an upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to
the ankles, but without sleeves" (Isa. 59:17). The word so
rendered is elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn
by the high priest under the ephod (Ex. 28:31), by kings and
others of rank (1 Sam. 15:27; Job 1:20; 2:12), and by women (2
The word translated "cloke", i.e., outer garment, in Matt.
5:40 is in its plural form used of garments in general (Matt.
17:2; 26:65). The cloak mentioned here and in Luke 6:29 was the
Greek himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a large square
piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the
abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor (Ex.
22:26,27), but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton) mentioned in Matt.
5:40 could not.
The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" (2 Tim. 4:13) was the
Roman paenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling
as a protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed
that what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version
the word used means a bookcase. (See Dress ¯T0001076.)
Mark, Gospel according to
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that
Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of
Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant
opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles
and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter
of Peter" specially.
As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us
with no definite information. Mark makes no mention of the
destruction of Jerusalem, hence it must have been written before
that event, and probably about A.D. 63.
The place where it was written was probably Rome. Some have
supposed Antioch (comp. Mark 15:21 with Acts 11:20).
It was intended primarily for Romans. This appears probable
when it is considered that it makes no reference to the Jewish
law, and that the writer takes care to interpret words which a
Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as, "Boanerges"
(3:17); "Talitha cumi" (5:41); "Corban" (7:11); "Bartimaeus"
(10:46); "Abba" (14:36); "Eloi," etc. (15:34). Jewish usages are
also explained (7:3; 14:3; 14:12; 15:42). Mark also uses certain
Latin words not found in any of the other Gospels, as
"speculator" (6:27, rendered, A.V., "executioner;" R.V.,
"soldier of his guard"), "xestes" (a corruption of sextarius,
rendered "pots," 7:4, 8), "quadrans" (12:42, rendered "a
farthing"), "centurion" (15:39, 44, 45). He only twice quotes
from the Old Testament (1:2; 15:28).
The characteristics of this Gospel are, (1) the absence of the
genealogy of our Lord, (2) whom he represents as clothed with
power, the "lion of the tribe of Judah." (3.) Mark also records
with wonderful minuteness the very words (3:17; 5:41; 7:11, 34;
14:36) as well as the position (9:35) and gestures (3:5, 34;
5:32; 9:36; 10:16) of our Lord. (4.) He is also careful to
record particulars of person (1:29, 36; 3:6, 22, etc.), number
(5:13; 6:7, etc.), place (2:13; 4:1; 7:31, etc.), and time
(1:35; 2:1; 4:35, etc.), which the other evangelists omit. (5.)
The phrase "and straightway" occurs nearly forty times in this
Gospel; while in Luke's Gospel, which is much longer, it is used
only seven times, and in John only four times.
"The Gospel of Mark," says Westcott, "is essentially a
transcript from life. The course and issue of facts are imaged
in it with the clearest outline." "In Mark we have no attempt to
draw up a continuous narrative. His Gospel is a rapid succession
of vivid pictures loosely strung together without much attempt
to bind them into a whole or give the events in their natural
sequence. This pictorial power is that which specially
characterizes this evangelist, so that 'if any one desires to
know an evangelical fact, not only in its main features and
grand results, but also in its most minute and so to speak more
graphic delineation, he must betake himself to Mark.'" The
leading principle running through this Gospel may be expressed
in the motto: "Jesus came...preaching the gospel of the kingdom"
"Out of a total of 662 verses, Mark has 406 in common with
Matthew and Luke, 145 with Matthew, 60 with Luke, and at most 51
peculiar to itself." (See MATTHEW ¯T0002442.)