fear, one of the sons of Zebulun (Gen. 46:14).
strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of
Zebulun" (Num. 1:9; 2:7).
shaking, or settlement, or descent, a town on the east side of
Zebulun, not far from Rimmon (Josh. 19:13).
(Matt. 4:13, 15; Rev. 7:8). See ZEBULUN ¯T0003889.
the designation of Elon, the judge who belonged to the tribe of
Zebulun (Judg. 12:11, 12).
dunghill, a city of Zebulun given to the Merarite Levites (Josh.
21:35). In 1 Chr. 6:77 the name "Rimmon" is substituted.
decreed, a town near Zebulun, not far from Jordan, on the border
of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). (See HELKATH ¯T0001729.)
snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15).
It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of
knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath
(Josh. 19:15); supposed to be "Cana of Galilee."
city, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of
the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical with Kattath
(19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).
trembling, a place on the southern boundary of Zebulun (Josh.
19:11). It has been identified with the modern M'alul, about 4
miles south-west of Nazareth.
pasture, a city in Zebulun on the border of Issachar (Josh.
19:15), the same as Nahalol (Judg. 1:30). It was given to the
Levites. It has been by some identified with Malul in the plain
of Esdraelon, 4 miles from Nazareth.
(Josh. 19:13), rendered correctly in the Revised Version,
"Rimmon, which stretcheth unto Neah," a landmark of Zebulun;
called also Rimmon (1 Chr. 6:77).
watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its
villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now probably
Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5
miles west of Nazareth.
dwelling, the sixth and youngest son of Jacob and Leah (Gen.
30:20). Little is known of his personal history. He had three
heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag,
"a hero among the thirty and over the thirty" (1 Chr. 12:4).
(2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:19).
Zebulun, Lot of
in Galilee, to the north of Issachar and south of Asher and
Naphtali (Josh. 19:10-16), and between the Sea of Galilee and
the Mediterranean. According to ancient prophecy this part of
Galilee enjoyed a large share of our Lord's public ministry
(Isa. 9:1, 2; Matt. 4:12-16).
Zebulun, Tribe of
numbered at Sinai (Num. 1:31) and before entering Canaan
(26:27). It was one of the tribes which did not drive out the
Canaanites, but only made them tributary (Judg. 1:30). It took
little interest in public affairs. It responded, however,
readily to the summons of Gideon (6:35), and afterwards assisted
in enthroning David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:33, 40). Along with the
other northern tribes, Zebulun was carried away into the land of
Assyria by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29).
In Deborah's song the words, "Out of Zebulun they that handle
the pen of the writer" (Judg. 5:14) has been rendered in the
R.V., "They that handle the marshal's staff." This is a
questionable rendering. "The word _sopher_ ('scribe' or
'writer') defines the word _shebhet_ ('rod' or 'pen') with which
it is conjoined. The 'rod of the scribe' on the Assyrian
monuments was the stylus of wood or metal, with the help of
which the clay tablet was engraved, or the papyrus inscribed
with characters. The scribe who wielded it was the associate and
assistant of the 'lawgivers.'" (Sayce).
oak. (1.) A city of Dan (Josh. 19:43). (2.) A Hittite, father of
Bashemath, Esau's wife (Gen. 26:34). (3.) One of the sons of
Zebulun (Gen. 46:14). (4.) The eleventh of the Hebrew judges. He
held office for ten years (Judg. 12:11, 12). He is called the
to whom God is father. (1.) A Reubenite, son of Pallu (Num.
16:1, 12; 26:8, 9; Deut. 11:6).
(2.) A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the
time of the census in the wilderness (Num. 1:9; 2:7).
(3.) The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1 Sam. 16:6). It
was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to
fight Goliath (1 Sam. 17:28).
(4.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his
stronghold in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:9).
and Aij'alon, place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally
assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could
not drive the Amorites (Judg. 1:35). It was one of the Levitical
cities given to the Kohathites (1 Chr. 6:69). It was not far
from Beth-shemesh (2 Chr. 28:18). It was the boundary between
the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in
Jewish history (2 Chr. 11:10; 1 Sam. 14:31; 1 Chr. 8:13). With
reference to the valley named after the town, Joshua uttered the
celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou,
Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" (Josh. 10:12). It has been
identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon
pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q.v.)
speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by the
invaders, and describes himself as "afflicted, greatly
afflicted" by the calamities that had come on the land, urging
the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.
(2.) A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:12), the modern
Jalun, three miles north of Cabul.
hired (Gen. 30:18). "God hath given me," said Leah, "my hire
(Heb. sekhari)...and she called his name Issachar." He was
Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp. 28:2). He
had four sons at the going down into Egypt (46:13; Num. 26:23,
Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness,
along with Judah and Zebulun (Num. 2:5), marched on the east of
the tabernacle. This tribe contained 54,400 fighting men when
the census was taken at Sinai. After the entrance into the
Promised Land, this tribe was one of the six which stood on
Gerizim during the ceremony of the blessing and cursing (Deut.
27:12). The allotment of Issachar is described in Josh.
19:17-23. It included the plain of Esdraelon (=Jezreel), which
was and still is the richest portion of Israel (Deut. 33:18,
19; 1 Chr. 12:40).
The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar
corresponds with that of Moses (Gen. 49:14, 15; comp. Deut.
sanctuary. (1.) A place in the extreme south of Judah (Josh.
15:23). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.).
(2.) A city of Issachar (1 Chr. 6:72). Possibly Tell Abu
Kadeis, near Lejjun.
(3.) A "fenced city" of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge
(Josh. 19:37; Judg. 4:6). It was assigned to the Gershonite
Levites (Josh. 21:32). It was originally a Canaanite royal city
(Josh. 12:22), and was the residence of Barak (Judg. 4:6); and
here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali
before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera in the plain
of Esdraelon, "for Jehovah among the mighty" (9, 10). In the
reign of Pekah it was taken by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 15:29).
It was situated near the "plain" (rather "the oak") of Zaanaim,
and has been identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills
fully four miles north-west of Lake El Huleh.
It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative,
where Barak assembled his troops, was not the place in Upper
Galilee so named, which was 30 miles distant from the plain of
Esdraelon, but Kedish, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12
miles from Tabor.
house of bread. (1.) A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It
was originally called Ephrath (Gen. 35:16, 19; 48:7; Ruth 4:11).
It was also called Beth-lehem Ephratah (Micah 5:2),
Beth-lehem-judah (1 Sam. 17:12), and "the city of David" (Luke
2:4). It is first noticed in Scripture as the place where Rachel
died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to the north of
the city (Gen. 48:7). The valley to the east was the scene of
the story of Ruth the Moabitess. There are the fields in which
she gleaned, and the path by which she and Naomi returned to the
town. Here was David's birth-place, and here also, in after
years, he was anointed as king by Samuel (1 Sam. 16:4-13); and
it was from the well of Bethlehem that three of his heroes
brought water for him at the risk of their lives when he was in
the cave of Adullam (2 Sam. 23:13-17). But it was distinguished
above every other city as the birth-place of "Him whose goings
forth have been of old" (Matt. 2:6; comp. Micah 5:2). Afterwards
Herod, "when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men," sent
and slew "all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all
the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" (Matt. 2:16,
18; Jer. 31:15).
Bethlehem bears the modern name of Beit-Lahm, i.e., "house of
flesh." It is about 5 miles south of Jerusalem, standing at an
elevation of about 2,550 feet above the sea, thus 100 feet
higher than Jerusalem.
There is a church still existing, built by Constantine the
Great (A.D. 330), called the "Church of the Nativity," over a
grotto or cave called the "holy crypt," and said to be the
"stable" in which Jesus was born. This is perhaps the oldest
existing Christian church in the world. Close to it is another
grotto, where Jerome the Latin father is said to have spent
thirty years of his life in translating the Scriptures into
Latin. (See VERSION ¯T0003768.)
(2.) A city of Zebulun, mentioned only in Josh. 19:15. Now
Beit-Lahm, a ruined village about 6 miles west-north-west of
a bee. (1.) Rebekah's nurse. She accompanied her mistress when
she left her father's house in Padan-aram to become the wife of
Isaac (Gen. 24:59). Many years afterwards she died at Bethel,
and was buried under the "oak of weeping", Allon-bachuth (35:8).
(2.) A prophetess, "wife" (woman?) of Lapidoth. Jabin, the
king of Hazor, had for twenty years held Israel in degrading
subjection. The spirit of patriotism seemed crushed out of the
nation. In this emergency Deborah roused the people from their
lethargy. Her fame spread far and wide. She became a "mother in
Israel" (Judg. 4:6, 14; 5:7), and "the children of Israel came
up to her for judgment" as she sat in her tent under the palm
tree "between Ramah and Bethel." Preparations were everywhere
made by her direction for the great effort to throw off the yoke
of bondage. She summoned Barak from Kadesh to take the command
of 10,000 men of Zebulun and Naphtali, and lead them to Mount
Tabor on the plain of Esdraelon at its north-east end. With his
aid she organized this army. She gave the signal for attack, and
the Hebrew host rushed down impetuously upon the army of Jabin,
which was commanded by Sisera, and gained a great and decisive
victory. The Canaanitish army almost wholly perished. That was a
great and ever-memorable day in Israel. In Judg. 5 is given the
grand triumphal ode, the "song of Deborah," which she wrote in
grateful commemoration of that great deliverance. (See LAPIDOTH
¯T0002240, JABIN ¯T0001938 .)
servant of the Lord. (1.) An Israelite who was chief in the
household of King Ahab (1 Kings 18:3). Amid great spiritual
degeneracy he maintained his fidelity to God, and interposed to
protect The Lord's prophets, an hundred of whom he hid at great
personal risk in a cave (4, 13). Ahab seems to have held Obadiah
in great honour, although he had no sympathy with his piety (5,
6, 7). The last notice of him is his bringing back tidings to
Ahab that Elijah, whom he had so long sought for, was at hand
(9-16). "Go," said Elijah to him, when he met him in the way,
"go tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here."
(2.) A chief of the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:3).
(3.) A descendant of Saul (1 Chr. 8:38).
(4.) A Levite, after the Captivity (1 Chr. 9:16).
(5.) A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:9).
(6.) A prince of Zebulun in the time of David (1 Chr. 27:19).
(7.) One of the princes sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the
people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7).
(8.) A Levite who superintended the repairs of the temple
under Josiah (2 Chr. 34:12).
(9.) One who accompanied Ezra on the return from Babylon (Ezra
(10.) A prophet, fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew
canon, and fifth in the LXX. He was probably contemporary with
Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Of his personal history nothing is known.