In Num. 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the "skin" of a grape. In 2
Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a "sack" for grain, as
rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, in the parable
of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree,
or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however,
that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed,
it is called "St. John's bread" and "locust tree." This tree is
in "February covered with innumerable purple-red pendent
blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods
from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a
horn (whence the Greek name keratia, meaning 'little horns'),
with a sweetish taste when still unripe. Enormous quantities of
these are gathered for sale in various towns and for
exportation." "They were eaten as food, though only by the
poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord." The bean is
called a "gerah," which is used as the name of the smallest
Hebrew weight, twenty of these making a shekel.
(Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out,"
"to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his
means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, the word means debauchees
or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, the word (pl.) is
rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version,
"gluttonous." Matt. 11:19, Luke 7:34, Greek phagos, given to
the fifth son of Cush (id.).
eloquent, the son of Eliphaz, who was Esau's eldest son (Gen.
gain, the son of Nahor (Gen. 22:22).
terror, son of Othniel (1 Chr. 4:13).
contention, the third son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).
united, or power, the third son of Simeon (Gen. 46:10).
ash or pine, the son of Jerahmeel (1 Chr. 2:25).
separated, the second son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9).
a badger, a son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:24).
the Lord protects, a Levite, son of Uzziel (Ex. 6:22).
son of my kindred; i.e., "born of incest", the son of Lot by his
youngest daughter (Gen. 19:38).
ibid. (1.) The son of Amos, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke
(2.) The son of Semei, in the same genealogy (Luke 3:26).
gift of God. (1.) The son of Levi, and father of Heli (Luke
(2.) Son of another Levi (Luke 3:29).
saved. Jehu was "the son of Jehoshaphat, the son of Nimshi" (2
Kings 9:2; comp. 1 Kings 19:16).
petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, 5, 11, 14).
(2.) A son of Arphaxad (1 Chr. 1:18).
Luke, Gospel according to
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an
eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best
sources of information within his reach, and to have written an
orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the
first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each
other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance
of the Holy Spirit.
Each writer has some things, both in matter and style,
peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common.
Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full
of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a
suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the
Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of
progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness
of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the
good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the
Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of
womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the
publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of
tolerance." The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar
(Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in
the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were
oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke
wrote for the "Hellenic world." This Gospel is indeed "rich and
"Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with
Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common
with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many
instances all three use identical language." (See MATTHEW
¯T0002442; MARK ¯T0002419; GOSPELS ¯T0001532.)
There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this
Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records
seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and
Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels
are related to each other after the following scheme. If the
contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when
compared this result is obtained:
Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences.
Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences.
Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences.
That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew,
and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same
things in very similar language.
Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of
Matthew and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He
uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20),
but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink
of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar,
"he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.
This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the
The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been
written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is
generally fixed at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written,
therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at
Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others
have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's
imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can
It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction,
if not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are
common to both; e.g., compare:
Luke 4:22; with Col. 4:6.
Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor. 2:4.
Luke 6:36; with 2 Cor. 1:3.
Luke 6:39; with Rom. 2:19.
Luke 9:56; with 2 Cor. 10:8.
Luke 10:8; with 1 Cor. 10:27.
Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15.
Luke 18:1; with 2 Thess. 1:11.
Luke 21:36; with Eph. 6:18.
Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor. 11:23-29.
Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3.
Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor. 15:5.
loving God. (1.) The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb (1 Chr.
2:9, 25, 26, etc.).
(2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (1 Chr. 24:29).
(3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer. 36:26).
son of affliction. (1.) One of Solomon's purveyors (1 Kings
(2.) Son of Hushai, another of Solomon's purveyors (1 Kings
(3.) Father of Zadok (Neh. 3:4).
=Jeho'ram. (1.) One of the kings of Israel (2 Kings 8:16, 25,
28). He was the son of Ahab.
(2.) Jehoram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the
throne of Judah (2 Kings 8:24).
strong. (1.) One of David's brothers; the sixth son of Jesse (1
(2.) A son of Jerahmeel (1 Chr. 2:25).
a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical
name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3),
perhaps his eldest son.
ample, splendid, son of Bela (1 Chr. 8:3); called also "Ard"
ornament, (Luke 3:28), the son of Cosam, and father of Melchi,
one of the progenitors of Christ.
the son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem
and do the work of the temple (Neh. 11:13).
long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim (Josh. 15:13;
21:11, Heb. _Anok_).
son of wickedness, a king of Gomorrah whom Abraham succoured in
the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).
deceitful, a town where Shelah, the son of Judah, was born (Gen.
38:5). Probably the same as Achzib (q.v.).
antelope, the youngest son of Seir the Horite, head of one of
the tribes of Idumaea (Gen. 36:21, 28, 30).
God his salvation, a son of David, 2 Sam. 5:15 = Elishama, 1
zeal of Jehovah, (Neh. 3:8) "of the goldsmiths," one whose son
helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem.
circle, the second son of Aram (Gen. 10:23), and grandson of
he twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite
(1 Chr. 1:42).
returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel (1 Chr.
snarer, the second son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25:2, 3; 1
middle land, the third "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), the name by
which the Medes are known on the Assyrian monuments.
smitten by God, the son of Irad, and father of Methusael (Gen.
my king. (1.) The son of Addi, and father of Neri (Luke 3:28).
(2.) Luke 3:24.
fulness, the son of Menan and father of Eliakim, in the
genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:31).
strife, the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah, the father of the
Midianites (Gen. 25:2; 1 Chr. 1:32).
despair, one of the four sons of Reuel, the son of Esau (Gen.
pleasantness, one of the three sons of Caleb, the son of
Jephunneh (1 Chr. 4:15).
stripped, the eight son of Joktan (Gen. 10:28); called also Ebal
(1 Chr. 1:22).
a house; tent, the fourth son of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:20).
son of Joram (Matt. 1:8); called also Uzziah (2 Kings 15:32,
strong-fisted, a son of Haman, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:9).
redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud, a prince of Naphtali (Num.
merciful, one of the descendants of Caleb, the son of Hezron (1
healed, a Benjamite, whose son Palti was one of the twelve spies
enlargement of the Lord, the son of Eliezer, and grandson of
Moses (1 Chr. 23:17; 24:21).
affection, son of Zorobabel, mentioned in the genealogy of our
Lord (Luke 3:27).
a crusher, Gomer's second son (Gen. 10:3), supposed to have been
the ancestor of the Paphlagonians.
rest, the third son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9).
watchman, the fourth son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13; 1 Chr. 7:1;
R.V., correctly, "Shimron").
gift, the son of Nathan, who was "king's friend" in the court of
Solomon (1 Kings 4:5).
memorial, a son of Jehiel (1 Chr. 8:31; 9:35); called Zechariah
robber; or dyed. (1.) A Hivite (Gen. 36:2).
(2.) A Horite, and son of Seir (Gen. 36:20).
spreading out, a son of Helem (1 Chr. 7:35), a chief of Asher.
brother (i.e., "friend") of union. (1.) A son of Bela, the son
of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:7).
(2.) Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of Judah. Chief
of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to
superintend the division of Canaan among the tribe (Num. 34:27).
a well or stream. (1.) A royal city of the Canaanites taken by
(2.) The youngest son of Gilead (Num. 26:32; 27:1).
(3.) The second son of Asher (1 Chr. 4:6).
(4.) One of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:36).
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), one of
the Levite porters.
(2.) The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put
king Jehoash to death in Millo in Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:21).
(3.) 2 Chr. 17:18.
=Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the
Rechabites (q.v.), 2 Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, 10.
(2.) The son of Shimeah, David's brother (2 Sam. 13:3). He was
"a very subtil man."
helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor
(2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of
Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
fertile land. (1.) The son of Aram, and grandson of Shem (Gen.
10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17).
(2.) One of the Horite "dukes" in the land of Edom (Gen.
(3.) The eldest son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:21,
people of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and
chief captain of the host under David (1 Chr. 27:6).
another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38).
This name is also used for his posterity (Ps. 83:7).
he has given a son, the father of the Babylonian king (2 Kings
20:12; Isa. 39:1) Merodach-baladan (q.v.).
gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion
of the four kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2, 8, 17, 21).
son of the tongue; i.e., "eloquent", a man of some note who
returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2; Neh.
the pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and
husband of Orpah, Ruth's sister (Ruth 1:2; 4:9).
help of Jehovah, the son of Chelub. He superintended, under
David, those who "did the work of the field for tillage" (1 Chr.
spared, one of the sons of Pharez, son of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5).
His descendants are called Hamulites (Num. 26:21).
made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner (1 Chr.
27:21), called Jasiel in 1 Chr. 11:47.
a Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite
Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them (Jer. 36:14, 21).
assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite
archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
(whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son
and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).
white, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Ex.
6:17; Num. 3:18, 21). (See LAADAN ¯(n/a).)
contender with Baal, (1 Chr. 8:34; 9:40), elsewhere called
Mephibosheth (2 Sam. 4:4), the son of Jonathan.
requitals. (1.) The father of Berechiah (2 Chr. 28:12).
(2.) A priest, the son of Immer (Neh. 11:13).
(1.) 2 Sam. 9:12 =MICAH (2).
(2.) The son of Zabdi, a Levite of the family of Asaph (Neh.
a lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple
porters in the time of David (1 Chr. 26:7). He was a "mighty man
garment, the son of Nashon (Ruth 4:20; Matt. 1:4, 5), possibly
the same as Salma in 1 Chr. 2:51.
extension, the son of the giant whom Sibbechai slew (2 Sam.
21:18); called also Sippai (1 Chr. 20:4).
slope; side, a town in Benjamin, where Saul and his son Jonathan
were buried (2 Sam. 21:14). It was probably Saul's birthplace.
splendour; abundance. (1.) A Simeonite prince (1 Chr. 4:37-43).
(2.) A son of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:20).
a thing swallowed. (1.) A city on the shore of the Dead Sea, not
far from Sodom, called also Zoar. It was the only one of the
five cities that was spared at Lot's intercession (Gen.
19:20,23). It is first mentioned in Gen. 14:2,8.
(2.) The eldest son of Benjamin (Num. 26:38; "Belah," Gen.
(3.) The son of Beor, and a king of Edom (Gen. 36:32, 33; 1
(4.) A son of Azaz (1 Chr. 5:8).
possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the
eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his
eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen.
5:9-14), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called
Kenan (1 Chr. 1:2).
(2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in
the Old Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."
low ground. (1.) A son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7). His descendants
are mentioned in Isa. 21:13, and Ezek. 27:15. They probably
settled among the sons of Cush, on the north-west coast of the
(2.) A son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah (1 Chr. 1:32).
His descendants settled on the Syrian borders about the
territory of Edom. They probably led a pastoral life.
heard by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief
Rechabites (Jer. 35:3).
(2.) The son of Shaphan (Ezek. 8:11).
(3.) The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by
Ezekiel (11:1) at the east gate of the temple.
(4.) A Maachathite (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8; 42:1). He is
also called Azariah (Jer. 43:2).
whom I asked of God, the son of Jeconiah (Matt. 1:12; 1 Chr.
3:17); also called the son of Neri (Luke 3:27). The probable
explanation of the apparent discrepancy is that he was the son
of Neri, the descendant of Nathan, and thus heir to the throne
of David on the death of Jeconiah (comp. Jer. 22:30).
strength of God. (1.) One of the sons of Kohath, and uncle of
Aaron (Ex. 6:18; Lev. 10:4).
(2.) A Simeonite captain (1 Chr. 4:39-43).
(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).
(4.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4); called also
(5.) A son of Jeduthan (2 Chr. 29:14).
(6.) The son of Harhaiah (Neh. 3:8).
mindful. (1.) Father of Shammua, who was one of the spies sent
out by Moses (Num. 13:4).
(2.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 24:27).
(3.) A son of Asaph, and chief of one of the courses of
singers as arranged by David (1 Chr. 25:2, 10).
(4.) Son of Imri (Neh. 3:2).
(5.) A Levite (Neh. 10:12).
(6.) The son of Mattaniah (Neh. 13:13).
to whom God is father. (1.) A Reubenite, son of Pallu (Num.
16:1, 12; 26:8, 9; Deut. 11:6).
(2.) A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the
time of the census in the wilderness (Num. 1:9; 2:7).
(3.) The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1 Sam. 16:6). It
was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to
fight Goliath (1 Sam. 17:28).
(4.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his
stronghold in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:9).
the Lord is my strength. (1.) The son of Bukki, and a descendant
of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:5, 51; Ezra 7:4).
(2.) A grandson of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2, 3).
(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).
(4.) A Benjamite, a chief in the tribe (1 Chr. 9:8).
(5.) A son of Bani. He had the oversight of the Levites after
the return from captivity (Neh. 11:22).
(6.) The head of the house of Jedaiah, one of "the chief of
the priests" (Neh. 12:19).
(7.) A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of
Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
gift of Jehovah. (1.) A son of Asahel, Joab's brother (1 Chr.
(2.) A Levite who took part as one of the teachers in the
system of national education instituted by Jehoshaphat (2 Chr.
(3.) The son of Ishmael, "the ruler of the house of Judah in
all the king's matters" (2 Chr. 19:8-11).
(4.) A son of Beriah (1 Chr. 8:15).
(5.) A Korhite porter of the Lord's house (1 Chr. 26:2). Three
or four others of this name are also mentioned.
or Abi'dah, father of knowledge; knowing, one of the five sons
of Midian, who was the son of Abraham by Keturah (1 Chr. 1:33),
and apparently the chief of an Arab tribe.
father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings
of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called
Abijah (1 Kings 15:1,7,8). (See ABIJAH ¯T0000036, 5.)
father of welfare; i.e., "fortunate." (1.) The grandson of
Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:4).
(2.) The son of Phinehas the high priest (1 Chr. 6:4,5,50;
(Adoram, 1 Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was "over the
tribute," i.e., the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to
death by the people of Israel (1 Kings 4:6; 5:14)