And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs:
And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
Related Topics and Bible Verses
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened,
was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7).
The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still
unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in
a laver or trough for washing garments. In Cant. 7:2, a bowl or
drinking vessel, a bowl for mixing wine; in Ex. 24:6, a
sacrificial basin. (See CUP ¯T0000938.)
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs
only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough
or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the
juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here
used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage
in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly
denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS
(batsek, meaning "swelling," i.e., in fermentation). The dough
the Israelites had prepared for baking was carried away by them
out of Egypt in their kneading-troughs (Ex. 12:34, 39). In the
process of baking, the dough had to be turned (Hos. 7:8).
Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath,
Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were
trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and
(2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the
juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job
24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are
found in almost every part of Israel. They are "the only sure
relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity.
Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill
slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common
in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in
Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of
divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19, 20).
Grain reduced to the form of meal is spoken of in the time of
Abraham (Gen. 18:6). As baking was a daily necessity, grain was
also ground daily at the mills (Jer. 25:10). The flour mingled
with water was kneaded in kneading-troughs, and sometimes leaven
(Ex. 12:34) was added and sometimes omitted (Gen. 19:3). The
dough was then formed into thin cakes nine or ten inches in
diameter and baked in the oven.
Fine flour was offered by the poor as a sin-offering (Lev.
5:11-13), and also in connection with other sacrifices (Num.
among the Jews was generally made of wheat (Ex. 29:2; Judg.
6:19), though also sometimes of other grains (Gen. 14:18; Judg.
7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any
other preparation (Ruth 2:14).
Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading
troughs" (Gen. 18:6; Ex. 12:34; Jer. 7:18). The dough was mixed
with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then
baked. The bread eaten at the Passover was always unleavened
(Ex. 12:15-20; Deut. 16:3). In the towns there were public
ovens, which were much made use of for baking bread; there were
also bakers by trade (Hos. 7:4; Jer. 37:21). Their ovens were
not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was
baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a
fire, and by covering it with the embers (1 Kings 19:6). This
was probably the mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the
occasion referred to in Gen. 18:6.
In Lev. 2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread
and cakes used by the Jews. (See BAKE ¯T0000419.)
The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened
bread prepared and presented hot on the golden table every
Sabbath. They were square or oblong, and represented the twelve
tribes of Israel. The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and
were to be eaten only by the priests in the court of the
sanctuary (Ex. 25:30; Lev. 24:8; 1 Sam. 21:1-6; Matt. 12:4).
The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as
"bread of sorrows" (Ps. 127:2), "bread of tears" (80:5), i.e.,
sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they form so great
a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" (Prov. 4:17) and "of
deceit" (20:17) denote in like manner that wickedness and deceit
are a part of the daily life.
or Bason. (1.) A trough or laver (Heb. aggan') for washing (Ex.
24:6); rendered also "goblet" (Cant. 7:2) and "cups" (Isa.
(2.) A covered dish or urn (Heb. k'for) among the vessels of
the temple (1 Chr. 28:17; Ezra 1:10; 8:27).
(3.) A vase (Heb. mizrak) from which to sprinkle anything. A
metallic vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" (Amos 6:6; Zech.
9:15). The vessels of the tabernacle were of brass (Ex. 27:3),
while those of the temple were of gold (2 Chr. 4:8).
(4.) A utensil (Heb. saph) for holding the blood of the
victims (Ex. 12:22); also a basin for domestic purposes (2 Sam.
The various vessels spoken of by the names "basin, bowl,
charger, cup, and dish," cannot now be accurately distinguished.
The basin in which our Lord washed the disciples' feet (John
13:5) must have been larger and deeper than the hand-basin.