Fall of man
an expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of
Wisdom, to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents
from God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and
all their posterity were involved.
The history of the Fall is recorded in Gen. 2 and 3. That
history is to be literally interpreted. It records facts which
underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It is referred to
by our Lord and his apostles not only as being true, but as
furnishing the ground of all God's subsequent dispensations and
dealings with the children of men. The record of Adam's
temptation and fall must be taken as a true historical account,
if we are to understand the Bible at all as a revelation of
God's purpose of mercy.
The effects of this first sin upon our first parents
themselves were (1) "shame, a sense of degradation and
pollution; (2) dread of the displeasure of God, or a sense of
guilt, and the consequent desire to hide from his presence.
These effects were unavoidable. They prove the loss not only of
innocence but of original righteousness, and, with it, of the
favour and fellowship of God. The state therefore to which Adam
was reduced by his disobedience, so far as his subjective
condition is concerned, was analogous to that of the fallen
angels. He was entirely and absolutely ruined" (Hodge's
But the unbelief and disobedience of our first parents brought
not only on themselves this misery and ruin, it entailed also
the same sad consequences on all their descendants. (1.) The
guilt, i.e., liability to punishment, of that sin comes by
imputation upon all men, because all were represented by Adam in
the covenant of works (q.v.). (See IMPUTATION ¯T0001878.)
(2.) Hence, also, all his descendants inherit a corrupt
nature. In all by nature there is an inherent and prevailing
tendency to sin. This universal depravity is taught by universal
experience. All men sin as soon as they are capable of moral
actions. The testimony of the Scriptures to the same effect is
most abundant (Rom. 1; 2; 3:1-19, etc.).
(3.) This innate depravity is total: we are by nature "dead in
trespasses and sins," and must be "born again" before we can
enter into the kingdom (John 3:7, etc.).
(4.) Resulting from this "corruption of our whole nature" is
our absolute moral inability to change our nature or to obey the
law of God.
Commenting on John 9:3, Ryle well remarks: "A deep and
instructive principle lies in these words. They surely throw
some light on that great question, the origin of evil. God has
thought fit to allow evil to exist in order that he may have a
platform for showing his mercy, grace, and compassion. If man
had never fallen there would have been no opportunity of showing
divine mercy. But by permitting evil, mysterious as it seems,
God's works of grace, mercy, and wisdom in saving sinners have
been wonderfully manifested to all his creatures. The redeeming
of the church of elect sinners is the means of 'showing to
principalities and powers the manifold wisdom of God' (Eph.
3:10). Without the Fall we should have known nothing of the
Cross and the Gospel."
On the monuments of Egypt are found representations of a deity
in human form, piercing with a spear the head of a serpent. This
is regarded as an illustration of the wide dissemination of the
tradition of the Fall. The story of the "golden age," which
gives place to the "iron age", the age of purity and innocence,
which is followed by a time when man becomes a prey to sin and
misery, as represented in the mythology of Greece and Rome, has
also been regarded as a tradition of the Fall.
is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of
God" (1 John 3:4; Rom. 4:15), in the inward state and habit of
the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether
by omission or commission (Rom. 6:12-17; 7:5-24). It is "not a
mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system
of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral
governor who vindicates his law with penalties. The soul that
sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile
and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and
calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it
two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and
(2) pollution (macula).", Hodge's Outlines.
The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the
moral state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit
of the soul that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin
(Rom. 6:12-17; Gal. 5:17; James 1:14, 15).
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such
to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to
enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it,
however, in no way makes God the author of sin.
Adam's sin (Gen. 3:1-6) consisted in his yielding to the
assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It
involved in it, (1) the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a
liar; and (2) the guilt of disobedience to a positive command.
By this sin he became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms
against his Creator. He lost the favour of God and communion
with him; his whole nature became depraved, and he incurred the
penalty involved in the covenant of works.
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all
mankind, the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death
in sin and corrupted nature were conveyed to all their
posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation." Adam
was constituted by God the federal head and representative of
all his posterity, as he was also their natural head, and
therefore when he fell they fell with him (Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor.
15:22-45). His probation was their probation, and his fall their
fall. Because of Adam's first sin all his posterity came into
the world in a state of sin and condemnation, i.e., (1) a state
of moral corruption, and (2) of guilt, as having judicially
imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin.
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only
the moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men
from Adam. This inherited moral corruption consists in, (1) the
loss of original righteousness; and (2) the presence of a
constant proneness to evil, which is the root and origin of all
actual sin. It is called "sin" (Rom. 6:12, 14, 17; 7:5-17), the
"flesh" (Gal. 5:17, 24), "lust" (James 1:14, 15), the "body of
sin" (Rom. 6:6), "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation
from the life of God" (Eph. 4:18, 19). It influences and
depraves the whole man, and its tendency is still downward to
deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no recuperative
element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it is also
universally inherited by all the natural descendants of Adam
(Rom. 3:10-23; 5:12-21; 8:7). Pelagians deny original sin, and
regard man as by nature morally and spiritually well;
semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as
they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as described above,
spiritually dead (Eph. 2:1; 1 John 3:14).
The doctrine of original sin is proved, (1.) From the fact of
the universal sinfulness of men. "There is no man that sinneth
not" (1 Kings 8:46; Isa. 53:6; Ps. 130:3; Rom. 3:19, 22, 23;
Gal. 3:22). (2.) From the total depravity of man. All men are
declared to be destitute of any principle of spiritual life;
man's apostasy from God is total and complete (Job 15:14-16;
Gen. 6:5,6). (3.) From its early manifestation (Ps. 58:3; Prov.
22:15). (4.) It is proved also from the necessity, absolutely
and universally, of regeneration (John 3:3; 2 Cor. 5:17). (5.)
From the universality of death (Rom. 5:12-20).
Various kinds of sin are mentioned, (1.) "Presumptuous sins,"
or as literally rendered, "sins with an uplifted hand", i.e.,
defiant acts of sin, in contrast with "errors" or
"inadvertencies" (Ps. 19:13). (2.) "Secret", i.e., hidden sins
(19:12); sins which escape the notice of the soul. (3.) "Sin
against the Holy Ghost" (q.v.), or a "sin unto death" (Matt.
12:31, 32; 1 John 5:16), which amounts to a wilful rejection of
Sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which
means, as does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so
called from the abundance of clay found there. It is called by
Ezekel (Ezek. 30:15) "the strength of Egypt, "thus denoting its
importance as a fortified city. It has been identified with the
modern Tineh, "a miry place," where its ruins are to be found.
Of its boasted magnificence only four red granite columns
remain, and some few fragments of others.
builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The
prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1 Kings 22:26; 2
(2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He
restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had
cast down. Zephaniah (1:4; 3:4, 11) refers to the moral
depravity prevailing in this king's reign.
He was assassinated (2 Kings 21:18-26: 2 Chr. 33:20-25) by his
own servants, who conspired against him.
(3.) An Egyptian god, usually depicted with a human body and
the head of a ram, referred to in Jer. 46:25, where the word
"multitudes" in the Authorized Version is more appropriately
rendered "Amon" in the Revised Version. In Nah. 3:8 the
expression "populous No" of the Authorized version is rendered
in the Revised Version "No-amon." Amon is identified with Ra,
the sun-god of Heliopolis.
(4.) Neh. 7:59.
man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and
fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the
mentioned only in Luke 14:2. The man afflicted with it was cured
by Christ on the Sabbath.
man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together
constituted Aram (2 Sam. 10:6,8).
a man of Teman, the designation of Eliphaz, one of Job's three
friends (Job 2:11; 22:1).
a man of Timnah. Samson's father-in-law is so styled (Judg.
(1 Sam. 17:4, 23), properly "the man between the two," denoting
the position of Goliath between the two camps. Single combats of
this kind at the head of armies were common in ancient times. In
ver. 51 this word is the rendering of a different Hebrew word,
and properly denotes "a mighty man."
First-born, Sanctification of the
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man
and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and
of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest
(Ex. 19:22, 24), representing the family to which he belonged,
and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4).
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the
whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a
husband (Matt. 1:16, 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was
exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7; 24:5).
man of the dart, the son of Enoch, and grandfather of Noah. He
was the oldest man of whom we have any record, dying at the age
of nine hundred and sixty-nine years, in the year of the Flood
(Gen. 5:21-27; 1 Chr. 1:3).
son of the tongue; i.e., "eloquent", a man of some note who
returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2; Neh.
a lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple
porters in the time of David (1 Chr. 26:7). He was a "mighty man
lord of Shalisha, a place from which a man came with provisions
for Elisha, apparently not far from Gilgal (2 Kings 4:42). It
has been identified with Sirisia, 13 miles north of Lydda.
illustrious, or the well-man. (1.) The father of Judith, one of
the wives of Esau (Gen. 26:34), the same as Adah (Gen. 36:2).
(2.) The father of the prophet Hosea (1:1).
occurs in Authorized Version, James 5:16. The Revised Version
renders appropriately: "The supplication of a righteous man
availeth much in its working", i.e., "it moves the hand of Him
who moves the world."
man of Baal, the fourth son of king Saul (1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). He
is also called Ish-bosheth (q.v.), 2 Sam. 2:8.
a valiant man, (1 Kings 4:19), one of Solomon's purveyors,
having jurisdiction over a part of Gilead, comprising all the
kingdom of Sihon and part of the kingdom of Og (Deut. 2; 31).
in man is not a mere passive quality, but the deliberate
preference of right to wrong, the firm and persistent resistance
of all moral evil, and the choosing and following of all moral
(1 Cor. 12:28), the powers which fit a man for a place of
influence in the church; "the steersman's art; the art of
guiding aright the vessel of church or state."
champion of El; man of God, a descendant of Cain (Gen. 4:18), so
called, perhaps, to denote that even among the descendants of
Cain God had not left himself without a witness.
Heb. 'arar, (Jer. 17:6; 48:6), a species of juniper called by
the Arabs by the same name ('arar), the Juniperus sabina or
savin. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like
leaves pressed close to its gnarled stem, and cropped close by
the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives
great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet, between
him that trusteth in man, naked and destitute, and the man that
trusteth in the Lord, flourishing as a tree planted by the
waters" (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible).
Man of sin
a designation of Antichrist given in 2 Thess. 2:3-10, usually
regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever
these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal
and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the
man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or
potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist."
"the chief man of the island" of Malta (Acts 28:7), who
courteously entertained Paul and his shipwrecked companions for
three days, till they found a more permanent place of residence;
for they remained on the island for three months, till the
stormy season had passed. The word here rendered "chief man"
(protos) is supposed by some to be properly a Maltese term, the
official title of the governor.
(1.) Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper name of the first man. The
name is derived from a word meaning "to be red," and thus the
first man was called Adam because he was formed from the red
earth. It is also the generic name of the human race (Gen. 1:26,
27; 5:2; 8:21; Deut. 8:3). Its equivalents are the Latin homo
and the Greek anthropos (Matt. 5:13, 16). It denotes also man in
opposition to woman (Gen. 3:12; Matt. 19:10).
(2.) Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes
properly a man in opposition to a woman (1 Sam. 17:33; Matt.
14:21); a husband (Gen. 3:16; Hos. 2:16); man with reference to
excellent mental qualities.
(3.) Heb. 'enosh, man as mortal, transient, perishable (2 Chr.
14:11; Isa. 8:1; Job 15:14; Ps. 8:4; 9:19, 20; 103:15). It is
applied to women (Josh. 8:25).
(4.) Heb. geber, man with reference to his strength, as
distinguished from women (Deut. 22:5) and from children (Ex.
12:37); a husband (Prov. 6:34).
(5.) Heb. methim, men as mortal (Isa. 41:14), and as opposed
to women and children (Deut. 3:6; Job 11:3; Isa. 3:25).
Man was created by the immediate hand of God, and is
generically different from all other creatures (Gen. 1:26, 27;
2:7). His complex nature is composed of two elements, two
distinct substances, viz., body and soul (Gen. 2:7; Eccl. 12:7;
2 Cor. 5:1-8).
The words translated "spirit" and "soul," in 1 Thess. 5:23,
Heb. 4:12, are habitually used interchangeably (Matt. 10:28;
16:26; 1 Pet. 1:22). The "spirit" (Gr. pneuma) is the soul as
rational; the "soul" (Gr. psuche) is the same, considered as the
animating and vital principle of the body.
Man was created in the likeness of God as to the perfection of
his nature, in knowledge (Col. 3:10), righteousness, and
holiness (Eph. 4:24), and as having dominion over all the
inferior creatures (Gen. 1:28). He had in his original state
God's law written on his heart, and had power to obey it, and
yet was capable of disobeying, being left to the freedom of his
own will. He was created with holy dispositions, prompting him
to holy actions; but he was fallible, and did fall from his
integrity (3:1-6). (See FALL ¯T0001304.)
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present
when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts
(2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of
Christ (Mark 15:21).
(3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar
raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put
him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably
intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no
sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is
possible that this man was the same as the following.
(4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated
certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim.
4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience.
Paul excommunicated him (1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).
anklet, Caleb's only daughter (1 Chr. 2:49). She was offered in
marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of
Debir, or Kirjath-sepher. This was done by Othniel (q.v.), who
accordingly obtained her as his wife (Josh. 15:16-19; Judg.
strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2, 20;
20:1; Isa. 1:1; 2:1). As to his personal history little is
positively known. He is supposed by some to have been the "man
of God" spoken of in 2 Chr. 25:7, 8.
in Isa. 32:5 (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In 1 Sam.
25:3, the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and
ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, "hard." The same
Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Matt. 25:24, and
there is rendered "hard."
whom God cares for. (1.) One of David's sons born after his
establishment in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:16).
(2.) A mighty man of war, a Benjamite (2 Chr. 17:17).
(3.) An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that
troubled Solomon (1 Kings 11:23).
(of Philippi), Acts 16:23. The conversion of the Roman jailer, a
man belonging to a class "insensible as a rule and hardened by
habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the
bearers of the message of the gospel," is one of those cases
which illustrate its universality and power.
(whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib. (1.) The founder of one of
the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10).
(2.) Neh. 11:5; a descendant of Judah.
(3.) Neh. 12:6.
(4.) Ezra 8:16, a "man of understanding" whom Ezra sent to
"bring ministers for the house of God."
=Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the
Rechabites (q.v.), 2 Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, 10.
(2.) The son of Shimeah, David's brother (2 Sam. 13:3). He was
"a very subtil man."
the kidneys, the supposed seat of the desires and affections;
used metaphorically for "heart." The "reins" and the "heart" are
often mentioned together, as denoting the whole moral
constitution of man (Ps. 7:9; 16:7; 26:2; 139:13; Jer. 17:10,
watchman. (1.) The mother of Jehozabad, who murdered Joash (2
Kings 12:21); called also Shimrith, a Moabitess (2 Chr. 24:26).
(2.) A man of Asher (1 Chr. 7:32); called also Shamer (34).
building of Jehovah, the son of Ginath, a man of some position,
whom a considerable number of the people chose as monarch. For
the period of four years he contended for the throne with Omri
(1 Kings 16:21, 22), who at length gained the mastery, and
became sole monarch of Israel.
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into
union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and
man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he
of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united
to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb.
2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is
hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed
or confounded, and it is perpetual.
the strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from
Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of
marriage (Gen. 4:18-24). His address to his two wives, Adah and
Zillah (4:23, 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian
poetry. It has been called "Lamech's sword-song." He was "rude
and ruffianly," fearing neither God nor man. With him the
curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his
(2.) The seventh in descent from Seth, being the only son of
Methuselah. Noah was the oldest of his several sons (Gen.
5:25-31; Luke 3:36).
a "prudent man" (R.V., "man of understanding"), the deputy
(R.V., "proconsul") of Cyprus (Acts 13:6-13). He became a
convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on
his first mission to the heathen.
A remarkable memorial of this proconsul was recently (1887)
discovered at Rome. On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is
found, among others, as having been appointed (A.D. 47) one of
the curators of the banks and the channel of the river Tiber.
After serving his three years as proconsul at Cyprus, he
returned to Rome, where he held the office referred to. As he is
not saluted in Paul's letter to the Romans, he probably died
before it was written.
Son of man
(1.) Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their
weakness and frailty (Job 25:6; Ps. 8:4; 144:3; 146:3; Isa.
(2.) It is a title frequently given to the prophet Ezekiel,
probably to remind him of his human weakness.
(3.) In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a
distinctive title of the Saviour. In the Old Testament it is
used only in Ps. 80:17 and Dan. 7:13 with this application. It
denotes the true humanity of our Lord. He had a true body (Heb.
2:14; Luke 24:39) and a rational soul. He was perfect man.
life; living, the name given by Adam to his wife (Gen. 3:20;
4:1). The account of her creation is given in Gen. 2:21, 22. The
Creator, by declaring that it was not good for man to be alone,
and by creating for him a suitable companion, gave sanction to
monogamy. The commentator Matthew Henry says: "This companion
was taken from his side to signify that she was to be dear unto
him as his own flesh. Not from his head, lest she should rule
over him; nor from his feet, lest he should tyrannize over her;
but from his side, to denote that species of equality which is
to subsist in the marriage state." And again, "That wife that is
of God's making by special grace, and of God's bringing by
special providence, is likely to prove a helpmeet to her
husband." Through the subtle temptation of the serpent she
violated the commandment of God by taking of the forbidden
fruit, which she gave also unto her husband (1 Tim. 2:13-15; 2
Cor. 11:3). When she gave birth to her first son, she said, "I
have gotten a man from the Lord" (R.V., "I have gotten a man
with the help of the Lord," Gen. 4:1). Thus she welcomed Cain,
as some think, as if he had been the Promised One the "Seed of
a solemn appeal to God, permitted on fitting occasions (Deut.
6:13; Jer. 4:2), in various forms (Gen. 16:5; 2 Sam. 12:5; Ruth
1:17; Hos. 4:15; Rom. 1:9), and taken in different ways (Gen.
14:22; 24:2; 2 Chr. 6:22). God is represented as taking an oath
(Heb. 6:16-18), so also Christ (Matt. 26:64), and Paul (Rom.
9:1; Gal. 1:20; Phil. 1:8). The precept, "Swear not at all,"
refers probably to ordinary conversation between man and man
(Matt. 5:34,37). But if the words are taken as referring to
oaths, then their intention may have been to show "that the
proper state of Christians is to require no oaths; that when
evil is expelled from among them every yea and nay will be as
decisive as an oath, every promise as binding as a vow."
(Heb. ruah; Gr. pneuma), properly wind or breath. In 2 Thess.
2:8 it means "breath," and in Eccl. 8:8 the vital principle in
man. It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is
distinguished (Acts 7:59; 1 Cor. 5:5; 6:20; 7:34), and the soul
in its separate state (Heb. 12:23), and hence also an apparition
(Job 4:15; Luke 24:37, 39), an angel (Heb. 1:14), and a demon
(Luke 4:36; 10:20). This word is used also metaphorically as
denoting a tendency (Zech. 12:10; Luke 13:11).
In Rom. 1:4, 1 Tim. 3:16, 2 Cor. 3:17, 1 Pet. 3:18, it
designates the divine nature.
the place in which armour was deposited when not used (Neh.
3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own
arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or
magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large
collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his
tabernacle (1 Sa,. 21:9; 2 Sam. 8:7-12; 1 Chr. 26:26, 27).
man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God. (1.) The son of
Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Gen.
22:22, 23; 24:15, 24, 47). He appears in person only once
(2.) A southern city of Judah (1 Chr. 4:30); called also
Bethul (Josh. 19:4) and Bethel (12:16; 1 Sam. 30:27).
to promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when
they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year
or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman
was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was
betrothed (Deut. 28:30; Judg. 14:2, 8; Matt. 1:18-21). The term
is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God
and his people (Hos. 2:19, 20).
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or
service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were
thus consecrated (Ex. 13:2, 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews
devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of
war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, 29). According to the Mosaic law
the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God.
In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated
to the Lord (1 Pet. 2:9).
a centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a
"devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in
the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him
into contact with Jews who communicated to him their
expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to
welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit
of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized
and admitted into the Christian church (Acts 10:1, 44-48). (See
A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Lev.
22:28; Ex. 23:19; Deut. 22:6, 7). The reason for this enactment
is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words
of Isa. 7:21-25, where, instead of possessing great resources, a
man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family
on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.
little fish; diminutive from dag = a fish, the fish-god; the
national god of the Philistines (Judg. 16:23). This idol had the
body of a fish with the head and hands of a man. It was an
Assyrio-Babylonian deity, the worship of which was introduced
among the Philistines through Chaldea. The most famous of the
temples of Dagon were at Gaza (Judg. 16:23-30) and Ashdod (1
Sam. 5:1-7). (See FISH ¯T0001343.)
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the
Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the
days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with
his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of
Moab. There he and his sons died (Ruth 1:2,3; 2:1,3; 4:3,9).
Naomi afterwards returned to Israel with her daughter Ruth.
man the son of Seth, and grandson of Adam (Gen. 5:6-11; Luke
3:38). He lived nine hundred and five years. In his time "men
began to call upon the name of the Lord" (Gen. 4:26), meaning
either (1) then began men to call themselves by the name of the
Lord (marg.) i.e., to distinguish themselves thereby from
idolaters; or (2) then men in some public and earnest way began
to call upon the Lord, indicating a time of spiritual revival.
the Greek form of a Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic word, meaning "Be
opened," uttered by Christ when healing the man who was deaf and
dumb (Mark 7:34). It is one of the characteristics of Mark that
he uses the very Aramaic words which fell from our Lord's lips.
(See 3:17; 5:41; 7:11; 14:36; 15:34.)
fortunate, (Acts 20:9-12), a young man of Troas who fell through
drowsiness from the open window of the third floor of the house
where Paul was preaching, and was "taken up dead." The
lattice-work of the window being open to admit the air, the lad
fell out and down to the court below. Paul restored him to life
again. (Comp. 1 Kings 17:21; 2 Kings 4:34.)
Merodach's man, the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, king of
Babylon (2 Kings 25:27; Jer. 52:31, 34). He seems to have
reigned but two years (B.C. 562-560). Influenced probably by
Daniel, he showed kindness to Jehoiachin, who had been a
prisoner in Babylon for thirty-seven years. He released him, and
"spoke kindly to him." He was murdered by
Nergal-sharezer=Neriglissar, his brother-in-law, who succeeded
him (Jer. 39:3, 13).
a nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal
Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on
the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had
a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL ¯T0000554.)
(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26)
by "a man who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is
identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.
(Gr. basilikos, i.e., "king's man"), an officer of state (John
4:49) in the service of Herod Antipas. He is supposed to have
been the Chuza, Herod's steward, whose wife was one of those
women who "ministered unto the Lord of their substance" (Luke
8:3). This officer came to Jesus at Cana and besought him to go
down to Capernaum and heal his son, who lay there at the point
of death. Our Lord sent him away with the joyful assurance that
his son was alive.
hairy one. Mentioned in Greek mythology as a creature composed
of a man and a goat, supposed to inhabit wild and desolate
regions. The Hebrew word is rendered also "goat" (Lev. 4:24) and
"devil", i.e., an idol in the form of a goat (17:7; 2 Chr.
11:15). When it is said (Isa. 13:21; comp. 34:14) "the satyrs
shall dance there," the meaning is that the place referred to
shall become a desolate waste. Some render the Hebrew word
"baboon," a species of which is found in Babylonia.
(Heb. beer), to be distinguished from a fountain (Heb. 'ain). A
"beer" was a deep shaft, bored far under the rocky surface by
the art of man, which contained water which percolated through
the strata in its sides. Such wells were those of Jacob and
Beersheba, etc. (see Gen. 21:19, 25, 30, 31; 24:11; 26:15,
18-25, 32, etc.). In the Pentateuch this word beer, so rendered,
occurs twenty-five times.
the name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the
rank of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom (Gen.
41:45). This is a pure Egyptian word, and has been variously
explained. Some think it means "creator," or "preserver of
life." Brugsch interprets it as "governor of the district of the
place of life", i.e., of Goshen, the chief city of which was
Pithom, "the place of life." Others explain it as meaning "a
revealer of secrets," or "the man to whom secrets are revealed."
a Galilean fisherman, the husband of Salome (q.v.), and the
father of James and John, two of our Lord's disciples (Matt.
4:21; 27:56; Mark 15:40). He seems to have been a man of some
position in Capernaum, for he had two boats (Luke 5:4) and
"hired servants" (Mark 1:20) of his own. No mention is made of
him after the call of his two sons by Jesus.
red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the
same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages. It was
the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and
subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in
the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27-ch. 5). "God created man
[Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he
him; male and female created he them."
Adam was absolutely the first man whom God created. He was
formed out of the dust of the earth (and hence his name), and
God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and gave him
dominion over all the lower creatures (Gen. 1:26; 2:7). He was
placed after his creation in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate
it, and to enjoy its fruits under this one prohibition: "Of the
tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it;
for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."
The first recorded act of Adam was his giving names to the
beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, which God brought
to him for this end. Thereafter the Lord caused a deep sleep to
fall upon him, and while in an unconscious state took one of his
ribs, and closed up his flesh again; and of this rib he made a
woman, whom he presented to him when he awoke. Adam received her
as his wife, and said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh
of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken
out of Man." He called her Eve, because she was the mother of
Being induced by the tempter in the form of a serpent to eat
the forbidden fruit, Eve persuaded Adam, and he also did eat.
Thus man fell, and brought upon himself and his posterity all
the sad consequences of his transgression. The narrative of the
Fall comprehends in it the great promise of a Deliverer (Gen.
3:15), the "first gospel" message to man. They were expelled
from Eden, and at the east of the garden God placed a flame,
which turned every way, to prevent access to the tree of life
(Gen. 3). How long they were in Paradise is matter of mere
Shortly after their expulsion Eve brought forth her
first-born, and called him Cain. Although we have the names of
only three of Adam's sons, viz., Cain, Abel, and Seth, yet it is
obvious that he had several sons and daughters (Gen. 5:4). He
died aged 930 years.
Adam and Eve were the progenitors of the whole human race.
Evidences of varied kinds are abundant in proving the unity of
the human race. The investigations of science, altogether
independent of historical evidence, lead to the conclusion that
God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on
all the face of the earth" (Acts 17:26. Comp. Rom. 5:12-12; 1
conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit
intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a
woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and
an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a
great social wrong, as well as a great sin.
The Mosaic law (Num. 5:11-31) prescribed that the suspected
wife should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of jealousy."
There is, however, no recorded instance of the application of
this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various
regulations with the view of discovering the guilty party, and
of bringing about a divorce. It has been inferred from John
8:1-11 that this sin became very common during the age preceding
the destruction of Jerusalem.
Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery
spiritually (Jer. 3:6, 8, 9; Ezek. 16:32; Hos. 1:2:3; Rev.
2:22). An apostate church is an adulteress (Isa. 1:21; Ezek.
23:4, 7, 37), and the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation"
(Matt. 12:39). (Comp. Rev. 12.)
(1.) In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word
_adamah'_. In Gen. 9:20 "husbandman" is literally "man of the
ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth (Ex. 20:24).
Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (2 Kings 5:17),
under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of
the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own
(2). As the rendering of _'erets_, it means the whole world
(Gen. 1:2); the land as opposed to the sea (1:10). _Erets_ also
denotes a country (21:32); a plot of ground (23:15); the ground
on which a man stands (33:3); the inhabitants of the earth (6:1;
11:1); all the world except Israel (2 Chr. 13:9). In the New
Testament "the earth" denotes the land of Judea (Matt. 23:35);
also things carnal in contrast with things heavenly (John 3:31;
Col. 3:1, 2).
the Greek rendering of the Hebrew _Koheleth_, which means
"Preacher." The old and traditional view of the authorship of
this book attributes it to Solomon. This view can be
satisfactorily maintained, though others date it from the
Captivity. The writer represents himself implicitly as Solomon
(1:12). It has been appropriately styled The Confession of King
Solomon. "The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to
selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin
in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this
been under the discipline of a divine education, and has learned
from it the lesson which God meant to teach him." "The writer
concludes by pointing out that the secret of a true life is that
a man should consecrate the vigour of his youth to God." The
key-note of the book is sounded in ch. 1:2,
"Vanity of vanities! saith the Preacher,
Vanity of vanities! all is vanity!"
i.e., all man's efforts to find happiness apart from God are
First-born, Redemption of
From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family
belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of
sacrificial worship was introduced, requiring a company of men
to be exclusively devoted to this ministry, the primitive office
of the first-born was superseded by that of the Levites (Num.
3:11-13), and it was ordained that the first-born of man and of
unclean animals should henceforth be redeemed (18:15).
The laws concerning this redemption of the first-born of man
are recorded in Ex. 13:12-15; 22:29; 34:20; Num. 3:45; 8:17;
18:16; Lev. 12:2, 4.
The first-born male of every clean animal was to be given up
to the priest for sacrifice (Deut. 12:6; Ex. 13:12; 34:20; Num.
But the first-born of unclean animals was either to be
redeemed or sold and the price given to the priest (Lev.
27:11-13, 27). The first-born of an ass, if not redeemed, was to
be put to death (Ex. 13:13; 34:20).
a name applied to the Israelites in Scripture only by one who is
a foreigner (Gen. 39:14, 17; 41:12, etc.), or by the Israelites
when they speak of themselves to foreigners (40:15; Ex. 1:19),
or when spoken of an contrasted with other peoples (Gen. 43:32;
Ex. 1:3, 7, 15; Deut. 15:12). In the New Testament there is the
same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners (Acts 6:1; Phil.
Derivation. (1.) The name is derived, according to some, from
Eber (Gen. 10:24), the ancestor of Abraham. The Hebrews are
"sons of Eber" (10:21).
(2.) Others trace the name of a Hebrew root-word signifying
"to pass over," and hence regard it as meaning "the man who
passed over," viz., the Euphrates; or to the Hebrew word meaning
"the region" or "country beyond," viz., the land of Chaldea.
This latter view is preferred. It is the more probable origin of
the designation given to Abraham coming among the Canaanites as
a man from beyond the Euphrates (Gen. 14:13).
(3.) A third derivation of the word has been suggested, viz.,
that it is from the Hebrew word _'abhar_, "to pass over," whence
_'ebher_, in the sense of a "sojourner" or "passer through" as
distinct from a "settler" in the land, and thus applies to the
condition of Abraham (Heb. 11:13).
Herod Agrippa I.
son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great.
He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias
II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his
grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the
apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison
(Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1-19). On the second day of a festival held
in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great
theatre of Caesarea. "The king came in clothed in magnificent
robes, of which silver was the costly brilliant material. It was
early in the day, and the sun's rays fell on the king, so that
the eyes of the beholders were dazzled with the brightness which
surrounded him. Voices here and there from the crowd exclaimed
that it was the apparition of something divine. And when he
spoke and made an oration to them, they gave a shout, saying,
'It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.' But in the midst
of this idolatrous ostentation an angel of God suddenly smote
him. He was carried out of the theatre a dying man." He died
(A.D. 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his
grandfather (Acts. 12:21-23), in the fifty-fourth year of his
age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king
over the whole of Israel. After his death his kingdom came
under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Israel was now
fully incorporated with the empire.
a name employed in the New Testament with reference to Abraham
(Heb. 7:4), the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8, 9), and to David
(2:29). This name is generally applied to the progenitors of
families or "heads of the fathers" (Josh. 14:1) mentioned in
Scripture, and they are spoken of as antediluvian (from Adam to
Noah) and post-diluvian (from Noah to Jacob) patriachs. But the
expression "the patriarch," by way of eminence, is applied to
the twelve sons of Jacob, or to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
"Patriachal longevity presents itself as one of the most
striking of the facts concerning mankind which the early history
of the Book of Genesis places before us...There is a large
amount of consentient tradition to the effect that the life of
man was originally far more prolonged than it is at present,
extending to at least several hundred years. The Babylonians,
Egyptians, and Chinese exaggerated these hundreds into
thousands. The Greeks and Romans, with more moderation, limited
human life within a thousand or eight hundred years. The Hindus
still farther shortened the term. Their books taught that in the
first age of the world man was free from diseases, and lived
ordinarily four hundred years; in the second age the term of
life was reduced from four hundred to three hundred; in the
third it became two hundred; in the fourth and last it was
brought down to one hundred" (Rawlinson's Historical
(Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour"), the day of
rest. It is first mentioned as having been instituted in
Paradise, when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:2). "The sabbath was
made for man," as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and
of blessing to the soul.
It is next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to
the children of Israel in the wilderness (Ex. 16:23); and
afterwards, when the law was given from Sinai (20:11), the
people were solemnly charged to "remember the sabbath day, to
keep it holy." Thus it is spoken of as an institution already
In the Mosaic law strict regulations were laid down regarding
its observance (Ex. 35:2, 3; Lev. 23:3; 26:34). These were
peculiar to that dispensation.
In the subsequent history of the Jews frequent references are
made to the sanctity of the Sabbath (Isa. 56:2, 4, 6, 7; 58:13,
14; Jer. 17:20-22; Neh. 13:19). In later times they perverted
the Sabbath by their traditions. Our Lord rescued it from their
perversions, and recalled to them its true nature and intent
(Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 2:27; Luke 13:10-17).
The Sabbath, originally instituted for man at his creation, is
of permanent and universal obligation. The physical necessities
of man require a Sabbath of rest. He is so constituted that his
bodily welfare needs at least one day in seven for rest from
ordinary labour. Experience also proves that the moral and
spiritual necessities of men also demand a Sabbath of rest. "I
am more and more sure by experience that the reason for the
observance of the Sabbath lies deep in the everlasting
necessities of human nature, and that as long as man is man the
blessedness of keeping it, not as a day of rest only, but as a
day of spiritual rest, will never be annulled. I certainly do
feel by experience the eternal obligation, because of the
eternal necessity, of the Sabbath. The soul withers without it.
It thrives in proportion to its observance. The Sabbath was made
for man. God made it for men in a certain spiritual state
because they needed it. The need, therefore, is deeply hidden in
human nature. He who can dispense with it must be holy and
spiritual indeed. And he who, still unholy and unspiritual,
would yet dispense with it is a man that would fain be wiser
than his Maker" (F. W. Robertson).
The ancient Babylonian calendar, as seen from recently
recovered inscriptions on the bricks among the ruins of the
royal palace, was based on the division of time into weeks of
seven days. The Sabbath is in these inscriptions designated
Sabattu, and defined as "a day of rest for the heart" and "a day
of completion of labour."
The change of the day. Originally at creation the seventh day
of the week was set apart and consecrated as the Sabbath. The
first day of the week is now observed as the Sabbath. Has God
authorized this change? There is an obvious distinction between
the Sabbath as an institution and the particular day set apart
for its observance. The question, therefore, as to the change of
the day in no way affects the perpetual obligation of the
Sabbath as an institution. Change of the day or no change, the
Sabbath remains as a sacred institution the same. It cannot be
If any change of the day has been made, it must have been by
Christ or by his authority. Christ has a right to make such a
change (Mark 2:23-28). As Creator, Christ was the original Lord
of the Sabbath (John 1:3; Heb. 1:10). It was originally a
memorial of creation. A work vastly greater than that of
creation has now been accomplished by him, the work of
redemption. We would naturally expect just such a change as
would make the Sabbath a memorial of that greater work.
True, we can give no text authorizing the change in so many
words. We have no express law declaring the change. But there
are evidences of another kind. We know for a fact that the first
day of the week has been observed from apostolic times, and the
necessary conclusion is, that it was observed by the apostles
and their immediate disciples. This, we may be sure, they never
would have done without the permission or the authority of their
After his resurrection, which took place on the first day of
the week (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1), we never
find Christ meeting with his disciples on the seventh day. But
he specially honoured the first day by manifesting himself to
them on four separate occasions (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:34, 18-33;
John 20:19-23). Again, on the next first day of the week, Jesus
appeared to his disciples (John 20:26).
Some have calculated that Christ's ascension took place on the
first day of the week. And there can be no doubt that the
descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost was on that day (Acts
2:1). Thus Christ appears as instituting a new day to be
observed by his people as the Sabbath, a day to be henceforth
known amongst them as the "Lord's day." The observance of this
"Lord's day" as the Sabbath was the general custom of the
primitive churches, and must have had apostolic sanction (comp.
Acts 20:3-7; 1 Cor. 16:1, 2) and authority, and so the sanction
and authority of Jesus Christ.
The words "at her sabbaths" (Lam. 1:7, A.V.) ought probably to
be, as in the Revised Version, "at her desolations."
The ordinance of marriage was sanctioned in Paradise (Gen. 2:24;
Matt. 19:4-6). Monogamy was the original law under which man
lived, but polygamy early commenced (Gen. 4:19), and continued
to prevail all down through Jewish history. The law of Moses
regulated but did not prohibit polygamy. A man might have a
plurality of wives, but a wife could have only one husband. A
wife's legal rights (Ex. 21:10) and her duties (Prov. 31:10-31;
1 Tim. 5:14) are specified. She could be divorced in special
cases (Deut. 22:13-21), but could not divorce her husband.
Divorce was restricted by our Lord to the single case of
adultery (Matt. 19:3-9). The duties of husbands and wives in
their relations to each other are distinctly set forth in the
New Testament (1 Cor. 7:2-5; Eph. 5:22-33; Col. 3:18, 19; 1 Pet.
worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper
name. It is first used in Deut. 13:13. In the New Testament it
is found only in 2 Cor. 6:15, where it is used as a name of
Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated
"wicked" in Deut. 15:9; Ps. 41:8 (R.V. marg.); 101:3; Prov.
6:12, etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply
a worthless, lawless person (Judg. 19:22; 20:13; 1 Sam. 1:16;
the Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of
the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings
(Matt. 8:16; 10:1; 12:43-45) at enmity with God, and as having a
certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev. 16:14). They recognize
our Lord as the Son of God (Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong
to the number of those angels that "kept not their first
estate," "unclean spirits," "fallen angels," the angels of the
devil (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7-9). They are the "principalities
and powers" against which we must "wrestle" (Eph. 6:12).
languishing, a Philistine woman who dwelt in the valley of Sorek
(Judg. 16:4-20). She was bribed by the "lords of the
Philistines" to obtain from Samson the secret of his strength
and the means of overcoming it (Judg. 16:4-18). She tried on
three occasions to obtain from him this secret in vain. On the
fourth occasion she wrung it from him. She made him sleep upon
her knees, and then called the man who was waiting to help her;
who "cut off the seven locks of his head," and so his "strength
went from him." (See SAMSON ¯T0003208.)
God-created. (1.) The second son of Korah (Ex. 6:24), or,
according to 1 Chr. 6:22, 23, more correctly his grandson.
(2.) Another Levite of the line of Heman the singer, although
he does not seem to have performed any of the usual Levitical
offices. He was father of Samuel the prophet (1 Chr. 6:27, 34).
He was "an Ephrathite" (1 Sam. 1:1, 4, 8), but lived at Ramah, a
man of wealth and high position. He had two wives, Hannah, who
was the mother of Samuel, and Peninnah.
(1.) A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveller, and his host at
Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to the Romans (16:23). He with
his household were baptized by Paul (1 Cor. 1:14). During a
heathen outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius
and Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed
with them into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with
(2.) A man of Derbe who accompanied Paul into Asia on his last
journey to Jerusalem
(3.) A Christain of Asia Minor to whom John addressed his
third epistle (3 John 1:1).
firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth
4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight
sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase
"stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and
"root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse
was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam.
17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of
David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1
a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of
Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries
(2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry
very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was
contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them,
and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the
prophets whose writings we possess. His personal history is
mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name. It is
chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he
appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a
type of the "Son of man."
(Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent
upon Egypt (Ex. 8:16-18). They were miraculously produced from
the dust of the land. "The entomologists Kirby and Spence place
these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of
those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples
they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied
parasitic pests." The plague of lice is referred to in Ps.
Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly,
but gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the
"tick" which is much larger than lice.
In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2 Sam. 16:23, to
denote the most holy place in the temple (1 Kings 6:5, 19-23;
8:6). In 2 Sam. 16:23 it means the Word of God. A man inquired
"at the oracle of God" by means of the Urim and Thummim in the
breastplate on the high priest's ephod. In the New Testament it
is used only in the plural, and always denotes the Word of God
(Rom. 3:2; Heb. 5:12, etc.). The Scriptures are called "living
oracles" (comp. Heb. 4:12) because of their quickening power
face of God, a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the
Jordan and north of the river Jabbok. It is also called
"Peniel." Here Jacob wrestled (Gen. 32:24-32) "with a man" ("the
angel", Hos. 12:4. Jacob says of him, "I have seen God face to
face") "till the break of day."
A town was afterwards built there (Judg. 8:8; 1 Kings 12:25).
The men of this place refused to succour Gideon and his little
army when they were in pursuit of the Midianites (Judg. 8:1-21).
On his return, Gideon slew the men of this city and razed its
lofty watch-tower to the ground.
Punished by restitution, the proportions of which are noted in 2
Sam. 12:6. If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be
sold to a Hebrew master till he could pay (Ex. 22:1-4). A
night-thief might be smitten till he died, and there would be no
blood-guiltiness for him (22:2). A man-stealer was to be put to
death (21:16). All theft is forbidden (Ex. 20:15; 21:16; Lev.
19:11; Deut. 5:19; 24:7; Ps. 50:18; Zech. 5:3; Matt. 19:18; Rom.
13:9; Eph. 4:28; 1 Pet. 4:15).
pleasing to Jehovah, the "servant," the "Ammonite," who joined
with those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the
Exile (Neh. 2:10). He was a man of great influence, which he
exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to
Nehemiah "to put him in fear" (Neh. 6:17-19). "Eliashib the
priest" prepared for him during Nehemiah's absence "a chamber in
the courts of the house of God," which on his return grieved
Nehemiah sore, and therefore he "cast forth all the household
stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber" (13:7, 8).
Tree of life
stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Gen. 2:9; 3:22).
Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some
secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the
lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in
himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is
emphatically the Life (John 1:4; 14:6). Wisdom is compared to
the tree of life (Prov. 3:18). The "tree of life" spoken of in
the Book of Revelation (Rev. 2:7; 22:2, 14) is an emblem of the
joys of the celestial paradise.
(Gr. Logos), one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the
writings of John (John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1; Rev. 19:13). As such,
Christ is the revealer of God. His office is to make God known.
"No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which
is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (John
1:18). This title designates the divine nature of Christ. As the
Word, he "was in the beginning" and "became flesh." "The Word
was with God " and "was God," and was the Creator of all things
(comp. Ps.33: 6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18; Isa. 40:8).
Heb. la'anah, the Artemisia absinthium of botanists. It is noted
for its intense bitterness (Deut. 29:18; Prov. 5:4; Jer. 9:15;
Amos 5:7). It is a type of bitterness, affliction, remorse,
punitive suffering. In Amos 6:12 this Hebrew word is rendered
"hemlock" (R.V., "wormwood"). In the symbolical language of the
Apocalypse (Rev. 8:10, 11) a star is represented as falling on
the waters of the earth, causing the third part of the water to
The name by which the Greeks designated it, absinthion, means
"undrinkable." The absinthe of France is distilled from a
species of this plant. The "southernwood" or "old man,"
cultivated in cottage gardens on account of its fragrance, is
another species of it.
man-killer, or sacrifice, one of the two kings who led the vast
host of the Midianites who invaded the land of Israel, and over
whom Gideon gained a great and decisive victory (Judg. 8). Zebah
and Zalmunna had succeeded in escaping across the Jordan with a
remnant of the Midianite host, but were overtaken at Karkor,
probably in the Hauran, and routed by Gideon. The kings were
taken alive and brought back across the Jordan; and confessing
that they had personally taken part in the slaughter of Gideon's
brothers, they were put to death (comp. 1 Sam. 12:11; Isa.
10:26; Ps. 83:11).
the Graecized form of Judah. (1.) The patriarch (Matt. 1:2, 3).
(2.) Son of Simon (John 6:71; 13:2, 26), surnamed Iscariot,
i.e., a man of Kerioth (Josh. 15:25). His name is uniformly the
last in the list of the apostles, as given in the synoptic
(i.e., the first three) Gospels. The evil of his nature probably
gradually unfolded itself till "Satan entered into him" (John
13:27), and he betrayed our Lord (18:3). Afterwards he owned his
sin with "an exceeding bitter cry," and cast the money he had
received as the wages of his iniquity down on the floor of the
sanctuary, and "departed and went and hanged himself" (Matt.
27:5). He perished in his guilt, and "went unto his own place"
(Acts 1:25). The statement in Acts 1:18 that he "fell headlong
and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out,"
is in no way contrary to that in Matt. 27:5. The sucide first
hanged himself, perhaps over the valley of Hinnom, "and the rope
giving way, or the branch to which he hung breaking, he fell
down headlong on his face, and was crushed and mangled on the
rocky pavement below."
Why such a man was chosen to be an apostle we know not, but it
is written that "Jesus knew from the beginning who should betray
him" (John 6:64). Nor can any answer be satisfactorily given to
the question as to the motives that led Judas to betray his
Master. "Of the motives that have been assigned we need not care
to fix on any one as that which simply led him on. Crime is, for
the most part, the result of a hundred motives rushing with
bewildering fury through the mind of the criminal."
(3.) A Jew of Damascus (Acts 9:11), to whose house Ananias was
sent. The street called "Straight" in which it was situated is
identified with the modern "street of bazaars," where is still
pointed out the so-called "house of Judas."
(4.) A Christian teacher, surnamed Barsabas. He was sent from
Jerusalem to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the
decision of the council (Acts 15:22, 27, 32). He was a "prophet"
and a "chief man among the brethren."
one who intervenes between two persons who are at variance, with
a view to reconcile them. This word is not found in the Old
Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33, in
the word "daysman" (q.v.), marg., "umpire."
This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an
internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of
communication between two contracting parties. In this sense
Moses is called a mediator in Gal. 3:19.
Christ is the one and only mediator between God and man (1
Tim. 2:5; Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24). He makes reconciliation
between God and man by his all-perfect atoning sacrifice. Such a
mediator must be at once divine and human, divine, that his
obedience and his sufferings might possess infinite worth, and
that he might possess infinite wisdom and knowlege and power to
direct all things in the kingdoms of providence and grace which
are committed to his hands (Matt. 28:18; John 5:22, 25, 26, 27);
and human, that in his work he might represent man, and be
capable of rendering obedience to the law and satisfying the
claims of justice (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16), and that in his
glorified humanity he might be the head of a glorified Church
This office involves the three functions of prophet, priest,
and king, all of which are discharged by Christ both in his
estate of humiliation and exaltation. These functions are so
inherent in the one office that the quality appertaining to each
gives character to every mediatorial act. They are never
separated in the exercise of the office of mediator.
The offering up of sacrifices is to be regarded as a divine
institution. It did not originate with man. God himself
appointed it as the mode in which acceptable worship was to be
offered to him by guilty man. The language and the idea of
sacrifice pervade the whole Bible.
Sacrifices were offered in the ante-diluvian age. The Lord
clothed Adam and Eve with the skins of animals, which in all
probability had been offered in sacrifice (Gen. 3:21). Abel
offered a sacrifice "of the firstlings of his flock" (4:4; Heb.
11:4). A distinction also was made between clean and unclean
animals, which there is every reason to believe had reference to
the offering up of sacrifices (Gen. 7:2, 8), because animals
were not given to man as food till after the Flood.
The same practice is continued down through the patriarchal
age (Gen. 8:20; 12:7; 13:4, 18; 15:9-11; 22:1-18, etc.). In the
Mosaic period of Old Testament history definite laws were
prescribed by God regarding the different kinds of sacrifices
that were to be offered and the manner in which the offering was
to be made. The offering of stated sacrifices became indeed a
prominent and distinctive feature of the whole period (Ex.
12:3-27; Lev. 23:5-8; Num. 9:2-14). (See ALTAR ¯T0000185.)
We learn from the Epistle to the Hebrews that sacrifices had
in themselves no value or efficacy. They were only the "shadow
of good things to come," and pointed the worshippers forward to
the coming of the great High Priest, who, in the fullness of the
time, "was offered once for all to bear the sin of many."
Sacrifices belonged to a temporary economy, to a system of types
and emblems which served their purposes and have now passed
away. The "one sacrifice for sins" hath "perfected for ever them
that are sanctified."
Sacrifices were of two kinds: 1. Unbloody, such as (1)
first-fruits and tithes; (2) meat and drink-offerings; and (3)
incense. 2. Bloody, such as (1) burnt-offerings; (2)
peace-offerings; and (3) sin and trespass offerings. (See
was "taken out of man" (Gen. 2:23), and therefore the man has
the preeminence. "The head of the woman is the man;" but yet
honour is to be shown to the wife, "as unto the weaker vessel"
(1 Cor. 11:3, 8, 9; 1 Pet. 3:7). Several women are mentioned in
Scripture as having been endowed with prophetic gifts, as Miriam
(Ex. 15:20), Deborah (Judg. 4:4, 5), Huldah (2 Kings 22:14),
Noadiah (Neh. 6:14), Anna (Luke 2:36, 37), and the daughters of
Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:8, 9). Women are forbidden to
teach publicly (1 Cor. 14:34, 35; 1 Tim. 2:11, 12). Among the
Hebrews it devolved upon women to prepare the meals for the
household (Gen. 18:6; 2 Sam. 13:8), to attend to the work of
spinning (Ex. 35:26; Prov. 31:19), and making clothes (1 Sam.
2:19; Prov. 31:21), to bring water from the well (Gen. 24:15; 1
Sam. 9:11), and to care for the flocks (Gen. 29:6; Ex. 2:16).
The word "woman," as used in Matt. 15:28, John 2:4 and 20:13,
15, implies tenderness and courtesy and not disrespect. Only
where revelation is known has woman her due place of honour
assigned to her.
my Lord is Jehovah. (1.) The fourth son of David (2 Sam. 3:4).
After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he
became heir-apparent to the throne. But Solomon, a younger
brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his
father was dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But
Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon
should at once be proclaimed and admitted to the throne.
Adonijah fled and took refuge at the altar, and received pardon
for his conduct from Solomon on the condition that he showed
himself "a worthy man" (1 Kings 1:5-53). He afterwards made a
second attempt to gain the throne, but was seized and put to
death (1 Kings 2:13-25).
(2.) A Levite sent with the princes to teach the book of the
law to the inhabitants of Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).
(3.) One of the "chiefs of the people" after the Captivity
brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his
sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he
deserted David (Ps. 41:9; 55:12-14) and espoused the cause of
Absalom (2 Sam. 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to
Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of
Ahithophel (2 Sam. 15:31-37). This end was so far gained that
Ahithophel saw he had no longer any influence, and accordingly
he at once left the camp of Absalom and returned to Giloh, his
native place, where, after arranging his wordly affairs, he
hanged himself, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers
(2 Sam. 17:1-23). He was the type of Judas (Ps. 41:9).
against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The
word is used only by the apostle John. Referring to false
teachers, he says (1 John 2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 John 1:7), "Even now
are there many antichrists."
(1.) This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the
"king of fierce countenance" (Dan. 7:24, 25; 8:23-25).
(2.) It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spoken of
by our Lord (Matt. 24:5, 23, 24).
(3.) To the "man of sin" described by Paul (2 Thess. 2:3, 4,
(4.) And to the "beast from the sea" (Rev. 13:1; 17:1-18).
the capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient
world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden
period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty
(Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship
of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist
that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man."
On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts
17:15; comp. 1 Thess. 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his
famous speech (17:22-31). The altar of which Paul there speaks
as dedicated "to the [properly "an"] unknown God" (23) was
probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is
supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a
flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the
occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at
the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."
house of fish. (1.) A town in Galilee, on the west side of the
sea of Tiberias, in the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native
place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted
to by Jesus (Mark 6:45; John 1:44; 12:21). It is supposed to
have been at the modern 'Ain Tabighah, a bay to the north of
(2.) A city near which Christ fed 5,000 (Luke 9:10; comp. John
6:17; Matt. 14:15-21), and where the blind man had his sight
restored (Mark 8:22), on the east side of the lake, two miles up
the Jordan. It stood within the region of Gaulonitis, and was
enlarged by Philip the tetrarch, who called it "Julias," after
the emperor's daughter. Or, as some have supposed, there may
have been but one Bethsaida built on both sides of the lake,
near where the Jordan enters it. Now the ruins et-Tel.
a Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Mark 15:39, 44,
45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts
10:1, 22). Other centurions are mentioned in Matt. 8:5, 8, 13;
Luke 7:2, 6; Acts 21:32; 22:25, 26; 23:17, 23; 24:23; 27:1, 6,
11, 31, 43; 28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our
Lord (Matt. 27:54; Luke 23:47), and when he saw the wonders
attending it, exclaimed, "Truly this man was the Son of God."
"The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly
spoken of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the
Acts. It is interesting to compare this with the statement of
Polybius (vi. 24), that the centurions were chosen by merit, and
so were men remarkable not so much for their daring courage as
for their deliberation, constancy, and strength of mind.", Dr.
Maclear's N. T. Hist.
the rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a
foreigner (Luke 15:15; 19:14; Acts 21:39). Under the Mosaic law
non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the
Ammonites and others mentioned in Deut. 23:1-3, were admitted to
the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Ex. 12:19;
Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15; 35:15; Deut. 10:18; 14:29; 16:10, 14).
The right of citizenship under the Roman government was
granted by the emperor to individuals, and sometimes to
provinces, as a favour or as a recompense for services rendered
to the state, or for a sum of money (Acts 22:28). This "freedom"
secured privileges equal to those enjoyed by natives of Rome.
Among the most notable of these was the provision that a man
could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial (Acts
22:25, 26), or scourged (16:37). All Roman citizens had the
right of appeal to Caesar (25:11).
in the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in
a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews,
from various causes, the difference between a wife and a
concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The
concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws
recorded providing for their protection (Ex. 21:7; Deut.
21:10-14), and setting limits to the relation they sustained to
the household to which they belonged (Gen. 21:14; 25:6). They
had no authority in the family, nor could they share in the
The immediate cause of concubinage might be gathered from the
conjugal histories of Abraham and Jacob (Gen. 16;30). But in
process of time the custom of concubinage degenerated, and laws
were made to restrain and regulate it (Ex. 21:7-9).
Christianity has restored the sacred institution of marriage
to its original character, and concubinage is ranked with the
sins of fornication and adultery (Matt. 19:5-9; 1 Cor. 7:2).