Schools of the Prophets
(1 Sam. 19:18-24; 2 Kings 2:3, 5, 7, 12, 15) were instituted for
the purpose of training young men for the prophetical and
priestly offices. (See PROPHET ¯T0003006; SAMUEL ¯T0003209.)
the war-bow used in fighting (Zech. 9:10; 10:4). "Thy bow was
made quite naked" (Hab. 3:9) means that it was made ready for
use. By David's order (2 Sam. 1:18) the young men were taught
the use, or rather the song of the bow. (See ARMOUR ¯T0000315,
young men, a place east of Jerusalem (2 Sam. 3:16; 19:16), on
the road to the Jordan valley. Here Shimei resided, who poured
forth vile abuse against David, and flung dust and stones at him
and his party when they were making their way down the eastern
slopes of Olivet toward Jordan (16:5); and here Jonathan and
Ahimaaz hid themselves (17:18).
With the exception of Shimei, Azmaveth, one of David's heroes,
is the only other native of the place who is mentioned (2 Sam.
23:31; 1 Chr. 11:33).
one of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of the gospel.
He was the first Christian martyr. His personal character and
history are recorded in Acts 6. "He fell asleep" with a prayer
for his persecutors on his lips (7:60). Devout men carried him
to his grave (8:2).
It was at the feet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, that
those who stoned him laid their clothes (comp. Deut. 17:5-7)
before they began their cruel work. The scene which Saul then
witnessed and the words he heard appear to have made a deep and
lasting impression on his mind (Acts 22:19, 20).
The speech of Stephen before the Jewish ruler is the first
apology for the universalism of the gospel as a message to the
Gentiles as well as the Jews. It is the longest speech contained
in the Acts, a place of prominence being given to it as a
plot of the sharp blades, or the field of heroes, (2 Sam. 2:16).
After the battle of Gilboa, so fatal to Saul and his house,
David, as divinely directed, took up his residence in Hebron,
and was there anointed king over Judah. Among the fugitives from
Gilboa was Ish-bosheth, the only surviving son of Saul, whom
Abner, Saul's uncle, took across the Jordan to Mahanaim, and
there had him proclaimed king. Abner gathered all the forces at
his command and marched to Gibeon, with the object of wresting
Judah from David. Joab had the command of David's army of
trained men, who encamped on the south of the pool, which was on
the east of the hill on which the town of Gibeon was built,
while Abner's army lay on the north of the pool. Abner proposed
that the conflict should be decided by twelve young men engaging
in personal combat on either side. So fiercely did they
encounter each other that "they caught every man his fellow by
the head, and thrust his sword in his fellow's side; so they
fell down together: wherefore that place was called
Helkath-hazzurim." The combat of the champions was thus
indecisive, and there followed a severe general engagement
between the two armies, ending in the total rout of the
Israelites under Abner. The general result of this battle was
that "David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of Saul
waxed weaker and weaker" (2 Sam. 3:1). (See GIBEON ¯T0001480.)
the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now
found in Israel, they must have been in ancient times very
numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6;
12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Cant. 4:8; Nah.
2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer.
49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).
No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old
Testament for the lion. (1.) _Gor_ (i.e., a "suckling"), the
lion's whelp (Gen. 49:9; Jer. 51:38, etc.). (2.) _Kephir_ (i.e.,
"shaggy"), the young lion (Judg. 14:5; Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13;
104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies
(Ps. 34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer. 2:15). (3.) _'Ari_ (i.e., the
"puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without
reference to age or sex (Num. 23:24; 2 Sam. 17:10, etc.). (4.)
_Shahal_ (the "roarer"), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13;
Prov. 26:13; Hos. 5:14). (5.) _Laish_, so called from its
strength and bravery (Job 4:11; Prov. 30:30; Isa. 30:6). The
capital of Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.)
_Labi_, from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness
(Gen. 49:9; Num. 23:24; 24:9; Ezek. 19:2; Nah. 2:11).
The lion of Israel was properly of the Asiatic variety,
distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it
not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but
also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25, 26) and
devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes,
single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam. 17:34,
35; Amos 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and
"rent him as he would have rent a kid" (Judg. 14:5, 6). The
strength (Judg. 14:18), courage (2 Sam. 17:10), and ferocity
(Gen. 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.
(Heb. nabi, from a root meaning "to bubble forth, as from a
fountain," hence "to utter", comp. Ps. 45:1). This Hebrew word
is the first and the most generally used for a prophet. In the
time of Samuel another word, _ro'eh_, "seer", began to be used
(1 Sam. 9:9). It occurs seven times in reference to Samuel.
Afterwards another word, _hozeh_, "seer" (2 Sam. 24:11), was
employed. In 1 Ch. 29:29 all these three words are used: "Samuel
the seer (ro'eh), Nathan the prophet (nabi'), Gad the seer"
(hozeh). In Josh. 13:22 Balaam is called (Heb.) a _kosem_
"diviner," a word used only of a false prophet.
The "prophet" proclaimed the message given to him, as the
"seer" beheld the vision of God. (See Num. 12:6, 8.) Thus a
prophet was a spokesman for God; he spake in God's name and by
his authority (Ex. 7:1). He is the mouth by which God speaks to
men (Jer. 1:9; Isa. 51:16), and hence what the prophet says is
not of man but of God (2 Pet. 1:20, 21; comp. Heb. 3:7; Acts
4:25; 28:25). Prophets were the immediate organs of God for the
communication of his mind and will to men (Deut. 18:18, 19). The
whole Word of God may in this general sense be spoken of as
prophetic, inasmuch as it was written by men who received the
revelation they communicated from God, no matter what its nature
might be. The foretelling of future events was not a necessary
but only an incidental part of the prophetic office. The great
task assigned to the prophets whom God raised up among the
people was "to correct moral and religious abuses, to proclaim
the great moral and religious truths which are connected with
the character of God, and which lie at the foundation of his
Any one being a spokesman for God to man might thus be called
a prophet. Thus Enoch, Abraham, and the patriarchs, as bearers
of God's message (Gen. 20:7; Ex. 7:1; Ps. 105:15), as also Moses
(Deut. 18:15; 34:10; Hos. 12:13), are ranked among the prophets.
The seventy elders of Israel (Num. 11:16-29), "when the spirit
rested upon them, prophesied;" Asaph and Jeduthun "prophesied
with a harp" (1 Chr. 25:3). Miriam and Deborah were prophetesses
(Ex. 15:20; Judg. 4:4). The title thus has a general application
to all who have messages from God to men.
But while the prophetic gift was thus exercised from the
beginning, the prophetical order as such began with Samuel.
Colleges, "schools of the prophets", were instituted for the
training of prophets, who were constituted, a distinct order (1
Sam. 19:18-24; 2 Kings 2:3, 15; 4:38), which continued to the
close of the Old Testament. Such "schools" were established at
Ramah, Bethel, Gilgal, Gibeah, and Jericho. The "sons" or
"disciples" of the prophets were young men (2 Kings 5:22; 9:1,
4) who lived together at these different "schools" (4:38-41).
These young men were taught not only the rudiments of secular
knowledge, but they were brought up to exercise the office of
prophet, "to preach pure morality and the heart-felt worship of
Jehovah, and to act along and co-ordinately with the priesthood
and monarchy in guiding the state aright and checking all
attempts at illegality and tyranny."
In New Testament times the prophetical office was continued.
Our Lord is frequently spoken of as a prophet (Luke 13:33;
24:19). He was and is the great Prophet of the Church. There was
also in the Church a distinct order of prophets (1 Cor. 12:28;
Eph. 2:20; 3:5), who made new revelations from God. They
differed from the "teacher," whose office it was to impart
truths already revealed.
Of the Old Testament prophets there are sixteen, whose
prophecies form part of the inspired canon. These are divided
into four groups:
(1.) The prophets of the northern kingdom (Israel), viz.,
Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah.
(2.) The prophets of Judah, viz., Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah,
Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.
(3.) The prophets of Captivity, viz., Ezekiel and Daniel.
(4.) The prophets of the Restoration, viz., Haggai, Zechariah,
protected by the father, David's second son by Abigail (2 Sam.
3:3); called also Daniel (1 Chr. 3:1). He seems to have died
young lambs, a place at which Saul gathered his army to fight
against Amalek (1 Sam. 15:4); probably the same as Telem (2).
foolish, a descendant of Caleb who dwelt at Maon (1 Sam. 25),
the modern Main, 7 miles south-east of Hebron. He was "very
great, and he had 3,000 sheep and 1,000 goats...but the man was
churlish and evil in his doings." During his wanderings David
came into that district, and hearing that Nabal was about to
shear his sheep, he sent ten of his young men to ask "whatsoever
cometh unto thy hand for thy servants." Nabal insultingly
resented the demand, saying, "Who is David, and who is the son
of Jesse?" (1 Sam. 25:10, 11). One of the shepherds that stood
by and saw the reception David's messengers had met with,
informed Abigail, Nabal's wife, who at once realized the danger
that threatened her household. She forthwith proceeded to the
camp of David, bringing with her ample stores of provisions
(25:18). She so courteously and persuasively pled her cause that
David's anger was appeased, and he said to her, "Blessed be the
Lord God of Israel which sent thee this day to meet me."
On her return she found her husband incapable from drunkenness
of understanding the state of matters, and not till the
following day did she explain to him what had happened. He was
stunned by a sense of the danger to which his conduct had
exposed him. "His heart died within him, and he became as a
stone." and about ten days after "the Lord smote Nabal that he
died" (1 Sam. 25:37, 38). Not long after David married Abigail
retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He
"conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people,
and slew him, and reigned in his stead" (2 Kings 15:10). He
reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" (15:13, marg.).
Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2 Kings
15:14, 15, 17), and became king in his stead.
(2.) Keeper of the temple vestments in the reign of Josiah (2
(3.) One of the posterity of Judah (1 Chr. 2:40, 41).
(4.) A descendant of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:25).
(5.) One of the line of the high priests (1 Chr. 6:13).
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:13.
(7.) A keeper of the gate in the reign of David (1 Chr. 9:17).
(8.) A Levite porter (1 Chr. 9:19, 31; Jer. 35:4).
(9.) An Ephraimite chief (2 Chr. 28:12).
(10.) The uncle of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 32:7).
(11.) A son of king Josiah (1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 22:11), who was
elected to succeed his father on the throne, although he was two
years younger than his brother Eliakim. He assumed the crown
under the name of Jehoahaz (q.v.). He did not imitate the
example of his father (2 Kings 23:32), but was "a young lion,
and it learned to catch the prey; it devoured men" (Ezek. 19:3).
His policy was anti-Egyptian therefore. Necho, at that time at
Riblah, sent an army against Jerusalem, which at once yielded,
and Jehoahaz was carried captive to the Egyptian camp, Eliakim
being appointed king in his stead. He remained a captive in
Egypt till his death, and was the first king of Judah that died
Sin (the god) sends many brothers, son of Sargon, whom he
succeeded on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 705), in the 23rd year
of Hezekiah. "Like the Persian Xerxes, he was weak and
vainglorious, cowardly under reverse, and cruel and boastful in
success." He first set himself to break up the powerful
combination of princes who were in league against him. Among
these was Hezekiah, who had entered into an alliance with Egypt
against Assyria. He accordingly led a very powerful army of at
least 200,000 men into Judea, and devastated the land on every
side, taking and destroying many cities (2 Kings 18:13-16; comp.
Isa. 22, 24, 29, and 2 Chr. 32:1-8). His own account of this
invasion, as given in the Assyrian annals, is in these words:
"Because Hezekiah, king of Judah, would not submit to my yoke, I
came up against him, and by force of arms and by the might of my
power I took forty-six of his strong fenced cities; and of the
smaller towns which were scattered about, I took and plundered a
countless number. From these places I took and carried off
200,156 persons, old and young, male and female, together with
horses and mules, asses and camels, oxen and sheep, a countless
multitude; and Hezekiah himself I shut up in Jerusalem, his
capital city, like a bird in a cage, building towers round the
city to hem him in, and raising banks of earth against the
gates, so as to prevent escape...Then upon Hezekiah there fell
the fear of the power of my arms, and he sent out to me the
chiefs and the elders of Jerusalem with 30 talents of gold and
800 talents of silver, and divers treasures, a rich and immense
booty...All these things were brought to me at Nineveh, the seat
of my government." (Comp. Isa. 22:1-13 for description of the
feelings of the inhabitants of Jerusalem at such a crisis.)
Hezekiah was not disposed to become an Assyrian feudatory. He
accordingly at once sought help from Egypt (2 Kings 18:20-24).
Sennacherib, hearing of this, marched a second time into
Israel (2 Kings 18:17, 37; 19; 2 Chr. 32:9-23; Isa. 36:2-22.
Isa. 37:25 should be rendered "dried up all the Nile-arms of
Matsor," i.e., of Egypt, so called from the "Matsor" or great
fortification across the isthmus of Suez, which protected it
from invasions from the east). Sennacherib sent envoys to try to
persuade Hezekiah to surrender, but in vain. (See TIRHAKAH
¯T0003676.) He next sent a threatening letter (2 Kings
19:10-14), which Hezekiah carried into the temple and spread
before the Lord. Isaiah again brought an encouraging message to
the pious king (2 Kings 19:20-34). "In that night" the angel of
the Lord went forth and smote the camp of the Assyrians. In the
morning, "behold, they were all dead corpses." The Assyrian army
This great disaster is not, as was to be expected, taken
notice of in the Assyrian annals.
Though Sennacherib survived this disaster some twenty years,
he never again renewed his attempt against Jerusalem. He was
murdered by two of his own sons (Adrammelech and Sharezer), and
was succeeded by another son, Esarhaddon (B.C. 681), after a
reign of twenty-four years.
Heb. hasidah, meaning "kindness," indicating thus the character
of the bird, which is noted for its affection for its young. It
is in the list of birds forbidden to be eaten by the Levitical
law (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18). It is like the crane, but larger
in size. Two species are found in Israel, the white, which
are dispersed in pairs over the whole country; and the black,
which live in marshy places and in great flocks. They migrate to
Israel periodically (about the 22nd of March). Jeremiah
alludes to this (Jer. 8:7). At the appointed time they return
with unerring sagacity to their old haunts, and re-occupy their
old nests. "There is a well-authenticated account of the
devotion of a stork which, at the burning of the town of Delft,
after repeated and unsuccessful attempts to carry off her young,
chose rather to remain and perish with them than leave them to
their fate. Well might the Romans call it the pia avis!"
In Job 39:13 (A.V.), instead of the expression "or wings and
feathers unto the ostrich" (marg., "the feathers of the stork
and ostrich"), the Revised Version has "are her pinions and
feathers kindly" (marg., instead of "kindly," reads "like the
stork's"). The object of this somewhat obscure verse seems to be
to point out a contrast between the stork, as distinguished for
her affection for her young, and the ostrich, as distinguished
for her indifference.
Zechariah (5:9) alludes to the beauty and power of the stork's
father of (i.e., "given to") error, a young woman of Shunem,
distinguished for her beauty. She was chosen to minister to
David in his old age. She became his wife (1 Kings 1:3,4,15).
After David's death Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's
mother, to entreat the king to permit him to marry Abishag.
Solomon suspected in this request an aspiration to the throne,
and therefore caused him to be put to death (1 Kings 2:17-25).
fortunate, (Acts 20:9-12), a young man of Troas who fell through
drowsiness from the open window of the third floor of the house
where Paul was preaching, and was "taken up dead." The
lattice-work of the window being open to admit the air, the lad
fell out and down to the court below. Paul restored him to life
again. (Comp. 1 Kings 17:21; 2 Kings 4:34.)
Pigeons are mentioned as among the offerings which, by divine
appointment, Abram presented unto the Lord (Gen. 15:9). They
were afterwards enumerated among the sin-offerings (Lev. 1:14;
12:6), and the law provided that those who could not offer a
lamb might offer two young pigeons (5:7; comp. Luke 2:24). (See
(Herb. nesher; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so
called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for
its swiftness of flight (Deut. 28:49; 2 Sam. 1:23), its mounting
high in the air (Job 39:27), its strength (Ps. 103:5), its
setting its nest in high places (Jer. 49:16), and its power of
vision (Job 39:27-30).
This "ravenous bird" is a symbol of those nations whom God
employs and sends forth to do a work of destruction, sweeping
away whatever is decaying and putrescent (Matt. 24:28; Isa.
46:11; Ezek. 39:4; Deut. 28:49; Jer. 4:13; 48:40). It is said
that the eagle sheds his feathers in the beginning of spring,
and with fresh plumage assumes the appearance of youth. To this,
allusion is made in Ps. 103:5 and Isa. 40:31. God's care over
his people is likened to that of the eagle in training its young
to fly (Ex. 19:4; Deut. 32:11, 12). An interesting illustration
is thus recorded by Sir Humphry Davy:, "I once saw a very
interesting sight above the crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent
eagles were teaching their offspring, two young birds, the
maneuvers of flight. They began by rising from the top of the
mountain in the eye of the sun. It was about mid-day, and bright
for the climate. They at first made small circles, and the young
birds imitated them. They paused on their wings, waiting till
they had made their flight, and then took a second and larger
gyration, always rising toward the sun, and enlarging their
circle of flight so as to make a gradually ascending spiral. The
young ones still and slowly followed, apparently flying better
as they mounted; and they continued this sublime exercise,
always rising till they became mere points in the air, and the
young ones were lost, and afterwards their parents, to our
aching sight." (See Isa. 40:31.)
There have been observed in Israel four distinct species of
eagles, (1) the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos); (2) the
spotted eagle (Aquila naevia); (3) the common species, the
imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca); and (4) the Circaetos gallicus,
which preys on reptiles. The eagle was unclean by the Levitical
law (Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12).
(Ezek. 27:11) brave warriors; R.V. marg., "valorous men;" others
interpret this word as meaning "short-swordsmen," or "daring
ones", the name of a class of men who were defenders of the
towers of Tyre.
the Eznite, one of David's mighty men (2 Sam. 23:8). (See
fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David's mighty
men (2 Sam. 23:11)
one of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria (Ezra
4:9); the men of Erech.
cleft, an Ammonite; one of David's valiant men (2 Sam. 23:37).
heard of God. The peculiar circumstances connected with his
birth are recorded in 1 Sam. 1:20. Hannah, one of the two wives
of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship before the Lord,
earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother of a
son. Her prayer was graciously granted; and after the child was
weaned she brought him to Shiloh nd consecrated him to the Lord
as a perpetual Nazarite (1:23-2:11). Here his bodily wants and
training were attended to by the women who served in the
tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture. Thus,
probably, twelve years of his life passed away. "The child
Samuel grew on, and was in favour both with the Lord, and also
with men" (2:26; comp. Luke 2:52). It was a time of great and
growing degeneracy in Israel (Judg. 21:19-21; 1 Sam. 2:12-17,
22). The Philistines, who of late had greatly increased in
number and in power, were practically masters of the country,
and kept the people in subjection (1 Sam. 10:5; 13:3).
At this time new communications from God began to be made to
the pious child. A mysterious voice came to him in the night
season, calling him by name, and, instructed by Eli, he
answered, "Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth." The message
that came from the Lord was one of woe and ruin to Eli and his
profligate sons. Samuel told it all to Eli, whose only answer to
the terrible denunciations (1 Sam. 3:11-18) was, "It is the
Lord; let him do what seemeth him good", the passive submission
of a weak character, not, in his case, the expression of the
highest trust and faith. The Lord revealed himself now in divers
manners to Samuel, and his fame and his influence increased
throughout the land as of one divinely called to the prophetical
office. A new period in the history of the kingdom of God now
The Philistine yoke was heavy, and the people, groaning under
the wide-spread oppression, suddenly rose in revolt, and "went
out against the Philistines to battle." A fierce and disastrous
battle was fought at Aphek, near to Ebenezer (1 Sam. 4:1, 2).
The Israelites were defeated, leaving 4,000 dead "in the field."
The chiefs of the people thought to repair this great disaster
by carrying with them the ark of the covenant as the symbol of
Jehovah's presence. They accordingly, without consulting Samuel,
fetched it out of Shiloh to the camp near Aphek. At the sight of
the ark among them the people "shouted with a great shout, so
that the earth rang again." A second battle was fought, and
again the Philistines defeated the Israelites, stormed their
camp, slew 30,000 men, and took the sacred ark. The tidings of
this fatal battle was speedily conveyed to Shiloh; and so soon
as the aged Eli heard that the ark of God was taken, he fell
backward from his seat at the entrance of the sanctuary, and his
neck brake, and he died. The tabernacle with its furniture was
probably, by the advice of Samuel, now about twenty years of
age, removed from Shiloh to some place of safety, and finally to
Nob, where it remained many years (21:1).
The Philistines followed up their advantage, and marched upon
Shiloh, which they plundered and destroyed (comp. Jer. 7:12; Ps.
78:59). This was a great epoch in the history of Israel. For
twenty years after this fatal battle at Aphek the whole land lay
under the oppression of the Philistines. During all these dreary
years Samuel was a spiritual power in the land. From Ramah, his
native place, where he resided, his influence went forth on
every side among the people. With unwearied zeal he went up and
down from place to place, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting the
people, endeavouring to awaken in them a sense of their
sinfulness, and to lead them to repentance. His labours were so
far successful that "all the house of Israel lamented after the
Lord." Samuel summoned the people to Mizpeh, one of the loftiest
hills in Central Israel, where they fasted and prayed, and
prepared themselves there, under his direction, for a great war
against the Philistines, who now marched their whole force
toward Mizpeh, in order to crush the Israelites once for all. At
the intercession of Samuel God interposed in behalf of Israel.
Samuel himself was their leader, the only occasion in which he
acted as a leader in war. The Philistines were utterly routed.
They fled in terror before the army of Israel, and a great
slaughter ensued. This battle, fought probably about B.C. 1095,
put an end to the forty years of Philistine oppression. In
memory of this great deliverance, and in token of gratitude for
the help vouchsafed, Samuel set up a great stone in the
battlefield, and called it "Ebenezer," saying, "Hitherto hath
the Lord helped us" (1 Sam. 7:1-12). This was the spot where,
twenty years before, the Israelites had suffered a great defeat,
when the ark of God was taken.
This victory over the Philistines was followed by a long
period of peace for Israel (1 Sam. 7:13, 14), during which
Samuel exercised the functions of judge, going "from year to
year in circuit" from his home in Ramah to Bethel, thence to
Gilgal (not that in the Jordan valley, but that which lay to the
west of Ebal and Gerizim), and returning by Mizpeh to Ramah. He
established regular services at Shiloh, where he built an altar;
and at Ramah he gathered a company of young men around him and
established a school of the prophets. The schools of the
prophets, thus originated, and afterwards established also at
Gibeah, Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho, exercised an important
influence on the national character and history of the people in
maintaining pure religion in the midst of growing corruption.
They continued to the end of the Jewish commonwealth.
Many years now passed, during which Samuel exercised the
functions of his judicial office, being the friend and
counsellor of the people in all matters of private and public
interest. He was a great statesman as well as a reformer, and
all regarded him with veneration as the "seer," the prophet of
the Lord. At the close of this period, when he was now an old
man, the elders of Israel came to him at Ramah (1 Sam. 8:4, 5,
19-22); and feeling how great was the danger to which the nation
was exposed from the misconduct of Samuel's sons, whom he had
invested with judicial functions as his assistants, and had
placed at Beersheba on the Philistine border, and also from a
threatened invasion of the Ammonites, they demanded that a king
should be set over them. This request was very displeasing to
Samuel. He remonstrated with them, and warned them of the
consequences of such a step. At length, however, referring the
matter to God, he acceded to their desires, and anointed Saul
(q.v.) to be their king (11:15). Before retiring from public
life he convened an assembly of the people at Gilgal (ch. 12),
and there solemnly addressed them with reference to his own
relation to them as judge and prophet.
The remainder of his life he spent in retirement at Ramah,
only occasionally and in special circumstances appearing again
in public (1 Sam. 13, 15) with communications from God to king
Saul. While mourning over the many evils which now fell upon the
nation, he is suddenly summoned (ch.16) to go to Bethlehem and
anoint David, the son of Jesse, as king over Israel instead of
Saul. After this little is known of him till the time of his
death, which took place at Ramah when he was probably about
eighty years of age. "And all Israel gathered themselves
together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at
Ramah" (25:1), not in the house itself, but in the court or
garden of his house. (Comp. 2 Kings 21:18; 2 Chr. 33:20; 1 Kings
2:34; John 19:41.)
Samuel's devotion to God, and the special favour with which
God regarded him, are referred to in Jer. 15:1 and Ps. 99:6.
a native of the mountain regions of Western Asia, frequently
mentioned in Scripture. David defended his flocks against the
attacks of a bear (1 Sam. 17:34-37). Bears came out of the wood
and destroyed the children who mocked the prophet Elisha (2
Kings 2:24). Their habits are referred to in Isa. 59:11; Prov.
28:15; Lam. 3:10. The fury of the female bear when robbed of her
young is spoken of (2 Sam. 17:8; Prov. 17:12; Hos. 13:8). In
Daniel's vision of the four great monarchies, the Medo-Persian
empire is represented by a bear (7:5).
beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of
Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life.
His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash
of 2 Sam. 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know
that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1
Sam. 16:12; 17:42).
His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on
the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history,
doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged,
with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons
taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first
recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of
the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a
lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock,
beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1 Sam.
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged
with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem,
having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Sam. 16:1-13).
There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel
and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who
appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought.
David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him
as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now
departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He
accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing
oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit
of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the
Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Sam. 16:13, 14).
Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp
the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange
melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skilfully
that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great
affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to
Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of
the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley
of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was
sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who
were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in
the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was
made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the
Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David
took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out
of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he
fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and
cut off his head with his own sword (1 Sam. 17). The result was
a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines
to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened
Saul's jealousy (1 Sam. 18:6-16), which he showed in various
ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various
stratagems sought his death (1 Sam. 18-30). The deep-laid plots
of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David
"prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared
the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to
Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm
friendship was formed.
A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled
to Ramah (1 Sam. 19:12-18) to Samuel, who received him, and he
dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under
Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth,
seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time.
This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon
discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried
ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless
effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward
David (1 Sam. 20), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no
hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find
him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of
the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him
into his service, as he expected that he would, and David
accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam
(22:1-4; 1 Chr. 12:8-18). Here in a short time 400 men gathered
around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this
time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position,
cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well
of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines
of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed
(2 Sam. 23:13-17), but which he would not drink.
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David,
Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family
at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of
eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite.
The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by
Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Comp.
Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was
harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1
Sam. 23:1-14); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the
strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Comp. Ps. 31. While
encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was
visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement
(23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul
continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at
this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the
western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Sam. 23:29). Here Saul, who
still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the
generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what
David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and
David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he
maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district.
Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife
Abigail (1 Sam. 25), whom David married after Nabal's death.
Saul again went forth (1 Sam. 26) in pursuit of David, who had
hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in
the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his
forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence
for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his
elevation to the throne.
Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving
from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought
refuge among the Philistines (1 Sam. 27). He was welcomed by the
king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived
among his followers for some time as an independent chief
engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on
the south of Judah.
Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against
Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of
David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which
he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during
his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the
Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag
tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Sam. 1). An Amalekite
brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet.
David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who
had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a
beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a
"lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Sam.
1:18-27). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught
to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be
preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of
David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for
Hebron under divine direction (2 Sam. 2:1-4). There they were
cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was
now about thirty years of age.
But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took
Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to
Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war
in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies,
led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took
place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner.
Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2
Sam. 3:1, 5), but still success was on the side of David. For
the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron.
Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his
advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in
revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon
(3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for
the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also
treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and
there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all
David king over all Israel (2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Chr. 11:1-3). The
elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance
to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest
enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and
sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron,
as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite
fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also
Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's
capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards
built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The
Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now
made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place
afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim.
Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by
him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his
new capital (2 Sam. 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at
Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been
for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it
home (1 Sam. 6; 7). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it
was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the
ark, Num. 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when
the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the
roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed
the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath.
After three months David brought the ark from the house of
Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Comp. Ps. 24. Here it was placed in a
new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose.
About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the
tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at
which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chr. 16) carefully set in
order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with
Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service
of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship.
Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which
greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Sam. 8). In a
few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of
Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was
under his sway (2 Sam. 8:3-13; 10).
David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He
ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the
spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he
fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery
(2 Sam. 11:2-27). It has been noted as characteristic of the
Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few
verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story
full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the
attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder.
Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim,
the corps of heros (23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front
of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he
might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Sam. 7:1-17;
12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the
conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He
bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and
fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and
his spiritual recovery.
Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born
son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth
to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately
succeeded him on the throne (2 Sam. 12:24, 25).
Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David
formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he
was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a
man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious
message (2 Sam. 7:1-16). On receiving it he went into the
sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord,
and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving
(18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for his son
Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1 Chr. 22:9; 28:3).
A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of
great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His
eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was
guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Sam. 13). This was the
beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years
Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon
to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom,
afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond
Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought
back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Sam. 14).
After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three
years' famine (2 Sam. 21:1-14). This was soon after followed by
a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's
sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Sam. 24), in which no
fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.
Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly
lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular
sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of
the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of
jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the
tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this
state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length
openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne.
Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in
Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king.
David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Sam.
15:13-20), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous
day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness
of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament
history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east
of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks
the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in
hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:1-8). Absalom's
army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab
(9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled
the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to
the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to
the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom,
my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to
Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy
dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel
(19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of
Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to
death, and so the revolt came to an end.
The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and
that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life
passed away. During those years he seems to have been
principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for
the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his
successor to build (1 Chr. 22; 28; 29), a house which was to be
"exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all
countries" (22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent,
and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left
him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that
his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy
broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured
Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring,"
in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan
hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of
Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was
brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his
father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last words are a
grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his
joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Sam.
After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Sam. 5:5; 1
Chr. 3:4) David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years,
"and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed
out on Mount Zion.
Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a
type of the Messiah (1 Sam. 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly
bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance
that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the
collection. (See PSALMS ¯T0003013.)
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had
lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a
sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly
loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not
been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment
of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had
striven to act justly to all (2 Sam. 8:15). His weak indulgence
to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly
atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of
his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in
Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Sam. 5:5). Israel at
his accession had reached the lowest point of national
depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory
assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial
power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The
sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned
from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to
the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.
slave, the father of Gaal, in whom the men of Shechem "put
confidence" in their conspiracy against Abimelech (Judg. 9:26,
26, 30, 31).
the name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts
10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited
man the son of Seth, and grandson of Adam (Gen. 5:6-11; Luke
3:38). He lived nine hundred and five years. In his time "men
began to call upon the name of the Lord" (Gen. 4:26), meaning
either (1) then began men to call themselves by the name of the
Lord (marg.) i.e., to distinguish themselves thereby from
idolaters; or (2) then men in some public and earnest way began
to call upon the Lord, indicating a time of spiritual revival.
a regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which
differed at different times. It originally consisted of three
thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six
thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of
the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to
express simply a great multitude.
mentioned in Dan. 2:12 included three classes, (1) astrologers,
(2) Chaldeans, and (3) soothsayers. The word in the original
(hakamim) probably means "medicine men. In Chaldea medicine was
only a branch of magic. The "wise men" of Matt. 2:7, who came
from the East to Jerusalem, were magi from Persia or Arabia.
bunch; brave. (1.) A young Amoritish chief who joined Abraham in
the recovery of Lot from the hands of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13,
(2.) A valley in which the spies obtained a fine cluster of
grapes (Num. 13:23, 24; "the brook Eshcol," A.V.; "the valley of
Eshcol," R.V.), which they took back with them to the camp of
Israel as a specimen of the fruits of the Promised Land. On
their way back they explored the route which led into the south
(the Negeb) by the western edge of the mountains at Telilat
el-'Anab, i.e., "grape-mounds", near Beersheba. "In one of these
extensive valleys, perhaps in Wady Hanein, where miles of
grape-mounds even now meet the eye, they cut the gigantic
clusters of grapes, and gathered the pomegranates and figs, to
show how goodly was the land which the Lord had promised for
their inheritance.", Palmer's Desert of the Exodus.
the young of the goat. It was much used for food (Gen. 27:9;
38:17; Judg. 6:19; 14:6). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid
in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Ex.
23:19; 34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned
for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which
regards it as "a protest against cruelty and outraging the order
of nature." A kid cooked in its mother's milk is "a gross,
unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious
passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it.
Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and
originally, I suspect," says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book),
"was connected with idolatrous sacrifices."
are frequently met with at the waters of Merom and the Sea of
Galilee. The pelican is ranked among unclean birds (Lev. 11:18;
Deut. 14:17). It is of an enormous size, being about 6 feet
long, with wings stretching out over 12 feet. The Hebrew name
(kaath, i.e., "vomiter") of this bird is incorrectly rendered
"cormorant" in the Authorized Version of Isa. 34:11 and Zeph.
2:14, but correctly in the Revised Version. It receives its
Hebrew name from its habit of storing in its pouch large
quantities of fish, which it disgorges when it feeds its young.
Two species are found on the Syrian coast, the Pelicanus
onocrotalus, or white pelican, and the Pelicanus crispus, or
(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy"). (1.) The method or
scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards
men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three
dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the
Christian. (See COVENANT ¯T0000916, Administration of.) These
were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace
toward men. The word is not found with this meaning in
(2.) A commission to preach the gospel (1 Cor. 9:17; Eph.
1:10; 3:2; Col. 1:25).
Dispensations of Providence are providential events which
affect men either in the way of mercy or of judgement.
father of strength; i.e., "valiant", one of David's body-guard
of thirty mighty men (2 Sam. 23:31); called also Abiel (1 Chr.
delight. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David
at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20). (2.) A general under Jehoshaphat,
chief over 300,000 men (2 Chr. 17:14).
(1 Chr. 2:6), sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol (1 Kings
4:31), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom;
for "he was wiser than all men."
Changes of raiment
were reckoned among the treasures of rich men (Gen. 45:22; Judg.
14:12, 13; 2 Kings 5:22, 23).
Heb. ba'al parash, "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned
Ex. 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The
army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We
find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry
(2 Chr. 12:3). (See HORSE ¯T0001825.)
The process of mining is described in Job 28:1-11. Moses speaks
of the mineral wealth of Israel (Deut. 8:9). Job 28:4 is
rightly thus rendered in the Revised Version, "He breaketh open
a shaft away from where men sojourn; they are forgotten of the
foot [that passeth by]; they hang afar from men, they swing to
and fro." These words illustrate ancient mining operations.
originally called Simon (=Simeon ,i.e., "hearing"), a very
common Jewish name in the New Testament. He was the son of Jona
(Matt. 16:17). His mother is nowhere named in Scripture. He had
a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus
(John 1:40-42). His native town was Bethsaida, on the western
coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged. Here
he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was
trained to the occupation of a fisher. His father had probably
died while he was still young, and he and his brother were
brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome (Matt.
27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1). There the four youths, Simon, Andrew,
James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in
constant fellowship. Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all
the advantages of a religious training, and were early
instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the
great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. They did
not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study
of the law under any of the rabbis. When Peter appeared before
the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13).
"Simon was a Galilean, and he was that out and out...The
Galileans had a marked character of their own. They had a
reputation for an independence and energy which often ran out
into turbulence. They were at the same time of a franker and
more transparent disposition than their brethren in the south.
In all these respects, in bluntness, impetuosity, headiness, and
simplicity, Simon was a genuine Galilean. They spoke a peculiar
dialect. They had a difficulty with the guttural sounds and some
others, and their pronunciation was reckoned harsh in Judea. The
Galilean accent stuck to Simon all through his career. It
betrayed him as a follower of Christ when he stood within the
judgment-hall (Mark 14:70). It betrayed his own nationality and
that of those conjoined with him on the day of Pentecost (Acts
2:7)." It would seem that Simon was married before he became an
apostle. His wife's mother is referred to (Matt. 8:14; Mark
1:30; Luke 4:38). He was in all probability accompanied by his
wife on his missionary journeys (1 Cor. 9:5; comp. 1 Pet. 5:13).
He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ
entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the
age of thirty. His house was large enough to give a home to his
brother Andrew, his wife's mother, and also to Christ, who seems
to have lived with him (Mark 1:29, 36; 2:1), as well as to his
own family. It was apparently two stories high (2:4).
At Bethabara (R.V., John 1:28, "Bethany"), beyond Jordan, John
the Baptist had borne testimony concerning Jesus as the "Lamb of
God" (John 1:29-36). Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus,
and abode with him where he was. They were convinced, by his
gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he
was the Messiah (Luke 4:22; Matt. 7:29); and Andrew went forth
and found Simon and brought him to Jesus (John 1:41).
Jesus at once recognized Simon, and declared that hereafter he
would be called Cephas, an Aramaic name corresponding to the
Greek Petros, which means "a mass of rock detached from the
living rock." The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the
name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our
Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him
(Matt. 17:25; Mark 14:37; Luke 22:31, comp. 21:15-17). We are
not told what impression the first interview with Jesus produced
on the mind of Simon. When we next meet him it is by the Sea of
Galilee (Matt. 4:18-22). There the four (Simon and Andrew, James
and John) had had an unsuccessful night's fishing. Jesus
appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him
launch forth and let down the nets. He did so, and enclosed a
great multitude of fishes. This was plainly a miracle wrought
before Simon's eyes. The awe-stricken disciple cast himself at
the feet of Jesus, crying, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful
man, O Lord" (Luke 5:8). Jesus addressed him with the assuring
words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work. Simon
responded at once to the call to become a disciple, and after
this we find him in constant attendance on our Lord.
He is next called into the rank of the apostleship, and
becomes a "fisher of men" (Matt. 4:19) in the stormy seas of the
world of human life (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:13-16),
and takes a more and more prominent part in all the leading
events of our Lord's life. It is he who utters that notable
profession of faith at Capernaum (John 6:66-69), and again at
Caesarea Philippi (Matt. 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-20).
This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and
our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art
Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church."
"From that time forth" Jesus began to speak of his sufferings.
For this Peter rebuked him. But our Lord in return rebuked
Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any
other of his disciples (Matt. 16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33). At the
close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and
James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was
transfigured before them. Peter on that occasion, under the
impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it
is good for us to be here: let us make three tabernacles" (Matt.
On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a
didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of
twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Ex. 30:15), came to
Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matt.
17:24-27). Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in
the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the
tax, viz., a stater, or two half-shekels. "That take," said our
Lord, "and give unto them for me and thee."
As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John
(Luke 22:7-13) into the city to prepare a place where he should
keep the feast with his disciples. There he was forewarned of
the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell (22:31-34). He
accompanied our Lord from the guest-chamber to the garden of
Gethsemane (Luke 22:39-46), which he and the other two who had
been witnesses of the transfiguration were permitted to enter
with our Lord, while the rest were left without. Here he passed
through a strange experience. Under a sudden impulse he cut off
the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth
to take Jesus. Then follow the scenes of the judgment-hall
(54-61) and his bitter grief (62).
He is found in John's company early on the morning of the
resurrection. He boldly entered into the empty grave (John
20:1-10), and saw the "linen clothes laid by themselves" (Luke
24:9-12). To him, the first of the apostles, our risen Lord
revealed himself, thus conferring on him a signal honour, and
showing how fully he was restored to his favour (Luke 24:34; 1
Cor. 15:5). We next read of our Lord's singular interview with
Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked
him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?" (John 21:1-19). (See
After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he
again appears with the others at the ascension (Acts 1:15-26).
It was he who proposed that the vacancy caused by the apostasy
of Judas should be filled up. He is prominent on the day of
Pentecost (2:14-40). The events of that day "completed the
change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall
and all the lengthened process of previous training had been
slowly making. He is now no more the unreliable, changeful,
self-confident man, ever swaying between rash courage and weak
timidity, but the stead-fast, trusted guide and director of the
fellowship of believers, the intrepid preacher of Christ in
Jerusalem and abroad. And now that he is become Cephas indeed,
we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5, 32;
15:14), and he is known to us finally as Peter."
After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3) persecution
arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. He
boldly defended himself and his companions at the bar of the
council (4:19, 20). A fresh outburst of violence against the
Christians (5:17-21) led to the whole body of the apostles being
cast into prison; but during the night they were wonderfully
delivered, and were found in the morning teaching in the temple.
A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts
5:29-32), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten
them, let them go."
The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem. After
labouring for some time in Samaria, he returned to Jerusalem,
and reported to the church there the results of his work (Acts
8:14-25). Here he remained for a period, during which he met
Paul for the first time since his conversion (9:26-30; Gal.
1:18). Leaving Jerusalem again, he went forth on a missionary
journey to Lydda and Joppa (Acts 9:32-43). He is next called on
to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the
admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch. 10).
After remaining for some time at Caesarea, he returned to
Jerusalem (Acts 11:1-18), where he defended his conduct with
reference to the Gentiles. Next we hear of his being cast into
prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an angel of
the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found
refuge in the house of Mary.
He took part in the deliberations of the council in Jerusalem
(Acts 15:1-31; Gal. 2:1-10) regarding the relation of the
Gentiles to the church. This subject had awakened new interest
at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council
of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem. Here Paul and Peter met
We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the
Apostles. He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the
council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of
dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Gal.
2:11-16), who "rebuked him to his face."
After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east,
and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1
Pet. 5:13). There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever
at Rome. Where or when he died is not certainly known. Probably
he died between A.D. 64 and 67.
(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are
said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21; 7:59; 9:14;
Rom. 10:12; 1 Cor. 1:2).
(2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to
some special office (Ex. 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when
he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13; 11:28;
In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men,
to Jews and Gentiles alike (Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15; Rom. 9:24,
25). But this universal call is not inseparably connected with
salvation, although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable
if they reject it (John 3:14-19; Matt. 22:14).
An effectual call is something more than the outward message
of the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of
the enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit
(John 16:14; Acts 26: 18; John 6:44), effectually drawing men to
Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth
(John 6:45; Acts 16:14; Eph. 1:17).
In the Old Testament the Hebrew word _tsir_, meaning "one who
goes on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17;
Isa. 18:2; Jer. 49:14; Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of
_melits_, meaning "an interpreter," in 2 Chr. 32:31; and of
_malak_, a "messenger," in 2 Chr. 35:21; Isa. 30:4; 33:7; Ezek.
17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those
who are appointed by God to declare his will (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph.
The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had
recourse to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract
alliances (Josh. 9:4), to solicit favours (Num. 20:14), to
remonstrate when wrong was done (Judg. 11:12), to condole with a
young king on the death of his father (2 Sam. 10:2), and to
congratulate a king on his accession to the throne (1 Kings
To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who sent
him (2 Sam. 10:5).
(1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year.
Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex.
29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the
New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of
Pentecost (Lev. 23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex. 12:5), and
on many other occasions (1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:21; Lev. 9:3;
(2.) Heb. taleh, a young sucking lamb (1 Sam. 7:9; Isa.
65:25). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the
type of meekness and innocence (Isa. 11:6; 65:25; Luke 10:3;
The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Gen. 4:4; Ex. 12:3; 29:38;
Isa. 16:1; 53:7; John 1:36; Rev. 13:8).
Christ is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36), as the great
sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Num.
6:12; Lev. 14:12-17; Isa. 53:7; 1 Cor. 5:7).
Heb. tinshameth (Lev. 11:30), probably signifies some species of
lizard (rendered in R.V., "chameleon"). In Lev. 11:18, Deut.
14:16, it is rendered, in Authorized Version, "swan" (R.V.,
The Heb. holed (Lev. 11:29), rendered "weasel," was probably
the mole-rat. The true mole (Talpa Europoea) is not found in
Israel. The mole-rat (Spalax typhlus) "is twice the size of
our mole, with no external eyes, and with only faint traces
within of the rudimentary organ; no apparent ears, but, like the
mole, with great internal organs of hearing; a strong, bare
snout, and with large gnawing teeth; its colour a pale slate;
its feet short, and provided with strong nails; its tail only
In Isa. 2:20, this word is the rendering of two words _haphar
peroth_, which are rendered by Gesenius "into the digging of
rats", i.e., rats' holes. But these two Hebrew words ought
probably to be combined into one (lahporperoth) and translated
"to the moles", i.e., the rat-moles. This animal "lives in
underground communities, making large subterranean chambers for
its young and for storehouses, with many runs connected with
them, and is decidedly partial to the loose debris among ruins
and stone-heaps, where it can form its chambers with least
the descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the
father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the
support of David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:27). Eleazar (Num. 3:32),
and at a later period Zadok (1 Chr. 27:17), was their chief.
cold, a ravine or brook in the extreme south-west of Judah,
where 200 of David's men stayed behind because they were faint,
while the other 400 pursued the Amalekites (1 Sam. 30:9, 10,
21). Probably the Wadyes Sheriah, south of Gaza.
(2 Sam. 19:18), some kind of boat for crossing the river which
the men of Judah placed at the service of the king. Floats or
rafts for this purpose were in use from remote times (Isa.
loathing, the son of Ebed, in whom the Shechemites "placed their
confidence" when they became discontented with Abimelech. He
headed the revolution, and led out the men of Shechem against
Abimelech; but was defeated, and fled to his own home (Judg.
9:26-46). We hear no more of him after this battle.
(Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33, R.V.), giants, the Hebrew word left
untranslated by the Revisers, the name of one of the Canaanitish
tribes. The Revisers have, however, translated the Hebrew
gibborim, in Gen. 6:4, "mighty men."
first referred to in Gen. 45:6, where the Authorized Version has
"earing," but the Revised Version "ploughing;" next in Ex. 34:21
and Deut. 21:4. The plough was originally drawn by oxen, but
sometimes also by asses and by men. (See AGRICULTURE ¯T0000124.)
watchman. (1.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(2.) The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies
(1 Chr. 11:45).
(3.) Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of
Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:13).
Satan is styled the "accuser of the brethren" (Rev. 12:10. Comp.
Job 1:6; Zech. 3:1), as seeking to uphold his influence among
men by bringing false charges against Christians, with the view
of weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which
they are identified. He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser
of men before God, laying to their charge the violations of the
law of which they were guilty, and demanding their punishment.
The same Greek word, rendered "accuser," is found in John 8:10
(but omitted in the Revised Version); Acts 23:30, 35; 24:8;
25:16, 18, in all of which places it is used of one who brings a
charge against another.
Unconverted men are so called (1 Cor. 3:3). They are represented
as of a "carnal mind, which is enmity against God" (Rom. 8:6,
7). Enjoyments that minister to the wants and desires of man's
animal nature are so called (Rom. 15:27; 1 Cor. 9:11). The
ceremonial of the Mosaic law is spoken of as "carnal," because
it related to things outward, the bodies of men and of animals,
and the purification of the flesh (Heb. 7:16; 9:10). The weapons
of Christian warfare are "not carnal", that is, they are not of
man's device, nor are wielded by human power (2 Cor. 10:4).
(Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was
applied to "lees" from the custom of allowing wine to stand on
the lees that it might thereby be better preserved (Isa. 25:6).
"Men settled on their lees" (Zeph. 1:12) are men "hardened or
crusted." The image is derived from the crust formed at the
bottom of wines long left undisturbed (Jer. 48:11). The effect
of wealthy undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They
become stupidly secure (comp. Ps. 55:19; Amos 6:1). To drink the
lees (Ps. 75:8) denotes severe suffering.
face of God, a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the
Jordan and north of the river Jabbok. It is also called
"Peniel." Here Jacob wrestled (Gen. 32:24-32) "with a man" ("the
angel", Hos. 12:4. Jacob says of him, "I have seen God face to
face") "till the break of day."
A town was afterwards built there (Judg. 8:8; 1 Kings 12:25).
The men of this place refused to succour Gideon and his little
army when they were in pursuit of the Midianites (Judg. 8:1-21).
On his return, Gideon slew the men of this city and razed its
lofty watch-tower to the ground.
the official title borne by the Egyptian kings down to the time
when that country was conquered by the Greeks. (See EGYPT
¯T0001137.) The name is a compound, as some think, of the words
Ra, the "sun" or "sun-god," and the article phe, "the,"
prefixed; hence phera, "the sun," or "the sun-god." But others,
perhaps more correctly, think the name derived from Perao, "the
great house" = his majesty = in Turkish, "the Sublime Porte."
(1.) The Pharaoh who was on the throne when Abram went down
into Egypt (Gen. 12:10-20) was probably one of the Hyksos, or
"shepherd kings." The Egyptians called the nomad tribes of Syria
Shasu, "plunderers," their king or chief Hyk, and hence the name
of those invaders who conquered the native kings and established
a strong government, with Zoan or Tanis as their capital. They
were of Semitic origin, and of kindred blood accordingly with
Abram. They were probably driven forward by the pressure of the
Hittites. The name they bear on the monuments is "Mentiu."
(2.) The Pharaoh of Joseph's days (Gen. 41) was probably
Apopi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. To the old
native Egyptians, who were an African race, shepherds were "an
abomination;" but to the Hyksos kings these Asiatic shepherds
who now appeared with Jacob at their head were congenial, and
being akin to their own race, had a warm welcome (Gen. 47:5, 6).
Some argue that Joseph came to Egypt in the reign of Thothmes
III., long after the expulsion of the Hyksos, and that his
influence is to be seen in the rise and progress of the
religious revolution in the direction of monotheism which
characterized the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The wife of
Amenophis III., of that dynasty, was a Semite. Is this singular
fact to be explained from the presence of some of Joseph's
kindred at the Egyptian court? Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Thy
father and thy brethren are come unto thee: the land of Egypt is
before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and
brethren to dwell" (Gen. 47:5, 6).
(3.) The "new king who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8-22) has been
generally supposed to have been Aahmes I., or Amosis, as he is
called by Josephus. Recent discoveries, however, have led to the
conclusion that Seti was the "new king."
For about seventy years the Hebrews in Egypt were under the
powerful protection of Joseph. After his death their condition
was probably very slowly and gradually changed. The invaders,
the Hyksos, who for some five centuries had been masters of
Egypt, were driven out, and the old dynasty restored. The
Israelites now began to be looked down upon. They began to be
afflicted and tyrannized over. In process of time a change
appears to have taken place in the government of Egypt. A new
dynasty, the Nineteenth, as it is called, came into power under
Seti I., who was its founder. He associated with him in his
government his son, Rameses II., when he was yet young, probably
ten or twelve years of age.
Note, Professor Maspero, keeper of the museum of Bulak, near
Cairo, had his attention in 1870 directed to the fact that
scarabs, i.e., stone and metal imitations of the beetle (symbols
of immortality), originally worn as amulets by royal personages,
which were evidently genuine relics of the time of the ancient
Pharaohs, were being sold at Thebes and different places along
the Nile. This led him to suspect that some hitherto
undiscovered burial-place of the Pharaohs had been opened, and
that these and other relics, now secretly sold, were a part of
the treasure found there. For a long time he failed, with all
his ingenuity, to find the source of these rare treasures. At
length one of those in the secret volunteered to give
information regarding this burial-place. The result was that a
party was conducted in 1881 to Dier el-Bahari, near Thebes, when
the wonderful discovery was made of thirty-six mummies of kings,
queens, princes, and high priests hidden away in a cavern
prepared for them, where they had lain undisturbed for thirty
centuries. "The temple of Deir el-Bahari stands in the middle of
a natural amphitheatre of cliffs, which is only one of a number
of smaller amphitheatres into which the limestone mountains of
the tombs are broken up. In the wall of rock separating this
basin from the one next to it some ancient Egyptian engineers
had constructed the hiding-place, whose secret had been kept for
nearly three thousand years." The exploring party being guided
to the place, found behind a great rock a shaft 6 feet square
and about 40 feet deep, sunk into the limestone. At the bottom
of this a passage led westward for 25 feet, and then turned
sharply northward into the very heart of the mountain, where in
a chamber 23 feet by 13, and 6 feet in height, they came upon
the wonderful treasures of antiquity. The mummies were all
carefully secured and brought down to Bulak, where they were
deposited in the royal museum, which has now been removed to
Among the most notable of the ancient kings of Egypt thus
discovered were Thothmes III., Seti I., and Rameses II. Thothmes
III. was the most distinguished monarch of the brilliant
Eighteenth Dynasty. When this mummy was unwound "once more,
after an interval of thirty-six centuries, human eyes gazed on
the features of the man who had conquered Syria and Cyprus and
Ethiopia, and had raised Egypt to the highest pinnacle of her
power. The spectacle, however, was of brief duration. The
remains proved to be in so fragile a state that there was only
time to take a hasty photograph, and then the features crumbled
to pieces and vanished like an apparition, and so passed away
from human view for ever." "It seems strange that though the
body of this man," who overran Israel with his armies two
hundred years before the birth of Moses, "mouldered to dust, the
flowers with which it had been wreathed were so wonderfully
preserved that even their colour could be distinguished"
(Manning's Land of the Pharaohs).
Seti I. (his throne name Merenptah), the father of Rameses
II., was a great and successful warrior, also a great builder.
The mummy of this Pharaoh, when unrolled, brought to view "the
most beautiful mummy head ever seen within the walls of the
museum. The sculptors of Thebes and Abydos did not flatter this
Pharaoh when they gave him that delicate, sweet, and smiling
profile which is the admiration of travellers. After a lapse of
thirty-two centuries, the mummy retains the same expression
which characterized the features of the living man. Most
remarkable of all, when compared with the mummy of Rameses II.,
is the striking resemblance between the father and the son. Seti
I. is, as it were, the idealized type of Rameses II. He must
have died at an advanced age. The head is shaven, the eyebrows
are white, the condition of the body points to considerably more
than threescore years of life, thus confirming the opinions of
the learned, who have attributed a long reign to this king."
(4.) Rameses II., the son of Seti I., is probably the Pharaoh
of the Oppression. During his forty years' residence at the
court of Egypt, Moses must have known this ruler well. During
his sojourn in Midian, however, Rameses died, after a reign of
sixty-seven years, and his body embalmed and laid in the royal
sepulchre in the Valley of the Tombs of Kings beside that of his
father. Like the other mummies found hidden in the cave of Deir
el-Bahari, it had been for some reason removed from its original
tomb, and probably carried from place to place till finally
deposited in the cave where it was so recently discovered.
In 1886, the mummy of this king, the "great Rameses," the
"Sesostris" of the Greeks, was unwound, and showed the body of
what must have been a robust old man. The features revealed to
view are thus described by Maspero: "The head is long and small
in proportion to the body. The top of the skull is quite bare.
On the temple there are a few sparse hairs, but at the poll the
hair is quite thick, forming smooth, straight locks about two
inches in length. White at the time of death, they have been
dyed a light yellow by the spices used in embalmment. The
forehead is low and narrow; the brow-ridge prominent; the
eye-brows are thick and white; the eyes are small and close
together; the nose is long, thin, arched like the noses of the
Bourbons; the temples are sunk; the cheek-bones very prominent;
the ears round, standing far out from the head, and pierced,
like those of a woman, for the wearing of earrings; the jaw-bone
is massive and strong; the chin very prominent; the mouth small,
but thick-lipped; the teeth worn and very brittle, but white and
well preserved. The moustache and beard are thin. They seem to
have been kept shaven during life, but were probably allowed to
grow during the king's last illness, or they may have grown
after death. The hairs are white, like those of the head and
eyebrows, but are harsh and bristly, and a tenth of an inch in
length. The skin is of an earthy-brown, streaked with black.
Finally, it may be said, the face of the mummy gives a fair idea
of the face of the living king. The expression is
unintellectual, perhaps slightly animal; but even under the
somewhat grotesque disguise of mummification there is plainly to
be seen an air of sovereign majesty, of resolve, and of pride."
Both on his father's and his mother's side it has been pretty
clearly shown that Rameses had Chaldean or Mesopotamian blood in
his veins to such a degree that he might be called an Assyrian.
This fact is thought to throw light on Isa. 52:4.
(5.) The Pharaoh of the Exodus was probably Menephtah I., the
fourteenth and eldest surviving son of Rameses II. He resided at
Zoan, where he had the various interviews with Moses and Aaron
recorded in the book of Exodus. His mummy was not among those
found at Deir el-Bahari. It is still a question, however,
whether Seti II. or his father Menephtah was the Pharaoh of the
Exodus. Some think the balance of evidence to be in favour of
the former, whose reign it is known began peacefully, but came
to a sudden and disastrous end. The "Harris papyrus," found at
Medinet-Abou in Upper Egypt in 1856, a state document written by
Rameses III., the second king of the Twentieth Dynasty, gives at
length an account of a great exodus from Egypt, followed by
wide-spread confusion and anarchy. This, there is great reason
to believe, was the Hebrew exodus, with which the Nineteenth
Dynasty of the Pharaohs came to an end. This period of anarchy
was brought to a close by Setnekht, the founder of the Twentieth
"In the spring of 1896, Professor Flinders Petrie discovered,
among the ruins of the temple of Menephtah at Thebes, a large
granite stela, on which is engraved a hymn of victory
commemorating the defeat of Libyan invaders who had overrun the
Delta. At the end other victories of Menephtah are glanced at,
and it is said that 'the Israelites (I-s-y-r-a-e-l-u) are
minished (?) so that they have no seed.' Menephtah was son and
successor of Rameses II., the builder of Pithom, and Egyptian
scholars have long seen in him the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The
Exodus is also placed in his reign by the Egyptian legend of the
event preserved by the historian Manetho. In the inscription the
name of the Israelites has no determinative of 'country' or
'district' attached to it, as is the case with all the other
names (Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Khar or Southern Israel,
etc.) mentioned along with it, and it would therefore appear
that at the time the hymn was composed, the Israelites had
already been lost to the sight of the Egyptians in the desert.
At all events they must have had as yet no fixed home or
district of their own. We may therefore see in the reference to
them the Pharaoh's version of the Exodus, the disasters which
befell the Egyptians being naturally passed over in silence, and
only the destruction of the 'men children' of the Israelites
being recorded. The statement of the Egyptian poet is a
remarkable parallel to Ex. 1:10-22."
(6.) The Pharaoh of 1 Kings 11:18-22.
(7.) So, king of Egypt (2 Kings 17:4).
(8.) The Pharaoh of 1 Chr. 4:18.
(9.) Pharaoh, whose daughter Solomon married (1 Kings 3:1;
(10.) Pharaoh, in whom Hezekiah put his trust in his war
against Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:21).
(11.) The Pharaoh by whom Josiah was defeated and slain at
Megiddo (2 Chr. 35:20-24; 2 Kings 23:29, 30). (See NECHO
(12.) Pharaoh-hophra, who in vain sought to relieve Jerusalem
when it was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar (q.v.), 2 Kings 25:1-4;
comp. Jer. 37:5-8; Ezek. 17:11-13. (See ZEDEKIAH ¯T0003894.)
Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Dan.
5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the
daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer.
When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his
lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his
"father" (Dan. 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried
away from the temple in Jerusalem, and he and his princes drank
out of them. In the midst of their mad revelry a hand was seen
by the king tracing on the wall the announcement of God's
judgment, which that night fell upon him. At the instance of the
queen (i.e., his mother) Daniel was brought in, and he
interpreted the writing. That night the kingdom of the Chaldeans
came to an end, and the king was slain (Dan. 5:30). (See
The absence of the name of Belshazzar on the monuments was
long regarded as an argument against the genuineness of the Book
of Daniel. In 1854 Sir Henry Rawlinson found an inscription of
Nabonidus which referred to his eldest son. Quite recently,
however, the side of a ravine undermined by heavy rains fell at
Hillah, a suburb of Babylon. A number of huge, coarse
earthenware vases were laid bare. These were filled with
tablets, the receipts and contracts of a firm of Babylonian
bankers, which showed that Belshazzar had a household, with
secretaries and stewards. One was dated in the third year of the
king Marduk-sar-uzur. As Marduk-sar-uzar was another name for
Baal, this Marduk-sar-uzur was found to be the Belshazzar of
Scripture. In one of these contract tablets, dated in the July
after the defeat of the army of Nabonidus, we find him paying
tithes for his sister to the temple of the sun-god at Sippara.
An encampment was the resting-place for a longer or shorter
period of an army or company of travellers (Ex. 13:20; 14:19;
Josh. 10:5; 11:5).
The manner in which the Israelites encamped during their march
through the wilderness is described in Num. 2 and 3. The order
of the encampment (see CAMP ¯T0000700) was preserved in the
march (Num. 2:17), the signal for which was the blast of two
silver trumpets. Detailed regulations affecting the camp for
sanitary purposes are given (Lev. 4:11, 12; 6:11; 8:17; 10:4, 5;
13:46; 14:3; Num. 12:14, 15; 31:19; Deut. 23:10, 12).
Criminals were executed without the camp (Lev. 4:12; comp.
John 19:17, 20), and there also the young bullock for a
sin-offering was burnt (Lev. 24:14; comp. Heb. 13:12).
In the subsequent history of Israel frequent mention is made
of their encampments in the time of war (Judg. 7:18; 1 Sam.
13:2, 3, 16, 23; 17:3; 29:1; 30:9, 24). The temple was sometimes
called "the camp of the Lord" (2 Chr. 31:2, R.V.; comp. Ps.
78:28). The multitudes who flocked to David are styled "a great
host (i.e., "camp;" Heb. mahaneh), like the host of God" (1 Chr.
the evangelist; "John whose surname was Mark" (Acts 12:12, 25).
Mark (Marcus, Col. 4:10, etc.) was his Roman name, which
gradually came to supersede his Jewish name John. He is called
John in Acts 13:5, 13, and Mark in 15:39, 2 Tim. 4:11, etc.
He was the son of Mary, a woman apparently of some means and
influence, and was probably born in Jerusalem, where his mother
resided (Acts 12:12). Of his father we know nothing. He was
cousin of Barnabas (Col. 4:10). It was in his mother's house
that Peter found "many gathered together praying" when he was
released from prison; and it is probable that it was here that
he was converted by Peter, who calls him his "son" (1 Pet.
5:13). It is probable that the "young man" spoken of in Mark
14:51, 52 was Mark himself. He is first mentioned in Acts 12:25.
He went with Paul and Barnabas on their first journey (about
A.D. 47) as their "minister," but from some cause turned back
when they reached Perga in Pamphylia (Acts 12:25; 13:13). Three
years afterwards a "sharp contention" arose between Paul and
Barnabas (15:36-40), because Paul would not take Mark with him.
He, however, was evidently at length reconciled to the apostle,
for he was with him in his first imprisonment at Rome (Col.
4:10; Philemon 1:24). At a later period he was with Peter in
Babylon (1 Pet. 5:13), then, and for some centuries afterwards,
one of the chief seats of Jewish learning; and he was with
Timothy in Ephesus when Paul wrote him during his second
imprisonment (2 Tim. 4:11). He then disappears from view.
honouring God, a young disciple who was Paul's companion in many
of his journeyings. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother,
Lois, are mentioned as eminent for their piety (2 Tim. 1:5). We
know nothing of his father but that he was a Greek (Acts 16:1).
He is first brought into notice at the time of Paul's second
visit to Lystra (16:2), where he probably resided, and where it
seems he was converted during Paul's first visit to that place
(1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:11). The apostle having formed a high
opinion of his "own son in the faith," arranged that he should
become his companion (Acts 16:3), and took and circumcised him,
so that he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the
office of an evangelist (1 Tim. 4:14), and went with Paul in his
journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and
Philippi and Berea (Acts 17:14). Thence he followed Paul to
Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to
Thessalonica (17:15; 1 Thess. 3:2). We next find him at Corinth
(1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) with Paul. He passes now out of
sight for a few years, and is again noticed as with the apostle
at Ephesus (Acts 19:22), whence he is sent on a mission into
Macedonia. He accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia (20:4),
where he was with him for some time. When the apostle was a
prisoner at Rome, Timothy joined him (Phil. 1:1), where it
appears he also suffered imprisonment (Heb. 13:23). During the
apostle's second imprisonment he wrote to Timothy, asking him to
rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring with him certain
things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and parchments (2
Tim. 4:13). According to tradition, after the apostle's death he
settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a
The Hebrew word _tan_ (plural, tannin) is so rendered in Job
7:12 (A.V.; but R.V., "sea-monster"). It is rendered by
"dragons" in Deut. 32:33; Ps. 91:13; Jer. 51:34; Ps. 74:13
(marg., "whales;" and marg. of R.V., "sea-monsters"); Isa. 27:1;
and "serpent" in Ex. 7:9 (R.V. marg., "any large reptile," and
so in ver. 10, 12). The words of Job (7:12), uttered in bitter
irony, where he asks, "Am I a sea or a whale?" simply mean,
"Have I a wild, untamable nature, like the waves of the sea,
which must be confined and held within bounds, that they cannot
pass?" "The serpent of the sea, which was but the wild, stormy
sea itself, wound itself around the land, and threatened to
swallow it up...Job inquires if he must be watched and plagued
like this monster, lest he throw the world into disorder"
The whale tribe are included under the general Hebrew name
_tannin_ (Gen. 1:21; Lam. 4:3). "Even the sea-monsters
[tanninim] draw out the breast." The whale brings forth its
young alive, and suckles them.
It is to be noticed of the story of Jonah's being "three days
and three nights in the whale's belly," as recorded in Matt.
12:40, that here the Gr. ketos means properly any kind of
sea-monster of the shark or the whale tribe, and that in the
book of Jonah (1:17) it is only said that "a great fish" was
prepared to swallow Jonah. This fish may have been, therefore,
some great shark. The white shark is known to frequent the
Mediterranean Sea, and is sometimes found 30 feet in length.
Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos, meaning a "runner,"
"messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual
jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who
spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or
Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian
language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead
of the Hebrew. This jealousy early appeared in the Christian
community. It was alleged by the Hellenists that their widows
were overlooked in the daily distribution of alms. This spirit
must be checked. The apostles accordingly advised the disciples
to look out for seven men of good report, full of the Holy
Ghost, and men of practical wisdom, who should take entire
charge of this distribution, leaving them free to devote
themselves entirely to the spiritual functions of their office
(Acts 6:1-6). This was accordingly done. Seven men were chosen,
who appear from their names to have been Hellenists. The name
"deacon" is nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they
are simply called "the seven" (21:8). Their office was at first
secular, but it afterwards became also spiritual; for among
other qualifications they must also be "apt to teach" (1 Tim. 3:
8-12). Both Philip and Stephen, who were of "the seven,"
preached; they did "the work of evangelists."
the name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of
Benjamin (Josh. 21:18). The Jews, as a rule, did not change the
names of the towns they found in Israel; hence this town may
be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was
the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2 Sam.
23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1 Chr. 12:3). It
is chiefly notable, however, as the birth-place and usual
residence of Jeremiah (Jer. 1:1; 11:21-23; 29:27; 32:7-9). It
suffered greatly from the army of Sennacherib, and only 128 men
returned to it from the Exile (Neh. 7:27; Ezra 2:23). It lay
about 3 miles north of Jerusalem. It has been identified with
the small and poor village of 'Anata, containing about 100
(1.) Anklets (Num. 31:50; 2 Sam. 1:10), and with reference to
(2.) The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning fasteners, found
in Gen. 24:22, 30, 47.
(3.) In Isa. 3:19, the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning
chains, i.e., twisted or chain-like bracelets.
(4.) In Ex. 35:22 it designates properly a clasp for fastening
the dress of females. Some interpret it as a nose-ring.
(5.) In Gen. 38:18, 25, the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning
"thread," and may denote the ornamental cord with which the
signet was suspended from the neck of the wearer.
Bracelets were worn by men as well as by women (Cant. 5:14,
R.V.). They were of many various forms. The weight of those
presented by Eliezer to Rebekah was ten shekels (Gen. 24:22).
a Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Mark 15:39, 44,
45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts
10:1, 22). Other centurions are mentioned in Matt. 8:5, 8, 13;
Luke 7:2, 6; Acts 21:32; 22:25, 26; 23:17, 23; 24:23; 27:1, 6,
11, 31, 43; 28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our
Lord (Matt. 27:54; Luke 23:47), and when he saw the wonders
attending it, exclaimed, "Truly this man was the Son of God."
"The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly
spoken of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the
Acts. It is interesting to compare this with the statement of
Polybius (vi. 24), that the centurions were chosen by merit, and
so were men remarkable not so much for their daring courage as
for their deliberation, constancy, and strength of mind.", Dr.
Maclear's N. T. Hist.
or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon
was the capital. They were so called till the time of the
Captivity (2 Kings 25; Isa. 13:19; 23:13), when, particularly in
the Book of Daniel (5:30; 9:1), the name began to be used with
special reference to a class of learned men ranked with the
magicians and astronomers. These men cultivated the ancient
Cushite language of the original inhabitants of the land, for
they had a "learning" and a "tongue" (1:4) of their own. The
common language of the country at that time had become
assimilated to the Semitic dialect, especially through the
influence of the Assyrians, and was the language that was used
for all civil purposes. The Chaldeans were the learned class,
interesting themselves in science and religion, which consisted,
like that of the ancient Arabians and Syrians, in the worship of
the heavenly bodies. There are representations of this priestly
class, of magi and diviners, on the walls of the Assyrian
one "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his
apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted
by God to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies
of men, inflicting dumbness (Matt. 9:32), blindness (12:22),
epilepsy (Mark 9:17-27), insanity (Matt. 8:28; Mark 5:1-5).
Daemoniacs are frequently distinguished from those who are
afflicted with ordinary bodily maladies (Mark 1:32; 16:17, 18;
Luke 6:17, 18). The daemons speak in their own persons (Matt.
8:29; Mark 1:23, 24; 5:7). This influence is clearly
distinguished from the ordinary power of corruption and of
temptation over men. In the daemoniac his personality seems to
be destroyed, and his actions, words, and even thoughts to be
overborne by the evil spirit (Mark, l.c.; Acts 19:15).
burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of
Samuel (1 Chr. 6:25, 35).
(2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David in the
"stronghold," probably of Adullam (1 Chr. 12:18).
(3.) One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with
blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom
(1 Chr. 15:24).
(4.) The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites who
took a prominent part at the instance of Hezekiah in the
cleansing of the temple (2 Chr. 29:12).
the Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it
denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the
open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the
Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the
council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted
of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office,
and the ex-archons of blameless life.
On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable
address to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22-31).
the lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to
procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16).
(2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1, 2, 7) as
"victorious under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, 16, for the altar
(marg., Heb. 'ariel) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's
a city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 12:4;
13:12; 9:10). It was in the half-tribe of Manasseh (Josh.
13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites (1
Chr. 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1 Chr. 11:44), is
named as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in
the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700-1500. The name
Beesh-terah (Josh. 21:27) is a contraction for Beth-eshterah,
i.e., "the house of Ashtaroth."
house of the ford, a place on the east bank of the Jordan, where
John was baptizing (John 1:28). It may be identical with
Bethbarah, the ancient ford of Jordan of which the men of
Ephraim took possession (Judg. 7:24). The Revised Version reads
"Bethany beyond Jordan." It was the great ford, and still bears
the name of "the ford," Makhadhet 'Abarah, "the ford of crossing
over," about 25 miles from Nazareth. (See BETHBARAH ¯T0000550.)
to promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when
they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year
or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman
was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was
betrothed (Deut. 28:30; Judg. 14:2, 8; Matt. 1:18-21). The term
is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God
and his people (Hos. 2:19, 20).
imperfection or bodily deformity excluding men from the
priesthood, and rendering animals unfit to be offered in
sacrifice (Lev. 21:17-23; 22:19-25). The Christian church, as
justified in Christ, is "without blemish" (Eph. 5:27). Christ
offered himself a sacrifice "without blemish," acceptable to God
(1 Pet. 1:19).
smoking furnace, one of the places where "David himself and his
men were wont to haunt" (1 Sam. 30:30, 31). It is probably
identical with Ashan (Josh. 15:42; 19:7), a Simeonite city in
the Negeb, i.e., the south, belonging to Judah. The word ought,
according to another reading, to be "Bor-ashan."
toward Jehovah are my eyes, the name of several men mentioned in
the Old Testament (1 Chr. 7:8; 4:36; Ezra 10:22, 27). Among
these was the eldest son of Neariah, son of Shemaiah, of the
descendants of Zerubbabel. His family are the latest mentioned
in the Old Testament (1 Chr. 3:23, 24).
terrors, a warlike tribe of giants who were defeated by
Chedorlaomer and his allies in the plain of Kiriathaim. In the
time of Abraham they occupied the country east of Jordan,
afterwards the land of the Moabites (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:10).
They were, like the Anakim, reckoned among the Rephaim, and were
conquered by the Moabites, who gave them the name of Emims,
i.e., "terrible men" (Deut. 2:11). The Ammonites called them
followers of Epicurus (who died at Athens B.C. 270), or
adherents of the Epicurean philosophy (Acts 17:18). This
philosophy was a system of atheism, and taught men to seek as
their highest aim a pleasant and smooth life. They have been
called the "Sadducees" of Greek paganism. They, with the Stoics,
ridiculed the teaching of Paul (Acts 17:18). They appear to have
been greatly esteemed at Athens.
(Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out,"
"to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his
means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, the word means debauchees
or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, the word (pl.) is
rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version,
"gluttonous." Matt. 11:19, Luke 7:34, Greek phagos, given to
Grace, means of
an expression not used in Scripture, but employed (1) to denote
those institutions ordained by God to be the ordinary channels
of grace to the souls of men. These are the Word, Sacraments,
(2.) But in popular language the expression is used in a wider
sense to denote those exercises in which we engage for the
purpose of obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel,
reading the Word, meditation, self-examination, Christian
pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest
(1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34), who, because he was "very old," resigned to
them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous
conduct they brought down a curse on their father's house (2:22,
12-27, 27-36; 3:11-14). For their wickedness they were called
"sons of Belial," i.e., worthless men (2:12). They both perished
in the disastrous battle with the Philistines at Aphek (4:11).
(See PHINEHAS ¯T0002941.)
cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves
which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably
gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch
of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 39). They were
dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people
gradually became extinct (Deut. 2:12-22).
heard by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief
Rechabites (Jer. 35:3).
(2.) The son of Shaphan (Ezek. 8:11).
(3.) The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by
Ezekiel (11:1) at the east gate of the temple.
(4.) A Maachathite (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8; 42:1). He is
also called Azariah (Jer. 43:2).
of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of
the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew a thousand men.
In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow
place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This
is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in
the Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in
Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this
conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in shape
like a jaw-bone.
of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water
to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin
tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water,
which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went
with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out
of their hands (Judg. 7:7).
(1 Kings 4:6, R.V.; 5:13), forced service. The service of
tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a
"great levy" of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the
population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram
(12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger.
Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).
an intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically
condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10; Rev. 21:27;
22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by
Abraham (Gen. 12:12, 13; 20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24);
also by the Hebrew midwives (Ex. 1:15-19), by Michal (1 Sam.
19:14), and by David (1 Sam. 20:6). (See ANANIAS ¯T0000230.)
compassion for the miserable. Its object is misery. By the
atoning sacrifice of Christ a way is open for the exercise of
mercy towards the sons of men, in harmony with the demands of
truth and righteousness (Gen. 19:19; Ex. 20:6; 34:6, 7; Ps.
85:10; 86:15, 16). In Christ mercy and truth meet together.
Mercy is also a Christian grace (Matt. 5:7; 18:33-35).
Used as an ornament to decorate the fingers, arms, wrists, and
also the ears and the nose. Rings were used as a signet (Gen.
38:18). They were given as a token of investment with authority
(Gen. 41:42; Esther 3:8-10; 8:2), and of favour and dignity
(Luke 15:22). They were generally worn by rich men (James 2:2).
They are mentioned by Isiah (3:21) among the adornments of
descendants of Seba (Gen. 10:7); Africans (Isa. 43:3). They were
"men of stature," and engaged in merchandise (Isa. 45:14). Their
conversion to the Lord was predicted (Ps. 72:10). This word, in
Ezek. 23:42, should be read, as in the margin of the Authorized
Version, and in the Revised Version, "drunkards." Another tribe,
apparently given to war, is mentioned in Job 1:15.
The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into
the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this
name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for
the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He
repelled the invasion, slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.).
The goad was a formidable sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten
feet long. He was probably contemporary for a time with Deborah
and Barak (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).
desert. (1.) One of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. 36:13, 17).
(2.) One of the sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:9). He is also called
Shimeah (2 Sam. 13:3) and Shimma (1 Chr. 2:13).
(3.) One of David's three mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11, 12).
(4.) One of David's mighties (2 Sam. 23:25); called also
Shammoth (1 Chr. 11:27) and Shamhuth (27:8).
(2 Kings 10:12, 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep."
R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of
gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu
slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb.
word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper
from the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells
the lot of others. (See DIVINATION ¯T0001047.)
In Dan. 2:2 it is the rendering of the Hebrew mekhashphim,
i.e., mutterers, men who professed to have power with evil
spirits. The practice of sorcery exposed to severest punishment
(Mal. 3:5; Rev. 21:8; 22:15).
abounding in furrows. (1.) One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were
slain by the men of Judah under Caleb (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14;
(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put
Amnon to death (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah, was
one of David's wives, and the mother of Absalom (1 Chr. 3:2).
the Lord is my light. (1.) A Hittite, the husband of Bathsheba,
whom David first seduced, and then after Uriah's death married.
He was one of the band of David's "mighty men." The sad story of
the curel wrongs inflicted upon him by David and of his mournful
death are simply told in the sacred record (2 Sam. 11:2-12:26).
(See BATHSHEBA ¯T0000474; DAVID ¯T0000982.)
(2.) A priest of the house of Ahaz (Isa. 8:2).
(3.) The father of Meremoth, mentioned in Ezra 8:33.
The old objection against the doctrine of salvation by grace,
that it does away with the necessity of good works, and lowers
the sense of their importance (Rom. 6), although it has been
answered a thousand times, is still alleged by many. They say if
men are not saved by works, then works are not necessary. If the
most moral of men are saved in the same way as the very chief of
sinners, then good works are of no moment. And more than this,
if the grace of God is most clearly displayed in the salvation
of the vilest of men, then the worse men are the better.
The objection has no validity. The gospel of salvation by
grace shows that good works are necessary. It is true,
unchangeably true, that without holiness no man shall see the
Lord. "Neither adulterers, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor
drunkards" shall inherit the kingdom of God.
Works are "good" only when, (1) they spring from the principle
of love to God. The moral character of an act is determined by
the moral principle that prompts it. Faith and love in the heart
are the essential elements of all true obedience. Hence good
works only spring from a believing heart, can only be wrought by
one reconciled to God (Eph. 2:10; James 2:18:22). (2.) Good
works have the glory of God as their object; and (3) they have
the revealed will of God as their only rule (Deut. 12:32; Rev.
Good works are an expression of gratitude in the believer's
heart (John 14:15, 23; Gal. 5:6). They are the fruits of the
Spirit (Titus 2:10-12), and thus spring from grace, which they
illustrate and strengthen in the heart.
Good works of the most sincere believers are all imperfect,
yet like their persons they are accepted through the mediation
of Jesus Christ (Col. 3:17), and so are rewarded; they have no
merit intrinsically, but are rewarded wholly of grace.
gift. (1.) One of David's valiant men (1 Chr. 11:41), the
descendant of Ahlai, of the "children of Sheshan" (2:31).
(2.) A descendant of Tahath (7:21).
(3.) The son of Shemath. He conspired against Joash, king of
Judah, and slew him (2 Chr. 24:25, 26). He is called also
Jozachar (2 Kings 12:21).
(4.) Ezra 10:27.
(5.) Ezra 10:33.
(6.) Ezra 10:43.
was instituted in Paradise when man was in innocence (Gen.
2:18-24). Here we have its original charter, which was confirmed
by our Lord, as the basis on which all regulations are to be
framed (Matt. 19:4, 5). It is evident that monogamy was the
original law of marriage (Matt. 19:5; 1 Cor. 6:16). This law was
violated in after times, when corrupt usages began to be
introduced (Gen. 4:19; 6:2). We meet with the prevalence of
polygamy and concubinage in the patriarchal age (Gen. 16:1-4;
22:21-24; 28:8, 9; 29:23-30, etc.). Polygamy was acknowledged in
the Mosaic law and made the basis of legislation, and continued
to be practised all down through the period of Jewish histroy to
the Captivity, after which there is no instance of it on record.
It seems to have been the practice from the beginning for
fathers to select wives for their sons (Gen. 24:3; 38:6).
Sometimes also proposals were initiated by the father of the
maiden (Ex. 2:21). The brothers of the maiden were also
sometimes consulted (Gen. 24:51; 34:11), but her own consent was
not required. The young man was bound to give a price to the
father of the maiden (31:15; 34:12; Ex. 22:16, 17; 1 Sam. 18:23,
25; Ruth 4:10; Hos. 3:2) On these patriarchal customs the Mosaic
law made no change.
In the pre-Mosaic times, when the proposals were accepted and
the marriage price given, the bridegroom could come at once and
take away his bride to his own house (Gen. 24:63-67). But in
general the marriage was celebrated by a feast in the house of
the bride's parents, to which all friends were invited (29:22,
27); and on the day of the marriage the bride, concealed under a
thick veil, was conducted to her future husband's home.
Our Lord corrected many false notions then existing on the
subject of marriage (Matt. 22:23-30), and placed it as a divine
institution on the highest grounds. The apostles state clearly
and enforce the nuptial duties of husband and wife (Eph.
5:22-33; Col. 3:18, 19; 1 Pet. 3:1-7). Marriage is said to be
"honourable" (Heb. 13:4), and the prohibition of it is noted as
one of the marks of degenerate times (1 Tim. 4:3).
The marriage relation is used to represent the union between
God and his people (Isa. 54:5; Jer. 3:1-14; Hos. 2:9, 20). In
the New Testament the same figure is employed in representing
the love of Christ to his saints (Eph. 5:25-27). The Church of
the redeemed is the "Bride, the Lamb's wife" (Rev. 19:7-9).