defiled, the father of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46).
(Mark 5:41), a Syriac or Aramaic expression, meaning, "Little
maid, arise." Peter, who was present when the miracle was
wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord, and told
them to Mark.
Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24; 1 Pet. 5:13; R.V., "Mark" (q.v.).
(1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the
epistle (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the
husband of Mary (John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is
Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.).
(2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).
an exclamation of sorrow or regret (Ps. 35:25; Isa. 1:4, 24;
Jer. 1:6; 22:18; Mark 15:29).
sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John
(Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper
a thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the
foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16).
thou hast forsaken me, one of the Aramaic words uttered by our
Lord on the cross (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34).
(Mark 6:27). Instead of the Greek word, Mark here uses a Latin
word, speculator, which literally means "a scout," "a spy," and
at length came to denote one of the armed bodyguard of the
emperor. Herod Antipas, in imitation of the emperor, had in
attendance on him a company of speculatores. They were sometimes
employed as executioners, but this was a mere accident of their
office. (See MARK, GOSPEL OF ¯T0002421.)
red, the son of Simon the Cyrenian (Mark 15:21), whom the Roman
soldiers compelled to carry the cross on which our Lord was
crucified. Probably it is the same person who is again mentioned
in Rom. 16:13 as a disciple at Rome, whose mother also was a
Christian held in esteem by the apostle. Mark mentions him along
with his brother Alexander as persons well known to his readers
one "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his
apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted
by God to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies
of men, inflicting dumbness (Matt. 9:32), blindness (12:22),
epilepsy (Mark 9:17-27), insanity (Matt. 8:28; Mark 5:1-5).
Daemoniacs are frequently distinguished from those who are
afflicted with ordinary bodily maladies (Mark 1:32; 16:17, 18;
Luke 6:17, 18). The daemons speak in their own persons (Matt.
8:29; Mark 1:23, 24; 5:7). This influence is clearly
distinguished from the ordinary power of corruption and of
temptation over men. In the daemoniac his personality seems to
be destroyed, and his actions, words, and even thoughts to be
overborne by the evil spirit (Mark, l.c.; Acts 19:15).
son of Timaeus, one of the two blind beggars of Jericho (Mark
10:46; Matt. 20:30). His blindness was miraculously cured on the
ground of his faith.
Besides its literal sense (Luke 5:2), this word is also applied
by our Lord to his disciples in a figurative sense (Matt. 4:19;
John the Baptist went before our Lord in this character (Mark
1:2, 3). Christ so called (Heb. 6:20) as entering before his
people into the holy place as their head and guide.
the inhabitants of Gadara, in Revised Version "Gerasenes" (Mark
5:1; Luke 8:26, 37). In Matt. 8:28 they are called Gergesenes,
Revised Version "Gadarenes."
Heb. harak, meaning "to grate the teeth", (Job 16:9; Ps. 112:10;
Lam. 2:16), denotes rage or sorrow. (See also Acts 7:54; Mark
the spare room on the upper floor of an Eastern dwelling (Mark
14:14; Luke 22:11). In Luke 2:7 the word is translated "inn"
a vessel for containing liquids. In the East pitchers were
usually carried on the head or shoulders (Gen. 24:15-20; Judg.
7:16, 19; Mark 14:13).
(id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51, A.V.,
"Lord," R.V., "Rabboni;" John 20:16). It was the most honourable
of all the titles.
a rose, the damsel in the house of Mary, the mother of John
Mark. She came to hearken when Peter knocked at the door of the
gate (Acts 12:12-15).
occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:48;
Mark 15:36; John 19:29). It is ranked as a zoophyte. It is found
attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea.
the principal meal of the day among the Jews. It was partaken of
in the early part of the evening (Mark 6:21; John 12:2; 1 Cor.
11:21). (See LORD'S SUPPER ¯T0002318.)
the tiara of a king (Ezek. 21:26; Isa. 28:5; 62:3); the turban
(Job 29:14). In the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn
between the diadem as a badge of royalty (Rev. 12:3; 13:1;
19:12) and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life.
It is not known what the ancient Jewish "diadem" was. It was the
mark of Oriental sovereigns. (See CROWN ¯T0000929.)
the Greek form of a Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic word, meaning "Be
opened," uttered by Christ when healing the man who was deaf and
dumb (Mark 7:34). It is one of the characteristics of Mark that
he uses the very Aramaic words which fell from our Lord's lips.
(See 3:17; 5:41; 7:11; 14:36; 15:34.)
a Jewish political party who sympathized with (Mark 3:6; 12:13;
Matt, 22:16; Luke 20:20) the Herodian rulers in their general
policy of government, and in the social customs which they
introduced from Rome. They were at one with the Sadducees in
holding the duty of submission to Rome, and of supporting the
Herods on the throne. (Comp. Mark 8:15; Matt. 16:6.)
= Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name,
(1) Judas (Jude 1:1; Matt. 13:55; John 14:22; Acts 1:13), called
also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18); and (2)
Judas Iscariot (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:19). He who is called "the
brother of James" (Luke 6:16), may be the same with the Judas
surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in
(Gr. ekstasis, from which the word "ecstasy" is derived) denotes
the state of one who is "out of himself." Such were the trances
of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10; 11:5; 22:17, ecstasies, "a
preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the
reception of the vision", (comp. 2 Cor. 12:1-4). In Mark 5:42
and Luke 5:26 the Greek word is rendered "astonishment,"
"amazement" (comp. Mark 16:8; Acts 3:10).
a Galilean fisherman, the husband of Salome (q.v.), and the
father of James and John, two of our Lord's disciples (Matt.
4:21; 27:56; Mark 15:40). He seems to have been a man of some
position in Capernaum, for he had two boats (Luke 5:4) and
"hired servants" (Mark 1:20) of his own. No mention is made of
him after the call of his two sons by Jesus.
the evangelist; "John whose surname was Mark" (Acts 12:12, 25).
Mark (Marcus, Col. 4:10, etc.) was his Roman name, which
gradually came to supersede his Jewish name John. He is called
John in Acts 13:5, 13, and Mark in 15:39, 2 Tim. 4:11, etc.
He was the son of Mary, a woman apparently of some means and
influence, and was probably born in Jerusalem, where his mother
resided (Acts 12:12). Of his father we know nothing. He was
cousin of Barnabas (Col. 4:10). It was in his mother's house
that Peter found "many gathered together praying" when he was
released from prison; and it is probable that it was here that
he was converted by Peter, who calls him his "son" (1 Pet.
5:13). It is probable that the "young man" spoken of in Mark
14:51, 52 was Mark himself. He is first mentioned in Acts 12:25.
He went with Paul and Barnabas on their first journey (about
A.D. 47) as their "minister," but from some cause turned back
when they reached Perga in Pamphylia (Acts 12:25; 13:13). Three
years afterwards a "sharp contention" arose between Paul and
Barnabas (15:36-40), because Paul would not take Mark with him.
He, however, was evidently at length reconciled to the apostle,
for he was with him in his first imprisonment at Rome (Col.
4:10; Philemon 1:24). At a later period he was with Peter in
Babylon (1 Pet. 5:13), then, and for some centuries afterwards,
one of the chief seats of Jewish learning; and he was with
Timothy in Ephesus when Paul wrote him during his second
imprisonment (2 Tim. 4:11). He then disappears from view.
(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only
in the New Testament (Matt. 10:25; 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22). It is
probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning
"the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or
for holding oil or perfumery (Mark 14:3). It was of the form of
a flask or bottle. The Hebrew word (pak) used for it is more
appropriately rendered "vial" in 1 Sam. 10:1, and should also be
so rendered in 2 Kings 9:1, where alone else it occurs.
in which Jehovah appeared to Moses in the wilderness (Ex. 3:2;
Acts 7:30). It is difficult to say what particular kind of plant
or bush is here meant. Probably it was the mimosa or acacia. The
words "in the bush" in Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37, mean "in the
passage or paragraph on the bush;" i.e., in Ex. 3.
an adviser (Prov. 11:14; 15:22), a king's state counsellor (2
Sam. 15:12). Used once of the Messiah (Isa. 9:6). In Mark 15:43,
Luke 23:50, the word probably means a member of the Jewish
a strong desire after the possession of worldly things (Col.
3:5; Eph. 5:5; Heb. 13:5; 1 Tim. 6:9, 10; Matt. 6:20). It
assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is
the mark of cold-hearted worldliness.
denotes the whole creation in Rom. 8:39; Col. 1:15; Rev. 5:13;
the whole human race in Mark 16:15; Rom. 8:19-22.
The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, 17, are imaginary beings,
symbols of the Divine attributes and operations.
a name derived from "Golan" (q.v.), one of the cities of refuge
in the territory of Manasseh (Josh. 20:8; 21:27; Deut. 4:43).
This was one of the provinces ruled by Herod Antipas. It lay to
the east of the Lake of Galilee, and included among its towns
Bethsaida-Julias (Mark 8:22) and Seleucia.
Herod Philip I.
(Mark 6:17), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the
daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from
another Philip called "the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a
private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.
a labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1; 14:6;
Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over
(Lev. 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny"
(q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matt. 20:1-14).
sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away
from God (Rom. 1:21). "Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in
the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all
moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity." In Mark
4:19 "lusts" are objects of desire.
were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic
enjoyment (Ex. 30:35-37; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 3:6; Isa. 57:9); and
also in embalming the dead, and in other funeral ceremonies
(Mark 14:8; Luke 24:1; John 19:39).
my master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors
of the law and their distinguished teachers. It is sometimes
applied to Christ (Matt. 23:7, 8; Mark 9:5 (R.V.); John 1:38,
49; 3:2; 6:25, etc.); also to John (3:26).
of the Egyptians resembled that in modern use. The ears of corn
were cut with it near the top of the straw. There was also a
sickle used for warlike purposes, more correctly, however,
called a pruning-hook (Deut. 16:9; Jer. 50:16, marg., "scythe;"
Joel 3:13; Mark 4:29).
Mark, Gospel according to
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that
Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of
Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant
opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles
and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter
of Peter" specially.
As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us
with no definite information. Mark makes no mention of the
destruction of Jerusalem, hence it must have been written before
that event, and probably about A.D. 63.
The place where it was written was probably Rome. Some have
supposed Antioch (comp. Mark 15:21 with Acts 11:20).
It was intended primarily for Romans. This appears probable
when it is considered that it makes no reference to the Jewish
law, and that the writer takes care to interpret words which a
Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as, "Boanerges"
(3:17); "Talitha cumi" (5:41); "Corban" (7:11); "Bartimaeus"
(10:46); "Abba" (14:36); "Eloi," etc. (15:34). Jewish usages are
also explained (7:3; 14:3; 14:12; 15:42). Mark also uses certain
Latin words not found in any of the other Gospels, as
"speculator" (6:27, rendered, A.V., "executioner;" R.V.,
"soldier of his guard"), "xestes" (a corruption of sextarius,
rendered "pots," 7:4, 8), "quadrans" (12:42, rendered "a
farthing"), "centurion" (15:39, 44, 45). He only twice quotes
from the Old Testament (1:2; 15:28).
The characteristics of this Gospel are, (1) the absence of the
genealogy of our Lord, (2) whom he represents as clothed with
power, the "lion of the tribe of Judah." (3.) Mark also records
with wonderful minuteness the very words (3:17; 5:41; 7:11, 34;
14:36) as well as the position (9:35) and gestures (3:5, 34;
5:32; 9:36; 10:16) of our Lord. (4.) He is also careful to
record particulars of person (1:29, 36; 3:6, 22, etc.), number
(5:13; 6:7, etc.), place (2:13; 4:1; 7:31, etc.), and time
(1:35; 2:1; 4:35, etc.), which the other evangelists omit. (5.)
The phrase "and straightway" occurs nearly forty times in this
Gospel; while in Luke's Gospel, which is much longer, it is used
only seven times, and in John only four times.
"The Gospel of Mark," says Westcott, "is essentially a
transcript from life. The course and issue of facts are imaged
in it with the clearest outline." "In Mark we have no attempt to
draw up a continuous narrative. His Gospel is a rapid succession
of vivid pictures loosely strung together without much attempt
to bind them into a whole or give the events in their natural
sequence. This pictorial power is that which specially
characterizes this evangelist, so that 'if any one desires to
know an evangelical fact, not only in its main features and
grand results, but also in its most minute and so to speak more
graphic delineation, he must betake himself to Mark.'" The
leading principle running through this Gospel may be expressed
in the motto: "Jesus came...preaching the gospel of the kingdom"
"Out of a total of 662 verses, Mark has 406 in common with
Matthew and Luke, 145 with Matthew, 60 with Luke, and at most 51
peculiar to itself." (See MATTHEW ¯T0002442.)
an artificer in stone, iron, and copper, as well as in wood (2
Sam. 5:11; 1 Chr. 14:1; Mark 6:3). The tools used by carpenters
are mentioned in 1 Sam. 13:19, 20; Judg. 4:21; Isa. 10:15;
44:13. It was said of our Lord, "Is not this the carpenter's
son?" (Matt. 13:55); also, "Is not this the carpenter?" (Mark
6:3). Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some handicraft: Paul
was a tentmaker. "In the cities the carpenters would be Greeks,
and skilled workmen; the carpenter of a provincial village could
only have held a very humble position, and secured a very
In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman
division of the night into four watches, each consisting of
three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening
(Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division,
known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained.
The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this
is the first crowing), and again at the dawn of day (and this is
the second crowing). Mark mentions (14:30) the two
cock-crowings. Matthew (26:34) alludes to that only which was
emphatically the cock-crowing, viz, the second.
(Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., "court"), the open court or
quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matt. 26:69
and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the
Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised
Version. In John 10:1,16 it means a "sheep-fold." In Matt. 27:27
and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;" R.V., "palace") it refers
to the proetorium or residence of the Roman governor at
Jerusalem. The "porch" in Matt. 26:71 is the entrance-hall or
passage leading into the central court, which is open to the
a ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus
restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering into the
chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and
the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed
whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid,
arise," and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her
again, and she arose straightway; and "at once to strengthen
that life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was
indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal
existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" (Mark
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, 33; 19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common
hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders
"palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium"
(q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence
of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general,
though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word
"praitorion" has this meaning (comp. Acts 23:35). Pilate's
official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part
of the fortress of Antonia.
The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of
the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered
together in the palace court.
Kingdom of God
(Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, 15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ"
(Matt. 13:41; 20:21) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" (Eph. 5:5)
= "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom" (Matt. 8:12;
13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 13:41), all
denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1)
Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2)
the blessings and advantages of all kinds that flow from this
rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken collectively, or
(Gr. denarion), a silver coin of the value of about 7 1/2d. or
8d. of our present money. It is thus rendered in the New
Testament, and is more frequently mentioned than any other coin
(Matt. 18:28; 20:2, 9, 13; Mark 6:37; 14:5, etc.). It was the
daily pay of a Roman soldier in the time of Christ. In the reign
of Edward III. an English penny was a labourer's day's wages.
This was the "tribute money" with reference to which our Lord
said, "Whose image and superscription is this?" When they
answered, "Caesar's," he replied, "Render therefore to Caesar
the things that are Caesar's; and to God the things that are
God's" (Matt. 22:19; Mark 12:15).
twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.). He was
also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek
equivalent of the Hebrew name. All we know regarding him is
recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24,
25, 26-29). From the circumstance that in the lists of the
apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the
son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always
followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been
supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were
The central fact of Christian preaching was the intelligence
that the Saviour had come into the world (Matt. 4:23; Rom.
10:15); and the first Christian preachers who called their
account of the person and mission of Christ by the term
_evangelion_ (= good message) were called _evangelistai_ (=
evangelists) (Eph. 4:11; Acts 21:8).
There are four historical accounts of the person and work of
Christ: "the first by Matthew, announcing the Redeemer as the
promised King of the kingdom of God; the second by Mark,
declaring him 'a prophet, mighty in deed and word'; the third by
Luke, of whom it might be said that he represents Christ in the
special character of the Saviour of sinners (Luke 7:36; 15:18);
the fourth by John, who represents Christ as the Son of God, in
whom deity and humanity become one. The ancient Church gave to
Matthew the symbol of the lion, to Mark that of a man, to Luke
that of the ox, and to John that of the eagle: these were the
four faces of the cherubim" (Ezek. 1:10).
Date. The Gospels were all composed during the latter part of
the first century, and there is distinct historical evidence to
show that they were used and accepted as authentic before the
end of the second century.
Mutual relation. "If the extent of all the coincidences be
represented by 100, their proportionate distribution will be:
Matthew, Mark, and Luke, 53; Matthew and Luke, 21; Matthew and
Mark, 20; Mark and Luke, 6. Looking only at the general result,
it may be said that of the contents of the synoptic Gospels
[i.e., the first three Gospels] about two-fifths are common to
the three, and that the parts peculiar to one or other of them
are little more than one-third of the whole."
Origin. Did the evangelists copy from one another? The opinion
is well founded that the Gospels were published by the apostles
orally before they were committed to writing, and that each had
an independent origin. (See MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF ¯T0002443.)
a tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed
publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities,
and in the public highways, and at the place set apart for that
purpose, called the "receipt of custom" (Matt.9: 9; Mark 2:14),
where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain
goods (Matt.17:25). These publicans were tempted to exact more
from the people than was lawful, and were, in consequence of
their extortions, objects of great hatred. The Pharisees would
have no intercourse with them (Matt.5:46, 47; 9:10, 11).
A tax or tribute (q.v.) of half a shekel was annually paid by
every adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin
(Matt. 22:17-19; Mark 12:14, 15). Money-changers (q.v.) were
necessary, to enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the
feasts to exchange their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as
it was forbidden by the law to carry on such a traffic for
emolument (Deut. 23:19, 20), our Lord drove them from the temple
(Matt. 21:12: Mark 11:15).
house of dates. (1.) The Revised Version in John 1:28 has this
word instead of Bethabara, on the authority of the oldest
manuscripts. It appears to have been the name of a place on the
east of Jordan.
(2.) A village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of
Olives (Mark 11:1), about 2 miles east of Jerusalem, on the road
to Jericho. It derived its name from the number of palm-trees
which grew there. It was the residence of Lazarus and his
sisters. It is frequently mentioned in connection with memorable
incidents in the life of our Lord (Matt. 21:17; 26:6; Mark
11:11, 12; 14:3; Luke 24:50; John 11:1; 12:1). It is now known
by the name of el-Azariyeh, i.e., "place of Lazarus," or simply
Lazariyeh. Seen from a distance, the village has been described
as "remarkably beautiful, the perfection of retirement and
repose, of seclusion and lovely peace." Now a mean village,
containing about twenty families.
house of fish. (1.) A town in Galilee, on the west side of the
sea of Tiberias, in the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native
place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted
to by Jesus (Mark 6:45; John 1:44; 12:21). It is supposed to
have been at the modern 'Ain Tabighah, a bay to the north of
(2.) A city near which Christ fed 5,000 (Luke 9:10; comp. John
6:17; Matt. 14:15-21), and where the blind man had his sight
restored (Mark 8:22), on the east side of the lake, two miles up
the Jordan. It stood within the region of Gaulonitis, and was
enlarged by Philip the tetrarch, who called it "Julias," after
the emperor's daughter. Or, as some have supposed, there may
have been but one Bethsaida built on both sides of the lake,
near where the Jordan enters it. Now the ruins et-Tel.
(Acts 19:13). "In that sceptical and therefore superstitious age
professional exorcist abounded. Many of these professional
exorcists were disreputable Jews, like Simon in Samaria and
Elymas in Cyprus (8:9; 13:6)." Other references to exorcism as
practised by the Jews are found in Matt. 12:27; Mark 9:38; Luke
9:49, 50. It would seem that it was an opinion among the Jews
that miracles might be wrought by invoking the divine name. Thus
also these "vagabond Jews" pretended that they could expel
The power of casting out devils was conferred by Christ on his
apostles (Matt. 10:8), and on the seventy (Luke 10:17-19), and
was exercised by believers after his ascension (Mark 16:17; Acts
16:18); but this power was never spoken of as exorcism.
(1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the
apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the
high priest; otherwise unknown.
(2.) The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this
name in the acts of the Apostles (12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37).
(3.) THE APOSTLE, brother of James the "Greater" (Matt. 4:21;
10:2; Mark 1:19; 3:17; 10:35). He was one, probably the younger,
of the sons of Zebedee (Matt. 4:21) and Salome (Matt. 27:56;
comp. Mark 15:40), and was born at Bethsaida. His father was
apparently a man of some wealth (comp. Mark 1:20; Luke 5:3; John
19:27). He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the
ordinary education of Jewish youth. When he grew up he followed
the occupation of a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When John
the Baptist began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea, John,
with many others, gathered round him, and was deeply influenced
by his teaching. There he heard the announcement, "Behold the
Lamb of God," and forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became
a disciple and ranked among his followers (John 1:36, 37) for a
time. He and his brother then returned to their former
avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again called them
(Matt. 4: 21; Luke 5:1-11), and now they left all and
permanently attached themselves to the company of his disciples.
He became one of the innermost circle (Mark 5:37; Matt. 17:1;
26:37; Mark 13:3). He was the disciple whom Jesus loved. In zeal
and intensity of character he was a "Boanerges" (Mark 3:17).
This spirit once and again broke out (Matt. 20:20-24; Mark
10:35-41; Luke 9:49, 54). At the betrayal he and Peter follow
Christ afar off, while the others betake themselves to hasty
flight (John 18:15). At the trial he follows Christ into the
council chamber, and thence to the praetorium (18:16, 19, 28)
and to the place of crucifixion (19:26, 27). To him and Peter,
Mary first conveys tidings of the resurrection (20:2), and they
are the first to go and see what her strange words mean. After
the resurrection he and Peter again return to the Sea of
Galilee, where the Lord reveals himself to them (21:1, 7). We
find Peter and John frequently after this together (Acts 3:1;
4:13). John remained apparently in Jerusalem as the leader of
the church there (Acts 15:6; Gal. 2:9). His subsequent history
is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the time of Paul's
last visit (Acts 21:15-40). He appears to have retired to
Ephesus, but at what time is unknown. The seven churches of Asia
were the objects of his special care (Rev. 1:11). He suffered
under persecution, and was banished to Patmos (1:9); whence he
again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A.D.
98, having outlived all or nearly all the friends and companions
even of his maturer years. There are many interesting traditions
regarding John during his residence at Ephesus, but these cannot
claim the character of historical truth.
of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen. 8:11. The barren
fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13). The
oak-leaf is mentioned Isa. 1:30; 6:13. There are numerous
allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their
restoration (Lev. 26:36; Isa. 34:4; Jer. 8:13; Dan. 4:12, 14,
21; Mark 11:13; 13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity
(Ps. 1:3; Jer. 17:8; Ezek. 47:12); the faded, of decay (Job
13:25; Isa. 1:30; 64:6; Jer. 8:13).
Leaf of a door (1 Kings 6:34), the valve of a folding door.
Leaf of a book (Jer. 36:23), perhaps a fold of a roll.
(Mark 7:1-9). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers
when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing
so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the
ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the
disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake,
washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in
the hollow of the other, then placed the ten finger-tips
together, holding the hands up, so that any surplus water might
flow down to the elbow, and thence to the ground.'" To neglect
to do this had come to be regarded as a great sin, a sin equal
to the breach of any of the ten commandments. Moses had
commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause; but
the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a
large body of precepts. To such precepts about ceremonial
washing Mark here refers. (See ABLUTION ¯T0000051.)
This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New
Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6), and in each case is
followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father."
It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It
has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into
European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."
i.e., son of Abba or of a father, a notorious robber whom Pilate
proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to
release, in accordance with the Roman custom (John 18:40; Mark
15:7; Luke 23:19). But the Jews were so bent on the death of
Jesus that they demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned (Matt.
27:16-26; Acts 3:14). This Pilate did.
house of the unripe fig, a village on the Mount of Olives, on
the road from Jerusalem to Jericho (Matt. 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke
19:29), and very close to Bethany. It was the limit of a
Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem, i.e., 2,000 cubits. It has
been identified with the modern Kefr-et-Tur.
a name given to the apostle Simon (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). The
word here does not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is
a translation, or rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac
word Kanenyeh (R.V. rendered "Cananaen"), which designates the
Jewish sect of the Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere (Luke
6:15) "Simon Zelotes;" i.e., Simon of the sect of the Zealots.
(See SIMON ¯T0003439.)
a bowl or deep dish. The silver vessels given by the heads of
the tribes for the services of the tabernacle are so named (Num.
7:13, etc.). The "charger" in which the Baptist's head was
presented was a platter or flat wooden trencher (Matt. 14:8, 11;
Mark 6:25, 28). The chargers of gold and silver of Ezra 1:9 were
probably basins for receiving the blood of sacrifices.
a lair of wild beasts (Ps. 10:9; 104:22; Job 37:8); the hole of
a venomous reptile (Isa. 11:8); a recess for secrecy "in dens
and caves of the earth" (Heb. 11:38); a resort of thieves (Matt.
21:13; Mark 11:17). Daniel was cast into "the den of lions"
(Dan. 6:16, 17). Some recent discoveries among the ruins of
Babylon have brought to light the fact that the practice of
punishing offenders against the law by throwing them into a den
of lions was common.
Desolation, Abomination of
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of
the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an
abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site
of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under
the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See
whom God has loved, one of the seventy elders whom Moses
appointed (Num. 11:26, 27) to administer justice among the
people. He, with Medad, prophesied in the camp instead of going
with the rest to the tabernacle, as Moses had commanded. This
incident was announced to Moses by Joshua, who thought their
conduct in this respect irregular. Moses replied, "Enviest thou
for my sake? would God that all the Lord's people were prophets"
(Num. 11:24-30; comp. Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49).
the period following sunset with which the Jewish day began
(Gen. 1:5; Mark 13:35). The Hebrews reckoned two evenings of
each day, as appears from Ex. 16:12: 30:8; 12:6 (marg.); Lev.
23:5 (marg. R.V., "between the two evenings"). The "first
evening" was that period when the sun was verging towards
setting, and the "second evening" the moment of actual sunset.
The word "evenings" in Jer. 5:6 should be "deserts" (marg.
(1.) Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6. Greek assarion, i.e., a small _as_,
which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or
drachma, nearly equal to a halfpenny of our money.
(2.) Matt. 5:26; Mark 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the
fourth of an _as_, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite)
was the very smallest copper coin.
The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the
forehead or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of
devotion to some deity is alluded to in Rev. 13:16, 17; 14:9;
The "jewel on thy forehead" mentioned in Ezek. 16:12 (R.V., "a
ring upon thy nose") was in all probability the "nose-ring"
In Ezek. 3:7 the word "impudent" is rightly rendered in the
Revised Version "an hard forehead." (See also ver. 8, 9.)
heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob
and Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they
entered with each other (Gen. 31:47, 48). This was the name
given to the "heap" by Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name
Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or
Syriac). Probably Nahor's family originally spoke Aramaic, and
Abraham and his descendants learned Hebrew, a kindred dialect,
in the land of Canaan.
=Gerasa, identified with the modern Khersa, "over against
Galilee," close to the lake. This was probably the scene of the
miracle, Mark 5:1-20, etc. "From the base of the great plateau
of Bashan, 2,000 feet or more overhead, the ground slopes down
steeply, in places precipitously, to the shore. And at the foot
of the declivity a bold spur runs out to the water's edge. By it
the frantic swine would rush on headlong into the lake and
perish." Porter's Through Samaria. (See GADARA ¯T0001406.)
When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh. 8), he burned it and
"made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins of this
city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at
length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears
the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Israel,
that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it
to mark the former site. But the site of Ai has no other name
'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel, 'the heap' par
(Matt. 14:3-11; Mark 6:17-28; Luke 3:19), the daughter of
Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband
Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her
during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave
her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John
the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful.
For this he was "cast into prison," in the castle probably of
Machaerus (q.v.), and was there subsequently beheaded.
Herod Philip II.
the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was
"tetrarch" of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He
rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own
name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which
was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the
daughter of Herodias (Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27; Luke 3:1).
(1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14).
In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the word refers to the
tribe of Judah.
(2.) The father of Simeon in Christ's maternal ancestry (Luke
(3.) Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ's maternal
ancestry (26), probably identical with Abiud (Matt. 1:13), and
with Obadiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) One of the Lord's "brethren" (Mark 6:3).
a regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which
differed at different times. It originally consisted of three
thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six
thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of
the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to
express simply a great multitude.
(1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Ex. 12:22, 23; ver. 7,
"upper door post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door,
which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of
the paschal lamb.
(2.) Heb. kaphtar. Amos 9:1; Zeph. 2:14 (R.V. correctly
"chapiters," as in A.V. marg.).
a tower, a town in Galilee, mentioned only in Matt. 15:39. In
the parallel passage in Mark 8:10 this place is called
Dalmanutha. It was the birthplace of Mary called the Magdalen,
or Mary Magdalene. It was on the west shore of the Lake of
Tiberias, and is now probably the small obscure village called
el-Mejdel, about 3 miles north-west of Tiberias. In the Talmud
this city is called "the city of colour," and a particular
district of it was called "the tower of dyers." The indigo plant
was much cultivated here.
reigning, the personal servant or slave of the high priest
Caiaphas. He is mentioned only by John. Peter cut off his right
ear in the garden of Gethsemane (John 18:10). But our Lord cured
it with a touch (Matt. 26:51; Mark 14:47; Luke 22:51). This was
the last miracle of bodily cure wrought by our Lord. It is not
mentioned by John.
used only in the proverb, "to pass through a needle's eye"
(Matt. 19:24; Mark 10:25; Luke 18:25). Some interpret the
expression as referring to the side gate, close to the principal
gate, usually called the "eye of a needle" in the East; but it
is rather to be taken literally. The Hebrew females were skilled
in the use of the needle (Ex. 28:39; 26:36; Judg. 5:30).
a shorter form of "paralysis." Many persons thus afflicted were
cured by our Lord (Matt. 4:24; 8:5-13; 9:2-7; Mark 2:3-11; Luke
7:2-10; John 5:5-7) and the apostles (Acts 8:7; 9:33, 34).
the capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. Paul and
his companions landed at this place from Cyprus on their first
missionary journey (Acts 13:13, 14), and here Mark forsook the
party and returned to Jerusalem. Some time afterwards Paul and
Barnabas again visited this city and "preached the word"
(14:25). It stood on the banks of the river Cestrus, some 7
miles from its mouth, and was a place of some commercial
importance. It is now a ruin, called Eski Kalessi.
a colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a
tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing
after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Comp. 1
Kings 7:6.) The word "porch" is in the New Testament the
rendering of three different Greek words:
(1.) Stoa, meaning a portico or veranda (John 5:2; 10:23; Acts
(2.) Pulon, a gateway (Matt. 26:71).
(3.) Proaulion, the entrance to the inner court (Mark 14:68).
Mentioned only in Mark 6:9 and Acts 12:8. The sandal was simply
a sole, made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by
leathern straps. Sandals were also made of seal-skin (Ezek.
16:10; lit. tahash, "leather;" A.V., "badger's skin;" R.V.,
"sealskin," or marg., "porpoise-skin"). (See SHOE ¯T0003404.)
(1 Kings 12:11). Variously administered. In no case were the
stripes to exceed forty (Deut. 25:3; comp. 2 Cor. 11:24). In the
time of the apostles, in consequence of the passing of what was
called the Porcian law, no Roman citizen could be scourged in
any case (Acts 16:22-37). (See BASTINADO ¯T0000469.) In the
scourging of our Lord (Matt. 27:26; Mark 15:15) the words of
prophecy (Isa. 53:5) were fulfilled.
a small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle (1 Sam.
17:40); "a shepherd's bag."
In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr. pera, which
was a bag carried by travellers and shepherds, generally made of
skin (Matt. 10:10; Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; 10:4). The name "scrip"
is meant to denote that the bag was intended to hold scraps,
fragments, as if scraped off from larger articles, trifles.
(Heb. shemesh), first mentioned along with the moon as the two
great luminaries of heaven (Gen. 1:14-18). By their motions and
influence they were intended to mark and divide times and
seasons. The worship of the sun was one of the oldest forms of
false religion (Job 31:26,27), and was common among the
Egyptians and Chaldeans and other pagan nations. The Jews were
warned against this form of idolatry (Deut. 4:19; 17:3; comp. 2
Kings 23:11; Jer. 19:13).
(Mark 7:4) means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the
Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of
raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the
Captivity. Before this they had, properly speaking, no table.
That which served the purpose was a skin or piece of leather
spread out on the carpeted floor. Sometimes a stool was placed
in the middle of this skin. (See ABRAHAM'S BOSOM ¯T0000055;
BANQUET ¯T0000434; MEALS ¯T0002451.)
breast, the name of one of the apostles (Mark 3:18), called
"Lebbaeus" in Matt. 10:3, and in Luke 6:16, "Judas the brother
of James;" while John (14:22), probably referring to the same
person, speaks of "Judas, not Iscariot." These different names
all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the author
of the epistle.
any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from
generation to generation. In Mark 7:3, 9, 13, Col. 2:8, this
word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2
Thess. 2:15; 3:6, it is used in a good sense. Peter (1 Pet.
1:18) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of
the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (comp. Acts 15:10;
Matt. 15:2-6; Gal. 1:14).
(Matt. 27:6; Mark 12:41; John 8:20). It does not appear that
there was a separate building so called. The name was given to
the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of
the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers
were put. These stood in the outer "court of the women." "Nine
chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the
sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money-gifts instead of the sacrifices;
four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple
decoration, and burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor. Heb.).
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs
only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough
or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the
juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here
used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage
in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly
denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS
occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of
"ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of
which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in
the house of Simon the leper (Matt. 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37).
These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in
Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name
of the city where they were made. The name was then given to the
stone of which they were made; and finally to all perfume
vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman
"broke" the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done,
the long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone
resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very
easily wrought into boxes. Mark says (14:5) that this box of
ointment was worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of
the value of sevenpence halfpenny of our money, and therefore
worth about 10 pounds. But if we take the denarius as the day's
wage of a labourer (Matt. 20:2), say two shillings of our money,
then the whole would be worth about 30 pounds, so costly was
manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was
of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of
Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18; 10:2). On one occasion John the
Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said,
"Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him,
immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his
disciples. After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the
Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to
Jesus. The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a
while their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the
stated attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment
(Matt. 4:18, 19; Mark 1:16, 17). Very little is related of
Andrew. He was one of the confidential disciples (John 6:8;
12:22), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord
privately regarding his future coming (Mark 13:3). He was
present at the feeding of the five thousand (John 6:9), and he
introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus (John 12:22); but
of his subsequent history little is known. It is noteworthy that
Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad
with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks. These incidents may be
regarded as a key to his character.
In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Ps.
74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1, 6; 16:9, 11, 21. It
denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1
Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45; 18:6, etc.). Our Lord was accused of
blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matt. 26:65;
comp. Matt. 9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship
blaspheme Jesus (Luke 22:65; John 10:36).
Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost (Matt. 12:31, 32; Mark 3:28,
29; Luke 12:10) is regarded by some as a continued and obstinate
rejection of the gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin,
simply because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he
voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard the
expression as designating the sin of attributing to the power of
Satan those miracles which Christ performed, or generally those
works which are the result of the Spirit's agency.
a vessel made of skins for holding wine (Josh. 9:4. 13; 1 Sam.
16:20; Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37, 38), or milk (Judg.
4:19), or water (Gen. 21:14, 15, 19), or strong drink (Hab.
Earthenware vessels were also similarly used (Jer. 19:1-10; 1
Kings 14:3; Isa. 30:14). In Job 32:19 (comp. Matt. 9:17; Luke
5:37, 38; Mark 2:22) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to
burst through the fermentation of the wine. "Bottles of wine" in
the Authorized Version of Hos. 7:5 is properly rendered in the
Revised Version by "the heat of wine," i.e., the fever of wine,
its intoxicating strength.
The clouds are figuratively called the "bottles of heaven"
(Job 38:37). A bottle blackened or shrivelled by smoke is
referred to in Ps. 119:83 as an image to which the psalmist
one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles
long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian
coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament (Num. 24:24).
The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros, from the cyprus,
i.e., the henna (see CAMPHIRE ¯T0000701), which grew on this
island. It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In B.C. 477
it fell under the dominion of the Greeks; and became a Roman
province B.C. 58. In ancient times it was a centre of great
commercial activity. Corn and wine and oil were produced here in
the greatest perfection. It was rich also in timber and in
It is first mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 4:36) as the
native place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul's first
missionary labours (13:4-13), when he and Barnabas and John Mark
were sent forth by the church of Antioch. It was afterwards
visited by Barnabas and Mark alone (15:39). Mnason, an "old
disciple," probaly one of the converts of the day of Pentecost
belonging to this island, is mentioned (21:16). It is also
mentioned in connection with the voyages of Paul (Acts 21:3;
27:4). After being under the Turks for three hundred years, it
was given up to the British Government in 1878.
Fishing, the art of
was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Israel.
It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples
(Mark 1:16-20), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the
winds and the waves (Matt. 8:26) and delivered that remarkable
series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously
fed multitudes with fish and bread (Matt. 14:19; 15:36). It was
in the mouth of a fish that the tribute-money was found (Matt.
17:27). And he "ate a piece of broiled fish" with his disciples
after his resurrection (Luke 24:42, 43; comp. Acts 1:3). At the
Sea of Tiberias (John 21:1-14), in obedience to his direction,
the disciples cast their net "on the right side of the ship,"
and enclosed so many that "they were not able to draw it for the
multitude of fishes."
Two kinds of fishing-nets are mentioned in the New Testament:
(1.) The casting-net (Matt. 4:18; Mark 1:16).
(2.) The drag-net or seine (Matt. 13:48).
Fish were also caught by the fishing-hook (Matt. 17:27). (See
mentioned in Scripture, of Eden (Gen. 2:8, 9); Ahab's garden of
herbs (1 Kings 21:2); the royal garden (2 Kings 21:18); the
royal garden at Susa (Esther 1:5); the garden of Joseph of
Arimathea (John 19:41); of Gethsemane (John 18:1).
The "king's garden" mentioned 2 Kings 25:4, Neh. 3:15, was
near the Pool of Siloam.
Gardens were surrounded by hedges of thorns (Isa. 5:5) or by
walls of stone (Prov. 24:31). "Watch-towers" or "lodges" were
also built in them (Isa. 1:8; Mark 12:1), in which their keepers
sat. On account of their retirement they were frequently used as
places for secret prayer and communion with God (Gen. 24:63;
Matt. 26:30-36; John 1:48; 18:1, 2). The dead were sometimes
buried in gardens (Gen. 23:19, 20; 2 Kings 21:18, 26; 1 Sam.
25:1; Mark 15:46; John 19:41). (See PARADISE ¯T0002843.)