See PRIEST ¯T0003001.
resistance, a chief priest, a contemporary of the high priest
Joiakim (Neh. 12:12).
a priest of On, whose daughter Asenath became Joseph's wife
rebellions. (1.) Father of Amariah, a high priest of the line of
Eleazar (1 Chr. 6:6, 7, 52).
(2.) Neh. 12:15, a priest who went to Jerusalem with
Zerubbabel. He is called Meremoth in Neh. 12:3.
(whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son
and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).
requitals. (1.) The father of Berechiah (2 Chr. 28:12).
(2.) A priest, the son of Immer (Neh. 11:13).
basket-maker. (1.) A Benjamite (Neh. 11:8).
(2.) A priest in the days of Joshua and Zerubbabel (Neh.
weighed. (1.) A priest (Neh. 12:7).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 9:7; Neh. 11:7).
father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech
the high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in
descent from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of
Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined
David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1 Sam. 22:20-23;
23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of
which he was the leader (1 Sam. 30:7). When David ascended the
throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed high priest (1 Chr.
15:11; 1 Kings 2:26) and the "king's companion" (1 Chr. 27:34).
Meanwhile Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made high
priest. These appointments continued in force till the end of
David's reign (1 Kings 4:4). Abiathar was deposed (the sole
historical instance of the deposition of a high priest) and
banished to his home at Anathoth by Solomon, because he took
part in the attempt to raise Adonijah to the throne. The
priesthood thus passed from the house of Ithamar (1 Sam.
2:30-36; 1 Kings 1:19; 2:26, 27). Zadok now became sole high
priest. In Mark 2:26, reference is made to an occurrence in "the
days of Abiathar the high priest." But from 1 Sam. 22, we learn
explicitly that this event took place when Ahimelech, the father
of Abiathar, was high priest. The apparent discrepancy is
satisfactorily explained by interpreting the words in Mark as
referring to the life-time of Abiathar, and not to the term of
his holding the office of high priest. It is not implied in Mark
that he was actual high priest at the time referred to. Others,
however, think that the loaves belonged to Abiathar, who was at
that time (Lev. 24:9) a priest, and that he either himself gave
them to David, or persuaded his father to give them.
(Luke 10:31). "It was not by chance that the priest came down by
that road at that time, but by a specific arrangement and in
exact fulfilment of a plan; not the plan of the priest, nor the
plan of the wounded traveller, but the plan of God. By
coincidence (Gr. sungkuria) the priest came down, that is, by
the conjunction of two things, in fact, which were previously
constituted a pair in the providence of God. In the result they
fell together according to the omniscient Designer's plan. This
is the true theory of the divine government." Compare the
meeting of Philip with the Ethiopian (Acts 8:26, 27). There is
no "chance" in God's empire. "Chance" is only another word for
our want of knowledge as to the way in which one event falls in
with another (1 Sam. 6:9; Eccl. 9:11).
father of welfare; i.e., "fortunate." (1.) The grandson of
Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:4).
(2.) The son of Phinehas the high priest (1 Chr. 6:4,5,50;
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen.
41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;
cheerful. (1.) The head of the fifteenth sacerdotal course for
the temple service (1 Chr. 24:14). (2.) A priest who returned
from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:5, 18).
(1.) That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast.
This word is used figuratively in Eph. 6:14 and Isa. 59:17. (See
(2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first
mentioned in Ex. 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set
with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each
stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Ex.
28:15-29; 39:8-21). It was in size about ten inches square. The
two upper corners were fastened to the ephod by blue ribbons. It
was not to be "loosed from the ephod" (Ex. 28:28). The lower
corners were fastened to the girdle of the priest. As it
reminded the priest of his representative character, it was
called the memorial (28:29). It was also called the breastplate
of judgment (28:15). (See PRIEST ¯T0003001.)
assembled. (1.) A priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh.
12:2). (2.) Ezra 8:2. (3.) Neh. 3:10. (4.) Neh. 10:4. (5.) 1
Hill of Evil Counsel
on the south of the Valley of Hinnom. It is so called from a
tradition that the house of the high priest Caiaphas, when the
rulers of the Jews resolved to put Christ to death, stood here.
known. (1.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh.
(2.) The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament (Neh.
12:11, 22), sons of Jonathan.
strength or consolation of Jehovah. (1.) The head of the
twenty-fourth priestly course (1 Chr. 24:18) in David's reign.
(2.) A priest (Neh. 10:8).
fear on every side, (Jer. 20:3), a symbolical name given to the
priest Pashur, expressive of the fate announced by the prophet
as about to come upon him. Pashur was to be carried to Babylon,
and there die.
flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in
connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at
Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7; 9:4, 5; 10:12).
brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the
death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high
priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1 Sam.
14:3; 22:9, 11, 12, 20).
(2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul
after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1 Chr. 6:7,
8; 2 Sam. 8:17).
whom God will restore. (1.) A priest, head of one of the courses
of the priests of the time of David (1 Chr. 24:12).
(2.) A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh.
12:22, 23). He rebuilt the eastern city wall (3:1), his own
mansion being in that quarter, on the ridge Ophel (3:20, 21).
His indulgence of Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation
of Nehemiah (13:4, 7).
a many-pronged fork used in the sacrificial services (1 Sam.
2:13, 14; Ex. 27:3; 38:3) by the priest in drawing away the
flesh. The fat of the sacrifice, together with the breast and
shoulder (Lev. 7:29-34), were presented by the worshipper to the
priest. The fat was burned on the alter (3:3-5), and the breast
and shoulder became the portion of the priests. But Hophni and
Phinehas, not content with this, sent a servant to seize with a
flesh-hook a further portion.
Jehovah's king. (1.) The head of the fifth division of the
priests in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:9).
(2.) A priest, the father of Pashur (1 Chr. 9:12; Jer. 38:1).
(3.) One of the priests appointed as musicians to celebrate
the completion of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
(4.) A priest who stood by Ezra when he "read in the book of
the law of God" (Neh. 8:4).
(5.) Neh. 3:11.
(6.) Neh. 3:31.
(7.) Neh. 3:14.
something girt, a sacred vestment worn originally by the high
priest (Ex. 28:4), afterwards by the ordinary priest (1 Sam.
22:18), and characteristic of his office (1 Sam. 2:18, 28;
14:3). It was worn by Samuel, and also by David (2 Sam. 6:14).
It was made of fine linen, and consisted of two pieces, which
hung from the neck, and covered both the back and front, above
the tunic and outer garment (Ex. 28:31). That of the high priest
was embroidered with divers colours. The two pieces were joined
together over the shoulders (hence in Latin called
superhumerale) by clasps or buckles of gold or precious stones,
and fastened round the waist by a "curious girdle of gold, blue,
purple, and fine twined linen" (28:6-12).
The breastplate, with the Urim and Thummim, was attached to
befriended. (1.) One of the chief Gadites in Bashan in the time
of Jotham (1 Chr. 5:13).
(2.) Grandfather of Shaphan, "the scribe," in the reign of
Josiah (2 Kings 22:3).
(3.) A priest, father of Hilkiah (1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 11:11), in
the reign of Ammon; called Shallum in 1 Chr. 6:12.
(4.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (2 Chr. 34:12), in the
reign of Josiah.
(5.) 1 Chr. 8:17.
(6.) 1 Chr. 3:19.
(7.) Neh. 12:13.
(8.) A chief priest (Neh. 12:16).
(9.) One of the leading Levites in the time of Ezra (8:16).
(10.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
(11.) One of the principal Israelites who supported Ezra when
expounding the law to the people (Neh. 8:4).
one intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot
came forth when David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:11).
(2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their
brethren by courses" of the daily portion (2 Chr. 31:15).
Shechani'ah, id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1
Chr. 3:21, 22.
(2.) Ezra 8:5.
(3.) Ezra 10:2-4.
(4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of
Jerusalem (Neh. 3:29).
(5.) The father-in-law of Tobiah (Neh. 6:18).
(6.) A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel
(Neh. 12:3; marg., or Shebaniah).
ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer
under David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25). (2.) A family head of
the tribe of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36). (3.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married
the daughter of Annas (John 18:13), was raised to that office,
and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or
deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called
high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law
the high-priesthood was held for life (Num. 3:10); and although
Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may
still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was
first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him
(John 18:19-23) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the
Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place
(Matt. 26:57-68). This examination of our Lord before Annas is
recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim
before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6).
whom Jehovah helps. (1.) Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1
(2.) Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as
high priest (1 Chr. 6:9; 1 Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He
officiated at the consecration of the temple (1 Chr. 6:10).
(3.) The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah
and Asa (2 Chr. 6:10, 11).
(4.) High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah (2
Kings 14:21; 2 Chr. 26:17-20). He was contemporary with the
prophets Isaiah, Amos, and Joel.
(5.) High priest in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:10-13). Of
the house of Zadok.
(6.) Several other priests and Levites of this name are
mentioned (1 Chr. 6:36; Ezra 7:1; 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 3:23, etc.).
(7.) The original name of Abed-nego (Dan. 1:6, 7, 11, 16). He
was of the royal family of Judah, and with his other two
companions remarkable for his personal beauty and his
intelligence as well as piety.
(8.) The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa
(2 Chr. 15:1). He stirred up the king and the people to a great
fearful, an Edomite, the chief overseer of Saul's flocks (1 Sam.
21:7). At the command of Saul he slew the high priest Ahimelech
(q.v.) at Nob, together with all the priests to the number of
eighty-five persons. (Comp. Ps. 52, title.)
Heb. nophek (Ex. 28:18; 39:11); i.e., the "glowing stone",
probably the carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of
the high priest. It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the
foundations of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone
in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live
First-born, Sanctification of the
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man
and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and
of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest
(Ex. 19:22, 24), representing the family to which he belonged,
and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4).
Herod Philip I.
(Mark 6:17), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the
daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from
another Philip called "the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a
private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.
Holy of holies
the second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in
total darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high
priest, and that only once a year. It contained the ark of the
covenant only (Ex. 25:10-16). It was in the form of a perfect
cube of 20 cubits. (See TABERNACLE ¯T0003559.)
Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the
sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His "course" went up
from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel.
She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11. She was the only
princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest,
Jehoiada (2 Chr. 22:11).
Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the
time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14, 15). He was carried
into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon.
He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with
thorn. (1.) A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8, "Coz;" R.V.,
(2.) A priest, the head of the seventh division of the priests
(Ezra 2:61; Neh. 3:4, 21; 7:63). In 1 Chr. 24:10 the word has
the article prefixed, and it is taken as a part of the word
reigned over, or reigning. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari
(1 Chr. 6:44).
(2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2).
(3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32
one who was guilty of accidental homicide, and was entitled to
flee to a city of refuge (Num. 35:6, 12, 22, 23), his compulsory
residence in which terminated with the death of the high priest.
(See CITY OF REFUGE ¯T0003089.)
gift. (1.) A priest of Baal, slain before his altar during the
reformation under Jehoiada (2 Kings 11:18).
(2.) The son of Eleazar, and father of Jacob, who was the
father of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin Mary (Matt. 1:15).
(3.) The father of Shephatiah (Jer. 38:1).
exaltations, heights, a priest who returned from Babylon with
Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:3), to whom were sent the sacred vessels
(Ezra 8:33) belonging to the temple. He took part in rebuilding
the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:4).
=Mijamin, from the right hand. (1.) The head of one of the
divisions of the priests (1 Chr. 24:9).
(2.) A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
(Neh. 12:5), called Mijamin (10:7) and Miniamin (12:17).
a coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-7).
He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the
law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14). His
grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea (25:22).
whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed
to blow the trumpet before the ark of God (1 Chr. 15:24).
(2.) Another Levite (Neh. 9:4, 5).
(3.) A priest (Neh. 10:12).
(4.) A Levite (Neh. 10:4).
Heb. pitdah (Ezek. 28:13; Rev. 21:20), a golden yellow or
"green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19). It was
the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high
priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Ex. 28:17).
It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.
a common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the
members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife
Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and
immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood (Acts
5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian
community devoted their property to the work of furthering the
gospel and of assisting the poor and needy. The proceeds of the
possessions they sold were placed at the disposal of the
apostles (Acts 4:36, 37). Ananias might have kept his property
had he so chosen; but he professed agreement with the brethren
in the common purpose, and had of his own accord devoted it all,
as he said, to these sacred ends. Yet he retained a part of it
for his own ends, and thus lied in declaring that he had given
it all. "The offence of Ananias and Sapphira showed contempt of
God, vanity and ambition in the offenders, and utter disregard
of the corruption which they were bringing into the society.
Such sin, committed in despite of the light which they
possessed, called for a special mark of divine indignation."
(2.) A Christian at Damascus (Acts 9:10). He became Paul's
instructor; but when or by what means he himself became a
Christian we have no information. He was "a devout man according
to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt" at
(3.) The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the
procuratorship of Felix (Acts 23:2, 5, 24). He was so enraged at
Paul's noble declaration, "I have lived in all good conscience
before God until this day," that he commanded one of his
attendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this
unprovoked insult, Paul quickly replied, "God shall smite thee,
thou whited wall." Being reminded that Ananias was the high
priest, to whose office all respect was to be paid, he answered,
"I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest" (Acts 23:5).
This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is
scarcely probable that Paul should have been ignorant of so
public a fact. The expression may mean (a) that Paul had at the
moment overlooked the honour due to the high priest; or (b), as
others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had said,
"The high priest breaking the law! God's high priest a tyrant
and a lawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and have heard his
voice, but surely it cannot, it ought not to be, the voice of
the high priest." (See Dr. Lindsay on Acts, _in loco_.) (c)
Others think that from defect of sight Paul could not observe
that the speaker was the high priest. In all this, however, it
may be explained, Paul, with all his excellency, comes short of
the example of his divine Master, who, when he was reviled,
reviled not again.
(Heb. peer), Ex. 39:28 (R.V., "head-tires"); Ezek. 44:18 (R.V.,
"tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isa.
3:20 (R.V., "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females.
The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in
Isa. 61:10 (R.V., "garland"), and in Ezek. 24:17, 23 "tire"
(R.V., "head-tire"). It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted
about the head. In Ex. 28:40; 29:9 it is the translation of a
different Hebrew word (migba'ah), which denotes the turban
(R.V., "head-tire") of the common priest as distinguished from
the mitre of the high priest. (See MITRE ¯T0002575.)
(Heb. mitsnepheth), something rolled round the head; the turban
or head-dress of the high priest (Ex. 28:4, 37, 39; 29:6, etc.).
In the Authorized Version of Ezek. 21:26, this Hebrew word is
rendered "diadem," but in the Revised Version, "mitre." It was a
twisted band of fine linen, 8 yards in length, coiled into the
form of a cap, and worn on official occasions (Lev. 8:9; 16:4;
Zech. 3:5). On the front of it was a golden plate with the
inscription, "Holiness to the Lord." The mitsnepheth differed
from the mitre or head-dress (migba'ah) of the common priest.
(See BONNET ¯T0000621.)
built up by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jehoiada, chief priest (1
Chr. 27:5). He was set by David over his body-guard of
Cherethites and Pelethites (2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Kings 1:32; 1 Chr.
18:17). His exploits are enumerated in 2 Sam. 23:20, 21, 22; 1
Chr. 11:22. He remained faithful to Solomon (1 Kings 1:8, 10,
26), by whom he was raised to the rank of commander-in-chief (1
Kings 2:25, 29, 30, 34, 35; 4:4).
(2.) 2 Sam. 23:30; 1 Chr. 11:31.
(3.) A musical Levite (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(4.) A priest (1 Chr. 15:24; 16:6).
(5.) The son of Jeiel (2 Chr. 20:14).
Intercession of the Spirit
(Rom. 8:26, 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech.
6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to
all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for
them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They
both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as
his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate
in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting
covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts,
enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires
'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The
work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and
together they form a complete whole.", Hodge's Outlines of
the work of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites whom David
appointed as porter for the ark (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with
Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne (2 Chr. 23:1).
(3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz,
killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of
Israel (2 Chr. 28:7).
(4.) One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple (2
Chr. 34:8). He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the
Authorized Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of
(5.) The father of the priest Zephaniah (Jer. 21:1; 37:3).
(6.) The father of the false prophet Zedekiah (Jer. 29:21).
Maase'iah, refuge is Jehovah, a priest, the father of Neriah
(Jer. 32:12; 51:59).
of iron. (1.) A Meholathite, the father of Adriel (2 Sam. 21:8).
(2.) A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his
loyalty to David. He liberally provided for the king's followers
(2 Sam. 17:27). David on his death-bed, remembering his
kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon
(1 Kings 2:7).
(3.) A priest who married a daughter of the preceding (Ezra
The use of the bath was very frequent among the Hebrews (Lev.
14:8; Num. 19:19, ect.). The high priest at his inauguration
(Lev. 8:6), and on the day of atonement, was required to bathe
himself (16:4, 24). The "pools" mentioned in Neh. 3:15, 16, 2
Kings 20:20, Isa. 22:11, John 9:7, were public bathing-places.
(1.) A precious gem (Heb. yahalom', in allusion to its
hardness), otherwise unknown, the sixth, i.e., the third in the
second row, in the breastplate of the high priest, with the name
of Naphtali engraven on it (Ex. 28:18; 39:11; R.V. marg.,
(2.) A precious stone (Heb. shamir', a sharp point) mentioned
in Jer. 17:1. From its hardness it was used for cutting and
perforating other minerals. It is rendered "adamant" (q.v.) in
Ezek. 3:9, Zech. 7:12. It is the hardest and most valuable of
whom God hears. (1.) A prince of Benjamin, grandfather of Joshua
(Num. 1:10; 1 Chr. 7:26). (2.) One of David's sons (2 Sam.
5:16). (3.) Another of David's sons (1 Chr. 3:6). (4.) A priest
sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
The art of embroidery was known to the Jews (Ex. 26:36; 35:35;
38:23; Judg. 5:30; Ps. 45:14). The skill of the women in this
art was seen in the preparation of the sacerdotal robes of the
high priest (Ex. 28). It seems that the art became hereditary in
certain families (1 Chr. 4:21). The Assyrians were also noted
for their embroidered robes (Ezek. 27:24).
with Baal, a king of Sidon (B.C. 940-908), father of Jezebel,
who was the wife of Ahab (1 Kings 16:31). He is said to have
been also a priest of Astarte, whose worship was closely allied
to that of Baal, and this may account for his daughter's zeal in
promoting idolatry in Israel. This marriage of Ahab was most
fatal to both Israel and Judah. Dido, the founder of Carthage,
was his granddaughter.
treasure. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, the native princes,
"dukes," of Mount Hor (Gen. 36:21, 27). (2.) 1 Chr. 7:21; (3.)
4:4. (4.) One of the Gadite champions who repaired to David at
Ziklag (12:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 3:19). (6.) A priest (12:42).
pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest
(1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34), who, because he was "very old," resigned to
them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous
conduct they brought down a curse on their father's house (2:22,
12-27, 27-36; 3:11-14). For their wickedness they were called
"sons of Belial," i.e., worthless men (2:12). They both perished
in the disastrous battle with the Philistines at Aphek (4:11).
(See PHINEHAS ¯T0002941.)
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary."
It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Ex. 30:34-36).
That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense"
(30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and
besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place,
and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest
in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer
(Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors
(2 Sam. 23:26).
(2.) An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:38).
(3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam. 20:26) or
confidential adviser (comp. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Chr. 18:17).
palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:3). He
was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Ex.
6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar
alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, 12;
Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common
priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the
person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not
recorded. (See ZADOK ¯T0003864.)
beheld by God. (1.) The third son of Hebron (1 Chr. 23:19).
(2.) A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.
(3.) A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to
Jerusalem (1 Chr. 16:6).
(4.) The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph (2
Chr. 20:14-17). He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites
(1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1
(2.) One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after
the return from Babylon (Neh. 3:10).
(3.) Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the
priests (1 Chr. 24:7).
(4.) A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile (1 Chr. 9:10).
cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and
grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).
(2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan
(1 Chr. 27:22).
(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on
(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.
city of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now
represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of
Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites
were acquainted with writing and books. "The town probably
contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the
residence of some learned priest." The "books" were probably
engraved stones or bricks.
reigning, the personal servant or slave of the high priest
Caiaphas. He is mentioned only by John. Peter cut off his right
ear in the garden of Gethsemane (John 18:10). But our Lord cured
it with a touch (Matt. 26:51; Mark 14:47; Luke 22:51). This was
the last miracle of bodily cure wrought by our Lord. It is not
mentioned by John.
a hail; claw; hoof, (Heb. shoham), a precious stone adorning the
breast-plate of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod
(Ex. 28:9-12, 20; 35:27; Job 28:16; Ezek. 28:13). It was found
in the land of Havilah (Gen. 2:12). The LXX. translates the
Hebrew word by smaragdos, an emerald. Some think that the
sardonyx is meant. But the onyx differs from the sardonyx in
this, that while the latter has two layers (black and white) the
former has three (black, white, and red).
merciful. (1.) One of "the children of the province" who
returned from the Captivity (Ezra 2:2); the same as "Nehum"
(2.) The "chancellor" of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up
against the Jews (Ezra 4:8-24) and prevent the rebuilding of the
walls and the temple of Jerusalem.
(3.) A Levite (Neh. 3:17).
(4.) Neh. 10:25.
(5.) A priest (Neh. 12:3).
friend of God. (1.) A son of Esau and Bashemath (Gen. 36:4, 10;
1 Chr. 1:35). (2.) "The priest of Midian," Moses' father-in-law
(Ex. 2:18)=Raguel (Num. 10:29). If he be identified with Jethro
(q.v.), then this may be regarded as his proper name, and Jether
or Jethro (i.e., "excellency") as his official title. (3.) Num.
2:14, called also Deuel (1:14; 7:42).
held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to
Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to
hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, 19; 4:1-12; 6). His daughter became
the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest,
much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28).
whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39.
(2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30).
(3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13).
(4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah
(Jer. 37:3; 38:1).
(5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13).
(6.) Jer. 36:14.
(Heb. kiss'e), a royal chair or seat of dignity (Deut. 17:18; 2
Sam. 7:13; Ps. 45:6); an elevated seat with a canopy and
hangings, which cover it. It denotes the seat of the high priest
in 1 Sam. 1:9; 4:13, and of a provincial governor in Neh. 3:7
and Ps. 122:5. The throne of Solomon is described at length in 1
the Lord is my light. (1.) A Hittite, the husband of Bathsheba,
whom David first seduced, and then after Uriah's death married.
He was one of the band of David's "mighty men." The sad story of
the curel wrongs inflicted upon him by David and of his mournful
death are simply told in the sacred record (2 Sam. 11:2-12:26).
(See BATHSHEBA ¯T0000474; DAVID ¯T0000982.)
(2.) A priest of the house of Ahaz (Isa. 8:2).
(3.) The father of Meremoth, mentioned in Ezra 8:33.
righteous. (1.) A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer (2 Sam.
8:17; 1 Chr. 24:3), high priest in the time of David (2 Sam.
20:25) and Solomon (1 Kings 4:4). He is first mentioned as
coming to take part with David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:27, 28). He
was probably on this account made ruler over the Aaronites
(27:17). Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests on several
important occasions (1 Chr. 15:11; 2 Sam. 15:24-29, 35, 36); but
when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar went
with him, and therefore Solomon "thrust him out from being high
priest," and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high
priest alone (1 Kings 2:27, 35; 1 Chr. 29:22). In him the line
of Phinehas resumed the dignity, and held it till the fall of
Jerusalem. He was succeeded in his sacred office by his son
Azariah (1 Kings 4:2; comp. 1 Chr. 6:3-9).
(2.) The father of Jerusha, who was wife of King Uzziah, and
mother of King Jotham (2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chr. 27:1).
(3.) "The scribe" set over the treasuries of the temple by
Nehemiah along with a priest and a Levite (Neh. 13:13).
(4.) The sons of Baana, one of those who assisted in
rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:4).
Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office
(Ex. 29:7; 30:23; Lev. 8:12). He wore a peculiar dress, which on
his death passed to his successor in office (Ex. 29:29, 30).
Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests,
there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest:
(1.) The "robe" of the ephod, all of blue, of "woven work,"
worn immediately under the ephod. It was without seam or
sleeves. The hem or skirt was ornamented with pomegranates and
golden bells, seventy-two of each in alternate order. The
sounding of the bells intimated to the people in the outer court
the time when the high priest entered into the holy place to
burn incense before the Lord (Ex. 28).
(2.) The "ephod" consisted of two parts, one of which covered
the back and the other the breast, which were united by the
"curious girdle." It was made of fine twined linen, and
ornamented with gold and purple. Each of the shoulder-straps was
adorned with a precious stone, on which the names of the twelve
tribes were engraved. This was the high priest's distinctive
vestment (1 Sam. 2:28; 14:3; 21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7).
(3.) The "breastplate of judgment" (Ex. 28:6-12, 25-28;
39:2-7) of "cunning work." It was a piece of cloth doubled, of
one span square. It bore twelve precious stones, set in four
rows of three in a row, which constituted the Urim and Thummim
(q.v.). These stones had the names of the twelve tribes engraved
on them. When the high priest, clothed with the ephod and the
breastplate, inquired of the Lord, answers were given in some
mysterious way by the Urim and Thummim (1 Sam. 14:3, 18, 19;
23:2, 4, 9, 11,12; 28:6; 2 Sam. 5:23).
(4.) The "mitre," or upper turban, a twisted band of eight
yards of fine linen coiled into a cap, with a gold plate in
front, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a
ribbon of blue.
To the high priest alone it was permitted to enter the holy of
holies, which he did only once a year, on the great Day of
Atonement, for "the way into the holiest of all was not yet made
manifest" (Heb. 9; 10). Wearing his gorgeous priestly vestments,
he entered the temple before all the people, and then, laying
them aside and assuming only his linen garments in secret, he
entered the holy of holies alone, and made expiation, sprinkling
the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and offering up
incense. Then resuming his splendid robes, he reappeared before
the people (Lev. 16). Thus the wearing of these robes came to be
identified with the Day of Atonement.
The office, dress, and ministration of the high priest were
typical of the priesthood of our Lord (Heb. 4:14; 7:25; 9:12,
It is supposed that there were in all eighty-three high
priests, beginning with Aaron (B.C. 1657) and ending with
Phannias (A.D. 70). At its first institution the office of high
priest was held for life (but comp. 1 Kings 2:27), and was
hereditary in the family of Aaron (Num. 3:10). The office
continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron's eldest son, for two
hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first
of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron. In this
line it continued to Abiathar, whom Solomon deposed, and
appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (1 Kings
2:35), in which it remained till the time of the Captivity.
After the Return, Joshua, the son of Josedek, of the family of
Eleazar, was appointed to this office. After him the succession
was changed from time to time under priestly or political
(1.) This word denotes the special privileges and advantages
belonging to the first-born son among the Jews. He became the
priest of the family. Thus Reuben was the first-born of the
patriarchs, and so the priesthood of the tribes belonged to him.
That honour was, however, transferred by God from Reuben to Levi
(Num. 3:12, 13; 8:18).
(2.) The first-born son had allotted to him also a double
portion of the paternal inheritance (Deut. 21:15-17). Reuben
was, because of his undutiful conduct, deprived of his
birth-right (Gen. 49:4; 1 Chr. 5:1). Esau transferred his
birth-right to Jacob (Gen. 25:33).
(3.) The first-born inherited the judicial authority of his
father, whatever it might be (2 Chr. 21:3). By divine
appointment, however, David excluded Adonijah in favour of
(4.) The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of
"first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah
(Rom. 8:29; Col. 1:18; Heb. 1:4-6). As first-born he has an
inheritance superior to his brethren, and is the alone true
the Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our
Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and
also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt.
26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13, 14). He held this office during the
whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of
Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the
vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of
the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), and was a member of the council when
he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death "for the
people, and that the whole nation perish not" (John 11:50). In
these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like Saul, he
was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to
inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to
Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the
sentence against him (Matt. 27:2; John 18:28). At a later period
his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See
First-born, Redemption of
From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family
belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of
sacrificial worship was introduced, requiring a company of men
to be exclusively devoted to this ministry, the primitive office
of the first-born was superseded by that of the Levites (Num.
3:11-13), and it was ordained that the first-born of man and of
unclean animals should henceforth be redeemed (18:15).
The laws concerning this redemption of the first-born of man
are recorded in Ex. 13:12-15; 22:29; 34:20; Num. 3:45; 8:17;
18:16; Lev. 12:2, 4.
The first-born male of every clean animal was to be given up
to the priest for sacrifice (Deut. 12:6; Ex. 13:12; 34:20; Num.
But the first-born of unclean animals was either to be
redeemed or sold and the price given to the priest (Lev.
27:11-13, 27). The first-born of an ass, if not redeemed, was to
be put to death (Ex. 13:13; 34:20).
Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the
feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4;
perfection (LXX., "truth;" Vulg., "veritas"), Ex. 28:30; Deut.
33:8; Judg. 1:1; 20:18; 1 Sam. 14:3,18; 23:9; 2 Sam. 21:1. What
the "Urim and Thummim" were cannot be determined with any
certainty. All we certainly know is that they were a certain
divinely-given means by which God imparted, through the high
priest, direction and counsel to Israel when these were needed.
The method by which this was done can be only a matter of mere
conjecture. They were apparently material objects, quite
distinct from the breastplate, but something added to it after
all the stones had been set in it, something in addition to the
breastplate and its jewels. They may have been, as some suppose,
two small images, like the teraphim (comp. Judg. 17:5; 18:14,
17, 20; Hos. 3:4), which were kept in the bag of the
breastplate, by which, in some unknown way, the high priest
could give forth his divinely imparted decision when consulted.
They were probably lost at the destruction of the temple by
Nebuchadnezzar. They were never seen after the return from
a solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the
obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1 Sam.
14:24; Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings 22:16).
We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matt.
26:63; Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to
avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the
person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer.
The word "adjure", i.e., cause to swear is used with reference
to the casting out of demons (Acts 19:13).
(Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high
priest (Ex. 28:19; 39:12), the second in the third row. This may
be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized
quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isa.
54:12 and Ezek. 27:16, this word is the rendering of the Hebrew
cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely
crystalline silica more or less in bands of different tints.
This word is from the Greek name of a stone found in the river
Achates in Sicily.
brother of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife
of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
(2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high
priest (1 Chr. 6:8, 53). On the occasion of the revolt of
Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him
in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in
Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:24-37; 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and
was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of
Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from
telling him of his death (2 Sam. 18:19-33).
one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest
(Ex. 28:19; 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
(Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power
of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and
hence its Greek name formed from _a_, "privative," and _methuo_,
"to get drunk." Its Jewish name, _ahlamah'_, was derived by the
rabbins from the Hebrew word _halam_, "to dream," from its
supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.
It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark
purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different
parts of Europe.
a fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple
area. It is called "the castle" (Acts 21:34, 37). From the
stairs of this castle Paul delivered his famous speech to the
multitude in the area below (Acts 22:1-21). It was originally a
place in which were kept the vestments of the high priest. Herod
fortified it, and called it Antonia in honour of his friend Mark
Antony. It was of great size, and commanded the temple. It was
built on a plateau of rock, separated on the north from the hill
Bezetha by a ditch about 30 feet deep and 165 feet wide.
the rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word
_tarshish_, a precious stone; probably so called as being
brought from Tarshish. It was one of the stones on the
breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:20; R.V. marg.,
"chalcedony;" 39:13). The colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's
vision was as the colour of a beryl stone (1:16; 10:9; R.V.,
"stone of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in Cant. 5:14; Dan. 10:6;
Rev. 21:20. In Ezek. 28:13 the LXX. render the word by
"chrysolite," which the Jewish historian Josephus regards as its
proper translation. This also is the rendering given in the
Authorized Version in the margin. That was a gold-coloured gem,
the topaz of ancient authors.
weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted
regarding the "book of the law" discovered by the high priest
Hilkiah (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:22-28). She resided in that
part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" R.V.,
"the second quarter"), supposed by some to be the suburb between
the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra.
Miriam (Ex. 15:20) and Deborah (Judg. 4:4) are the only others
who bear the title of "prophetess," for the word in Isa. 8:3
means only the prophet's wife.
(1.) The queen-mother of King Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2). (See MAACAH
(2.) One of those sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the
people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7).
(3.) 2 Kings 22:12.
(4.) The son of Gemariah. He reported to the king's officers
Jeremiah's prediction, which he had heard Baruch read (Jer.
36:11, 13) from his father Gemariah's chamber in the temple.
(5.) A Levite (Neh. 12:35).
(6.) A priest (Neh. 12:41).
The Heb. kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who
At first every man was his own priest, and presented his own
sacrifices before God. Afterwards that office devolved on the
head of the family, as in the cases of Noah (Gen. 8:20), Abraham
(12:7; 13:4), Isaac (26:25), Jacob (31:54), and Job (Job 1:5).
The name first occurs as applied to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18).
Under the Levitical arrangements the office of the priesthood
was limited to the tribe of Levi, and to only one family of that
tribe, the family of Aaron. Certain laws respecting the
qualifications of priests are given in Lev. 21:16-23. There are
ordinances also regarding the priests' dress (Ex. 28:40-43) and
the manner of their consecration to the office (29:1-37).
Their duties were manifold (Ex. 27:20, 21; 29:38-44; Lev.
6:12; 10:11; 24:8; Num. 10:1-10; Deut. 17:8-13; 33:10; Mal.
2:7). They represented the people before God, and offered the
various sacrifices prescribed in the law.
In the time of David the priests were divided into twenty-four
courses or classes (1 Chr. 24:7-18). This number was retained
after the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
"The priests were not distributed over the country, but lived
together in certain cities [forty-eight in number, of which six
were cities of refuge, q.v.], which had been assigned to their
use. From thence they went up by turns to minister in the temple
at Jerusalem. Thus the religious instruction of the people in
the country generally was left to the heads of families, until
the establishment of synagogues, an event which did not take
place till the return from the Captivity, and which was the main
source of the freedom from idolatry that became as marked a
feature of the Jewish people thenceforward as its practice had
been hitherto their great national sin."
The whole priestly system of the Jews was typical. It was a
shadow of which the body is Christ. The priests all prefigured
the great Priest who offered "one sacrifice for sins" "once for
all" (Heb. 10:10, 12). There is now no human priesthood. (See
Epistle to the Hebrews throughout.) The term "priest" is indeed
applied to believers (1 Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6), but in these cases
it implies no sacerdotal functions. All true believers are now
"kings and priests unto God." As priests they have free access
into the holiest of all, and offer up the sacrifices of praise
and thanksgiving, and the sacrifices of grateful service from
day to day.
pleasing to Jehovah, the "servant," the "Ammonite," who joined
with those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the
Exile (Neh. 2:10). He was a man of great influence, which he
exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to
Nehemiah "to put him in fear" (Neh. 6:17-19). "Eliashib the
priest" prepared for him during Nehemiah's absence "a chamber in
the courts of the house of God," which on his return grieved
Nehemiah sore, and therefore he "cast forth all the household
stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber" (13:7, 8).
the lord is my light. (1.) A high priest in the time of Ahaz (2
Kings 16:10-16), at whose bidding he constructed an idolatrous
altar like one the king had seen at Damascus, to be set up
instead of the brazen altar.
(2.) One of the priests who stood at the right hand of Ezra's
pulpit when he read and expounded the law (Neh. 8:4).
(3.) A prophet of Kirjath-jearim in the reign of Jehoiakim,
king of Judah (Jer. 26:20-23). He fled into Egypt from the
cruelty of the king, but having been brought back he was
beheaded and his body "cast into the graves of the common
the Lord is my strength. (1.) The son of Bukki, and a descendant
of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:5, 51; Ezra 7:4).
(2.) A grandson of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2, 3).
(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).
(4.) A Benjamite, a chief in the tribe (1 Chr. 9:8).
(5.) A son of Bani. He had the oversight of the Levites after
the return from captivity (Neh. 11:22).
(6.) The head of the house of Jedaiah, one of "the chief of
the priests" (Neh. 12:19).
(7.) A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of
Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
king of righteousness, the king of Salem (q.v.). All we know of
him is recorded in Gen. 14:18-20. He is subsequently mentioned
only once in the Old Testament, in Ps. 110:4. The typical
significance of his history is set forth in detail in the
Epistle to the Hebrews, ch. 7. The apostle there points out the
superiority of his priesthood to that of Aaron in these several
respects, (1) Even Abraham paid him tithes; (2) he blessed
Abraham; (3) he is the type of a Priest who lives for ever; (4)
Levi, yet unborn, paid him tithes in the person of Abraham; (5)
the permanence of his priesthood in Christ implied the
abrogation of the Levitical system; (6) he was made priest not
without an oath; and (7) his priesthood can neither be
transmitted nor interrupted by death: "this man, because he
continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood."
The question as to who this mysterious personage was has given
rise to a great deal of modern speculation. It is an old
tradition among the Jews that he was Shem, the son of Noah, who
may have survived to this time. Melchizedek was a Canaanitish
prince, a worshipper of the true God, and in his peculiar
history and character an instructive type of our Lord, the great
High Priest (Heb. 5:6, 7; 6:20). One of the Amarna tablets is
from Ebed-Tob, king of Jerusalem, the successor of Melchizedek,
in which he claims the very attributes and dignity given to
Melchizedek in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the
mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at
Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to
Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to
attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law
(Ex. 23:15; 34:18; Deut. 16:16), probably at the feast of the
Passover (comp. Ex. 13:10). On occasion of one of these "yearly"
visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct toward
her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the
sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at
the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and
misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct
(1 Sam. 1:14-16). After hearing her explanation he retracted his
injurious charge and said to her, "Go in peace: and the God of
Israel grant thee thy petition." Perhaps the story of the wife
of Manoah was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his
family retired to their quiet home, and there, before another
Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son, whom, in grateful memory
of the Lord's goodness, she called Samuel, i.e., "heard of God."
After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she
brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to
Eli the aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by
thee here, praying unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and
the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him:
therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as long as he
liveth he is granted to the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:27, 28, R.V.). Her
gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic
song (2:1-10; comp. Luke 1:46-55) which contains the first
designation of the Messiah under that name (1 Sam. 2:10,
"Annointed" = "Messiah"). And so Samuel and his parents parted.
He was left at Shiloh to minister "before the Lord." And each
year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent
child "a little coat" (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the
"robe" of the ephod worn by the high priest, Ex. 28:31), a
priestly robe, a long upper tunic (1 Chr. 15:27), in which to
minister in the tabernacle (1 Sam. 2:19; 15:27; Job 2:12). "And
the child Samuel grew before the Lord." After Samuel, Hannah had
three sons and two daughters.
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an
infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by
his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving
descendant of Solomon (2 Chr. 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high
priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was
eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah
with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when
she heard the shout of the people, "Long live the king;" and
when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be
led forth to death (2 Kings 11:13-20). While the high priest
lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law;
but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land
was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of
the high priest, was put to death. These evil deeds brought down
on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the
Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted by Matthew
(1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah
and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21).
(See JOASH ¯T0002078 .)
(2.) The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel (2
Kings 14:1; comp. 12:1; 13:10). When he ascended the throne the
kingdom was suffering from the invasion of the Syrians. Hazael
"was cutting Israel short." He tolerated the worship of the
golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of
sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the prophet
Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying,
addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah
was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot
of Israel and the horsemen thereof." He was afterwards involved
in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah (2 Chr. 25:23-24), whom
he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and
Philistia, and advancing on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of
the wall, and carried away the treasures of the temple and the
palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was buried in Samaria
(2 Kings 14:1-17, 19, 20). He was succeeded by his son. (See
JOASH ¯T0002078 [5.].)
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present
when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts
(2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of
Christ (Mark 15:21).
(3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar
raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put
him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably
intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no
sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is
possible that this man was the same as the following.
(4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated
certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim.
4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience.
Paul excommunicated him (1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).
said by Jehovah. (1.) One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar
(1 Chr. 6:7,52). He was probably the last of the high priests of
Eleazar's line prior to the transfer of that office to Eli, of
the line of Ithamar.
(2.) A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1 Chr.
(3.) A "chief priest" who took an active part in the
reformation under Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 19:11); probably the same
as mentioned in 1 Chr. 6:9.
(4.) 1 Chr. 6:11; Ezra 7:3. (5.) One of the high priests in
the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:15). (6.) Zeph. 1:1. (7.) Neh.
11:4. (8.) Neh. 10:3. (9.) Ezra 10:42.