. (2.) Stood on Ezra's left
hand while he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
majesty of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in
expounding the law (Neh. 8:7; 9:5). (2.) Neh. 10:18, a Levite
who sealed the covenant.
disease, one of the five daughters of Zelophehad (Num. 27:1-11)
who had their father's inheritance, the law of inheritance
having been altered in their favour.
Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and
investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews (Ezra
10:15; Neh. 8:7; 11:16).
Water of jealousy
a phrase employed (not, however, in Scripture) to denote the
water used in the solemn ordeal prescribed by the law of Moses
(Num. 5:11-31) in cases of "jealousy."
oppression, a small Syrian kingdom near Geshur, east of the
Hauran, the district of Batanea (Josh. 13:13; 2 Sam. 10:6,8; 1
(2.) A daughter of Talmai, king of the old native population
of Geshur. She became one of David's wives, and was the mother
of Absalom (2 Sam. 3:3).
(3.) The father of Hanan, who was one of David's body-guard (1
(4.) The daughter of Abishalom (called Absalom, 2 Chr.
11:20-22), the third wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijam (1
Kings 15:2). She is called "Michaiah the daughter of Uriel," who
was the husband of Absalom's daughter Tamar (2 Chr. 13:2). Her
son Abijah or Abijam was heir to the throne.
(5.) The father of Achish, the king of Gath (1 Kings 2:39),
called also Maoch (1 Sam. 27:2).
an organized living creature endowed with sensation. The
Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although
the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Gen.
7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All
animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were
unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth
in the Levitical law (Deut. 14:3-20; Lev. 11).
The law of Moses pointed out the cases in which the servants of
the Hebrews were to receive their freedom (Ex. 21:2-4, 7, 8;
Lev. 25:39-42, 47-55; Deut. 15:12-18). Under the Roman law the
"freeman" (ingenuus) was one born free; the "freedman"
(libertinus) was a manumitted slave, and had not equal rights
with the freeman (Acts 22:28; comp. Acts 16:37-39; 21:39; 22:25;
the holy writings, a term which came early into use in the
Christian church to denote the third division of the Old
Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e.,
"Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and
Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews
classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the
Kethubim, or Writings. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580.)
In the New Testament (Luke 24:44) we find three corresponding
divisions, viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.
the sum paid for the use of money, hence interest; not, as in
the modern sense, exorbitant interest. The Jews were forbidden
to exact usury (Lev. 25:36, 37), only, however, in their
dealings with each other (Deut. 23:19, 20). The violation of
this law was viewed as a great crime (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 28:8; Jer.
15:10). After the Return, and later, this law was much neglected
(Neh. 5:7, 10).
father of (i.e., "given to") error, a young woman of Shunem,
distinguished for her beauty. She was chosen to minister to
David in his old age. She became his wife (1 Kings 1:3,4,15).
After David's death Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's
mother, to entreat the king to permit him to marry Abishag.
Solomon suspected in this request an aspiration to the throne,
and therefore caused him to be put to death (1 Kings 2:17-25).
flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom
Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1 Sam. 18:19). The
five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the
Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:8, 9. Here it is said that Michal "brought
up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them
as if she had been their own mother, or that for "Michal" we
should read "Merab," as in 1 Sam. 18:19).
brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of
Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
(2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1 Sam. 25:43;
27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2 Sam. 3:2). (See 1 Sam.
30:5, 18; 2 Sam. 2:2.)
(in the spelling of this word _h_ is inserted by mistake from
Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the
word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In John 19:25 the
Authorized Version reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word
"wife" is conjecturally inserted here. If "wife" is rightly
inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas
is the same as Alphaeus (Matt. 10:3; 27:56).
bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near
Gilead, between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias (2 Sam.
15:8; 1 Chr. 2:23). The Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky
fastness of Argob, the modern Lejah, in the north-east corner of
Bashan. In the time of David it was ruled by Talmai, whose
daughter he married, and who was the mother of Absalom, who fled
to Geshur after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
(Heb. gabish, Job 28:18; Gr. margarites, Matt. 7:6; 13:46; Rev.
21:21). The pearl oyster is found in the Persian Gulf and the
Red Sea. Its shell is the "mother of pearl," which is of great
value for ornamental purposes (1 Tim. 2:9; Rev. 17:4). Each
shell contains eight or ten pearls of various sizes.
redemption of the Lord. (1.) The father of Zebudah, who was the
wife of Josiah and mother of king Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36).
(2.) The father of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:17-19).
(3.). The father of Joel, ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh
(1 Chr. 27:20).
(4.) Neh. 3:25.
(5.) A Levite (8:4).
(6.) A Benjamite (11:7).
(7.) A Levite (13:13).
(Heb. peninim), only in plural (Lam. 4:7). The ruby was one of
the stones in the high priest's breastplate (Ex. 28:17). A
comparison is made between the value of wisdom and rubies (Job
28:18; Prov. 3:15; 8:11). The price of a virtuous woman is said
to be "far above rubies" (Prov. 31:10). The exact meaning of the
Hebrew word is uncertain. Some render it "red coral;" others,
"pearl" or "mother-of-pearl."
red, the son of Simon the Cyrenian (Mark 15:21), whom the Roman
soldiers compelled to carry the cross on which our Lord was
crucified. Probably it is the same person who is again mentioned
in Rom. 16:13 as a disciple at Rome, whose mother also was a
Christian held in esteem by the apostle. Mark mentions him along
with his brother Alexander as persons well known to his readers
abounding in furrows. (1.) One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were
slain by the men of Judah under Caleb (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14;
(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put
Amnon to death (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah, was
one of David's wives, and the mother of Absalom (1 Chr. 3:2).
the young of the goat. It was much used for food (Gen. 27:9;
38:17; Judg. 6:19; 14:6). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid
in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Ex.
23:19; 34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned
for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which
regards it as "a protest against cruelty and outraging the order
of nature." A kid cooked in its mother's milk is "a gross,
unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious
passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it.
Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and
originally, I suspect," says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book),
"was connected with idolatrous sacrifices."
gnawing = mouse. (1.) An Edomitish king (Gen. 36:38; 1 Chr.
(2.) One of Josiah's officers sent to the prophetess Huldah to
inquire regarding the newly-discovered book of the law (2 Kings
22:12, 14). He is also called Abdon (2 Chr. 34:20).
a stain or reproach (Job 31:7; Prov. 9:7). To blot out sin is to
forgive it (Ps. 51:1, 9; Isa. 44:22; Acts 3:19). Christ's
blotting out the handwriting of ordinances was his fulfilling
the law in our behalf (Col. 2:14).
The corners of fields were not to be reaped, and the sheaf
accidentally left behind was not to be fetched away, according
to the law of Moses (Lev. 19:9; 23:22; Deut. 24:21). They were
to be left for the poor to glean. Similar laws were given
regarding vineyards and oliveyards. (Comp. Ruth 2:2.)
whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's
store-houses (1 Chr. 27:25).
(2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2
(3.) Neh. 12:18.
is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been
distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice
means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means
the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.
given of Jehovah. (1.) One of Asaph's sons, appointed by David
to minister in the temple (1 Chr. 25:2, 12).
(2.) A Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law (2 Chr.
(3.) Jer. 36:14.
(4.) 2 Kings 25:23, 25.
my master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors
of the law and their distinguished teachers. It is sometimes
applied to Christ (Matt. 23:7, 8; Mark 9:5 (R.V.); John 1:38,
49; 3:2; 6:25, etc.); also to John (3:26).
Sabbath day's journey
supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than
half-a-mile, the distance to which, according to Jewish
tradition, it was allowable to travel on the Sabbath day without
violating the law (Acts 1:12; comp. Ex. 16:29; Num. 35:5; Josh.
a coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-7).
He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the
law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14). His
grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea (25:22).
rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:8).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:13).
(3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
(4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as
Sheba (ver. 5).
(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev.
5:14-6:7; also in Num. 5:5-8. The idea of sin as a "debt"
pervades this legislation. The _asham_, which was always a ram,
was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See OFFERING
held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed
the counsels of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness
the ways of his father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from
under his authority (2 Kings 3:5-7). He united with Jehoshaphat
in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which
proved a failure (2 Chr. 20:35-37). His messengers, sent to
consult the god of Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects
of a fall from the roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the
way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king that he would
never rise from his bed (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:18).
(2.) The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah.
Called Jehoahaz (2 Chr. 21:17; 25:23), and Azariah (2 Chr.
22:6). Guided by his idolatrous mother Athaliah, his reign was
disastrous (2 Kings 8:24-29; 9:29). He joined his uncle Jehoram,
king of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of
Damascus; but was wounded at the pass of Gur when attempting to
escape, and had strength only to reach Megiddo, where he died (2
Kings 9:22-28). He reigned only one year.
a Gentile. Such as resided among the Hebrews were required by
the law to be treated with kindness (Ex. 22:21; 23:9; Lev.
19:33, 34; 23:22; Deut. 14:28; 16:10, 11; 24:19). They enjoyed
in many things equal rights with the native-born residents (Ex.
12:49; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15; 35:15), but were not allowed to
do anything which was an abomination according to the Jewish law
(Ex. 20:10; Lev. 17:15,16; 18:26; 20:2; 24:16, etc.).
the law so designated by Paul (Gal. 3:24, 25). As so used, the
word does not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the
modern page), i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision
of a family, taking them to and from the school, being
responsible for their safety and manners. Hence the pedagogue
was stern and severe in his discipline. Thus the law was a
pedagogue to the Jews, with a view to Christ, i.e., to prepare
for faith in Christ by producing convictions of guilt and
helplessness. The office of the pedagogue ceased when "faith
came", i.e., the object of that faith, the seed, which is
Jer. 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev.
18:13 the word "slaves" is the rendering of a Greek word meaning
"bodies." The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually
rendered simply "servant," "bondman," or "bondservant." Slavery
as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That
law did not originate but only regulated the already existing
custom of slavery (Ex. 21:20, 21, 26, 27; Lev. 25:44-46; Josh.
9:6-27). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to
slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually
disappearing from among men.
a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and
left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a
gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this
word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the
temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the
year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16-24). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees
for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they
had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour
their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from
helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over
their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.
Heb. 'ammah; i.e., "mother of the arm," the fore-arm, is a word
derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult
to determine the exact length of this measure, from the
uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow
to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the
root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the
longer was the original cubit. The common computation as to the
length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches for the ordinary
cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. This is the same as
the Egyptian measurements.
A rod or staff the measure of a cubit is called in Judg. 3:16
_gomed_, which literally means a "cut," something "cut off." The
LXX. and Vulgate render it "span."
God-created. (1.) The second son of Korah (Ex. 6:24), or,
according to 1 Chr. 6:22, 23, more correctly his grandson.
(2.) Another Levite of the line of Heman the singer, although
he does not seem to have performed any of the usual Levitical
offices. He was father of Samuel the prophet (1 Chr. 6:27, 34).
He was "an Ephrathite" (1 Sam. 1:1, 4, 8), but lived at Ramah, a
man of wealth and high position. He had two wives, Hannah, who
was the mother of Samuel, and Peninnah.