ibid., a descendant of David (1 Chr. 3:20).
God his salvation, a son of David, 2 Sam. 5:15 = Elishama, 1
favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah (1 Chr. 3:20),
of the royal line of David.
a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:7).
fatness, one of the Gadite heroes who gathered to David at
Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:10).
a keeper of camels, an Ishmaelite who was "over the camels" in
the time of David (1 Chr. 27:30).
rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" (1 Chr.
heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag,
"a hero among the thirty and over the thirty" (1 Chr. 12:4).
(2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:19).
a king of Hamath, who sent "Joram his son unto King David to
salute him," when he "heard that David had smitten all the host
of Hadadezer" (2 Sam. 8:9, 10). Called Tou (1 Chr. 18:9, 10).
post; statue, "a servant of the house of Saul" (2 Sam. 9:2), who
informed David that Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan, was alive.
He afterwards dealt treacherously toward Mephibosheth, whom he
slanderously misrepresented to David.
people of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and
chief captain of the host under David (1 Chr. 27:6).
David, City of
(1.) David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion.
He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1 Chr.
11:7). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and
royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem
generally (1 Kings 3:1; 8:1), It was on the south-west side of
Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was
connected by a bridge over the Tyropoeon valley.
(2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4, 11),
because it was David's birth-place and early home (1 Sam.
to whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite
Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David (1 Chr.
help of Jehovah, the son of Chelub. He superintended, under
David, those who "did the work of the field for tillage" (1 Chr.
a native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those
who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite
archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
clad with a mantle, or bond of the Lord, one of the Gadite
heroes who joined David in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:13).
a lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple
porters in the time of David (1 Chr. 26:7). He was a "mighty man
deliverance. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 2:47).
(2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
traffic, a town in the tribe of Judah, to which David sent
presents from the spoils of his enemies (1 Sam. 30:29).
friendly, one who maintained true allegiance to king David (1
Kings 1:8) when Adonijah rebelled.
whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.
(2.) Ezra 10:32, 41.
the Lord is my light. (1.) A Hittite, the husband of Bathsheba,
whom David first seduced, and then after Uriah's death married.
He was one of the band of David's "mighty men." The sad story of
the curel wrongs inflicted upon him by David and of his mournful
death are simply told in the sacred record (2 Sam. 11:2-12:26).
(See BATHSHEBA ¯T0000474; DAVID ¯T0000982.)
(2.) A priest of the house of Ahaz (Isa. 8:2).
(3.) The father of Meremoth, mentioned in Ezra 8:33.
the darksome hill, one of the peaks of the long ridge of
el-Kolah, running out of the Ziph plateau, "on the south of
Jeshimon" (i.e., of the "waste"), the district to which one
looks down from the plateau of Ziph (1 Sam. 23:19). After his
reconciliation with Saul at Engedi (24:1-8), David returned to
Hachilah, where he had fixed his quarters. The Ziphites
treacherously informed Saul of this, and he immediately (26:1-4)
renewed his pursuit of David, and "pitched in the hill of
Hachilah." David and his nephew Abishai stole at night into the
midst of Saul's camp, when they were all asleep, and noiselessly
removed the royal spear and the cruse from the side of the king,
and then, crossing the intervening valley to the height on the
other side, David cried to the people, and thus awoke the
sleepers. He then addressed Saul, who recognized his voice, and
expostulated with him. Saul professed to be penitent; but David
could not put confidence in him, and he now sought refuge at
Ziklag. David and Saul never afterwards met. (1 Sam. 26:13-25).
given. (1.) A prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon (2 Chr.
9:29). He is first spoken of in connection with the arrangements
David made for the building of the temple (2 Sam. 7:2, 3, 17),
and next appears as the reprover of David on account of his sin
with Bathsheba (12:1-14). He was charged with the education of
Solomon (12:25), at whose inauguration to the throne he took a
prominent part (1 Kings 1:8, 10, 11, 22-45). His two sons, Zabad
(1 Chr. 2:36) and Azariah (1 Kings 4:5) occupied places of
honour at the king's court. He last appears in assisting David
in reorganizing the public worship (2 Chr. 29:25). He seems to
have written a life of David, and also a life of Solomon (1 Chr.
29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29).
(2.) A son of David, by Bathsheba (2 Sam. 5:14), whose name
appears in the genealogy of Mary, the mother of our Lord (Luke
(3.) Ezra 8:16.
Rephaim, Valley of
(Josh. 15:8; 18:16, R.V.). When David became king over all
Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their
uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron,
compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in "the
hold" at Adullam (2 Sam. 5:17-22), and the Philistines took up
their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and
south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communication between
Bethlehem and Jerusalem was intercepted. While David and his
army were encamped here, there occurred that incident narrated
in 2 Sam. 23:15-17. Having obtained divine direction, David led
his army against the Philistines, and gained a complete victory
over them. The scene of this victory was afterwards called
A second time, however, the Philistines rallied their forces
in this valley (2 Sam. 5:22). Again warned by a divine oracle,
David led his army to Gibeon, and attacked the Philistines from
the south, inflicting on them another severe defeat, and chasing
them with great slaughter to Gezer (q.v.). There David kept in
check these enemies of Israel. This valley is now called
to whom God is father. (1.) A Reubenite, son of Pallu (Num.
16:1, 12; 26:8, 9; Deut. 11:6).
(2.) A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the
time of the census in the wilderness (Num. 1:9; 2:7).
(3.) The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1 Sam. 16:6). It
was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to
fight Goliath (1 Sam. 17:28).
(4.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his
stronghold in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:9).
quick, "the Archite," "the king's friend" (1 Chr. 27:33). When
David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of
Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met
Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of
counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the
ranks of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:32, 37; 16:16-18). It was by his
advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after
David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it
gave David time to muster his forces.
mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the
time of David. The word probably means "runners" or "couriers,"
and may denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard,
they were also sometimes employed as couriers (2 Sam. 8:18;
20:7, 23;1 Kings 1:38, 44; 1 Chr. 18:17). Some, however, think
that these are the names simply of two Philistine tribes from
which David selected his body-guard. They are mentioned along
with the Gittites (2 Sam. 15:18), another body of foreign troops
whom David gathered round him.
delight. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David
at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20). (2.) A general under Jehoshaphat,
chief over 300,000 men (2 Chr. 17:14).
inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of
Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David,
and hanged by them (2 Sam. 21:8, 9).
confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which
yielded much spoil of brass to David (2 Sam. 8:8). In 1 Chr.
18:8 it is called Tibhath.
Chronicles of king David
(1 Chr. 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public
sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles
derived information on various public matters.
God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play
"on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark
to the city of David (1 Chr. 15:18, 21).
a separation, (1 Sam. 20:19), a stone, or heap of stones, in the
neighbourhood of Saul's residence, the scene of the parting of
David and Jonathan (42). The margin of the Authorized Version
reads, "The stone that sheweth the way," in this rendering
following the Targum.
rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levitical attendants at the
temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chr. 24:20).
(2.) A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:30).
whom Jehovah bestows. (1.) One of the Benjamite archers who
joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).
(2.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chr. 12:20).
a name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the
time of David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:30), probably as one being
a native of some unknown town called Meronoth.
friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites,
called also Shelemiah (1 Chr. 9:21; 26:1, 2, 9, 14). He was a
temple gate-keeper in the time of David.
staves. (1.) An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:4).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:32; 9:37, 38).
mount of breaches, only in Isa. 28:21. It is the same as
BAAL-PERAZIM (q.v.), where David gained a victory over the
Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20).
captor, son of Nahash of Rabbah, the Ammonite. He showed
kindness to David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim (2
fruitful places, some unknown place in the south, where David
found friends when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 30:28).
shadow (i.e., protection) of Jehovah. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr.
8:20). (2.) One of the captains of the tribe of Manasseh who
joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20).
burden. (1.) The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1 Chr.
2:17; 2 Sam. 17:25). He was appointed by David to command the
army in room of his cousin Joab (2 Sam. 19:13), who afterwards
treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2 Sam.
(2.) A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12) in
the reign of Ahaz.
of iron. (1.) A Meholathite, the father of Adriel (2 Sam. 21:8).
(2.) A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his
loyalty to David. He liberally provided for the king's followers
(2 Sam. 17:27). David on his death-bed, remembering his
kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon
(1 Kings 2:7).
(3.) A priest who married a daughter of the preceding (Ezra
judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2 Sam. 3:4).
(2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1 Chr. 27:16).
(4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(5.) Ezra 2:4.
(6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59.
(7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to
death (Jer. 38:1-4).
rivulet, or who as God?, the younger of Saul's two daughters by
his wife Ahinoam (1 Sam. 14:49, 50). "Attracted by the graces of
his person and the gallantry of his conduct, she fell in love
with David and became his wife" (18:20-28). She showed her
affection for him by promoting his escape to Naioth when Saul
sought his life (1 Sam. 19:12-17. Comp. Ps. 59. See TERAPHIM
¯T0003618). After this she did not see David for many years.
Meanwhile she was given in marriage to another man, Phalti or
Phaltiel of Gallim (1 Sam. 25:44), but David afterwards formally
reclaimed her as his lawful wife (2 Sam. 3:13-16). The relation
between her and David soon after this was altered. They became
alienated from each other. This happened on that memorable day
when the ark was brought up in great triumph from its temporary
resting-place to the Holy City. In David's conduct on that
occasion she saw nothing but a needless humiliation of the royal
dignity (1 Chr. 15:29). She remained childless, and thus the
races of David and Saul were not mixed. In 2 Sam. 21:8 her name
again occurs, but the name Merab should probably be here
substituted for Michal (comp. 1 Sam. 18:19).
father (i.e., "leader") of the dance, or "of joy." (1.) The
sister of David, and wife of Jether an Ishmaelite (1 Chr.
2:16,17). She was the mother of Amasa (2 Sam. 17:25).
(2.) The wife of the churlish Nabal, who dwelt in the district
of Carmel (1 Sam. 25:3). She showed great prudence and delicate
management at a critical period of her husband's life. She was
"a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance."
After Nabal's death she became the wife of David (1 Sam.
25:14-42), and was his companion in all his future fortunes (1
Sam. 27:3; 30:5; 2 Sam. 2:2). By her David had a son called
Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3), elsewhere called Daniel (1 Chr. 3:1).
citadel, a city in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:44). David
rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1 Sam. 23:1-8);
but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they
sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men "departed
from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go." They fled to
the hill Hareth, about 3 miles to the east, and thence through
Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). "And David was in the wilderness of Ziph,
in a wood" (1 Sam. 23:15). Here Jonathan sought him out, "and
strengthened his hand in God." This was the last interview
between David and Jonathan (23:16-18). It is the modern Khurbet
Kila. Others identify it with Khuweilfeh, between Beit Jibrin
(Eleutheropolis) and Beersheba, mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
Salt, Valley of
a place where it is said David smote the Syrians (2 Sam. 8:13).
This valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south
of the Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words,
"and he smote Edom," after the words, "Syrians" in the above
text. It is conjectured that while David was leading his army
against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the
south of Judah, and that David sent Joab or Abishai against
them, who drove them back and finally subdued Edom. (Comp. title
to Ps. 60.)
Here also Amaziah "slew of Edom ten thousand men" (2 Kings
14:7; comp. 8: 20-22 and 2 Chr. 25:5-11).
the descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the
father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the
support of David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:27). Eleazar (Num. 3:32),
and at a later period Zadok (1 Chr. 27:17), was their chief.
my father is the Lord, the Greek form of Abijah, or Abijam
(Matt. 1:7), instead of Abiah (1 Chr. 7:8). In Luke 1:5, the
name refers to the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses
into which David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:10).
angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the
Philistine kings. (1.) The king with whom David sought refuge
when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10-15). He is called Abimelech
in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably this same king
to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of
600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on
war against the surrounding tribes (1 Sam. 27:5-12). Achish had
great confidence in the valour and fidelity of David (1 Sam.
28:1,2), but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit
him to go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts (1 Sam.
29:2-11). David remained with Achish a year and four months.
(2.) Another king of Gath, probably grandson of the foregoing,
to whom the two servants of Shimei fled. This led Shimei to go
to Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon
put him to death (1 Kings 2:39-46).
ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer
under David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25). (2.) A family head of
the tribe of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36). (3.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
brother of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The chief of the tribe of
Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25; 10:25).
(2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to
David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
(another form of Jacob). (1.) The head of one of the families of
Nethinim (Ezra 2:45).
(2.) A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return
from Babylon (1 Chr. 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).
(3.) A descendant of David (1 Chr. 3:24).
the usual designation of Hushai (2 Sam. 15:32; 17:5, 14; 1 Chr.
27:33), who was a native of Archi. He was "the king's friend",
i.e., he held office under David similar to that of our modern
Baale of Judah
lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David
brought the ark into Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2). Elsewhere (1 Chr.
13:6) called Kirjath-jearim. (See BAALAH ¯T0000383.)
lord of grace. (1.) A king of Edom, son of Achbor (Gen. 36:38,
39; 1 Chr. 1:49, 50).
(2.) An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the
low plains" (the Shephelah) under David (1 Chr. 27:28).
Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a
victory gained by David over the Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20; 1
Chr. 14:11). Called Mount Perazim (Isa. 28:21). It was near the
valley of Rephaim, west of Jerusalem. Identified with the modern
mentioned in 2 Sam. 17:28 as having been brought to David when
flying from Absalom. They formed a constituent in the bread
Ezekiel (4:9) was commanded to make, as they were in general
much used as an article of diet. They are extensively cultivated
in Egypt and Arabia and Syria.
blessing. (1.) A valley not far from Engedi, where Jehoshaphat
overthrew the Moabites and Ammonites (2 Chr. 20:26). It has been
identified with the valley of Bereikut. (R.V., "Beracah.")
(2.) One of the Benjamite warriors, Saul's brethren, who
joined David when at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
one of the cities of Hadarezer, king of Syria. David procured
brass (i.e., bronze or copper) from it for the temple (1 Chr.
18:8). It is called Berothai in 2 Sam. 8:8; probably the same as
Berothah in Ezek. 47:16.
tower of the flock, a tower between Bethlehem and Hebron, near
which Jacob first halted after leaving Bethlehem (Gen. 35:21).
In Micah 4:8 the word is rendered "tower of the flock" (marg.,
"Edar"), and is used as a designation of Bethlehem, which
figuratively represents the royal line of David as sprung from
to whom God is might. (1.) A chief of Manasseh, on the east of
Jordan (1 Chr. 5:24).
(2.) A Gadite who joined David in the hold at Ziklag (1 Chr.
(3.) One of the overseers of the offerings in the reign of
Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:13).
Ephraim, Wood of
a forest in which a fatal battle was fought between the army of
David and that of Absalom, who was killed there (2 Sam. 18:6,
8). It lay on the east of Jordan, not far from Mahanaim, and was
some part of the great forest of Gilead.
grain. (1.) The son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr.
(2.) The father of Ehud the judge (Judg. 3:15).
(3.) The father of Shimei, who so grossly abused David (2 Sam.
16:5; 19:16, 18).
a native of the Philistine city of Gath (Josh. 13:3). Obed-edom,
in whose house the ark was placed, is so designated (2 Sam.
6:10). Six hundred Gittites came with David from Gath into
Israel (15:18, 19).
a stringed instrument of music. This word is found in the titles
of Ps. 8, 81, 84. In these places the LXX. render the word by
"on the wine-fats." The Targum explains by "on the harp which
David brought from Gath." It is the only stringed instrument
named in the titles of the Psalms.
festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah
(2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Kings 1:5, 11; 2:13; 1 Chr. 3:2), who, like
Absalom, was famed for his beauty.
place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of
the Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian
army (2 Sam. 10:16), which was under the command of Shobach.
Some would identify it with Alamatta, near Nicephorium.
bridle of the mother, a figurative name for a chief city, as in
2 Sam. 8:1, "David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the
Philistines" (R.V., "took the bridle of the mother-city"); i.e.,
subdued their capital or strongest city, viz., Gath (1 Chr.
smallness, a summit on the eastern ridge of Lebanon, near which
David lay after escaping from Absalom (Ps. 42:6). It may,
perhaps, be the present Jebel Ajlun, thus named, "the little",
in contrast with the greater elevation of Lebanon and Hermon.
given of Jehovah. (1.) One of Asaph's sons, appointed by David
to minister in the temple (1 Chr. 25:2, 12).
(2.) A Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law (2 Chr.
(3.) Jer. 36:14.
(4.) 2 Kings 25:23, 25.
serving; worshipping. (1.) A son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:21,
22), and the grandfather of David (Matt. 1:5).
(2.) 1 Chr. 2:34-38.
(3.) 1 Chr. 26:7.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1.
loosed of the Lord. (1.) The chief of one of the priestly
courses (the nineteenth) in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:16).
(2.) A Levite (Ezra 10:23). (3.) Neh. 9:5. (4.) A descendant of
Judah who had some office at the court of Persia (Neh. 11:24).
breach, the elder of the twin sons of Judah (Gen. 38:29). From
him the royal line of David sprang (Ruth 4:18-22). "The chief of
all the captains of the host" was of the children of Perez (1
Chr. 27:3; Matt. 1:3).
coal; hot stone, the daughter of Aiah, and one of Saul's
concubines. She was the mother of Armoni and Mephibosheth (2
Sam. 3:7; 21:8, 10, 11).
It happened that a grievous famine, which lasted for three
years, fell upon the land during the earlier half of David's
reign at Jerusalem. This calamity was sent "for Saul and for his
bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites." David inquired of
the Gibeonites what satisfaction they demanded, and was answered
that nothing would compensate for the wrong Saul had done to
them but the death of seven of Saul's sons. David accordingly
delivered up to them the two sons of Rizpah and five of the sons
of Merab (q.v.), Saul's eldest daughter, whom she bore to
Adriel. These the Gibeonites put to death, and hung up their
bodies before the Lord at the sanctuary at Gibeah. Rizpah
thereupon took her place on the rock of Gibeah (q.v.), and for
five months watched the suspended bodies of her children, to
prevent them from being devoured by the beasts and birds of
prey, till they were at length taken down and buried by David.
Her marriage to Abner was the occasion of a quarrel between
him and Ishbosheth, which led to Abner's going over to the side
of David (2 Sam. 3:17-21).
cliff of divisions the name of the great gorge which lies
between Hachilah and Maon, south-east of Hebron. This gorge is
now called the Wady Malaky. This was the scene of the interview
between David and Saul mentioned in 1 Sam.26:13. Each stood on
an opposing cliff, with this deep chasm between.
(not mentioned in Scripture) was the most famous of the monarchs
of the first Assyrian empire (about B.C. 1110). After his death,
for two hundred years the empire fell into decay. The history of
David and Solomon falls within this period. He was succeeded by
his son, Shalmaneser II.
afficted. (1.) A Levite whom David appointed to take part in
bringing the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Obed-edom by
playing the psaltery on that occasion (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) A Levite who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity
=Aram-Zobah, (Ps. 60, title), a Syrian province or kingdom to
the south of Coele-Syria, and extending from the eastern slopes
of Lebanon north and east toward the Euphrates. Saul and David
had war with the kings of Zobah (1 Sam. 14:47; 2 Sam. 8:3;
brother of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife
of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
(2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high
priest (1 Chr. 6:8, 53). On the occasion of the revolt of
Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him
in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in
Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:24-37; 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and
was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of
Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from
telling him of his death (2 Sam. 18:19-33).
whom God has graciously bestowed. (1.) A warrior of the time of
David famed for his exploits. In the Authorized Version (2 Sam.
21:19) it is recorded that "Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim, a
Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath." The Revised Version
here rightly omits the words "the brother of." They were
introduced in the Authorized Version to bring this passage into
agreement with 1 Chr. 20:5, where it is said that he "slew Lahmi
the brother of Goliath." Goliath the Gittite was killed by David
(1 Sam. 17). The exploit of Elhanan took place late in David's
(2.) The son of Dodo, and one of David's warriors (2 Sam.
the name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned
frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen.
10:16; 15:21; Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5, etc.). At the time of the
arrival of the Israelites in Israel they were ruled by
Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and
their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of
Jebus till the time of David, who made it the capital of his
kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was
afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it
was purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift
(2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chr. 21:24, 25).
firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth
4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight
sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase
"stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and
"root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse
was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam.
17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of
David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1
beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of
Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life.
His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash
of 2 Sam. 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know
that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1
Sam. 16:12; 17:42).
His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on
the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history,
doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged,
with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons
taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first
recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of
the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a
lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock,
beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1 Sam.
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged
with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem,
having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Sam. 16:1-13).
There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel
and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who
appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought.
David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him
as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now
departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He
accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing
oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit
of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the
Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Sam. 16:13, 14).
Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp
the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange
melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skilfully
that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great
affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to
Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of
the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley
of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was
sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who
were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in
the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was
made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the
Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David
took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out
of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he
fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and
cut off his head with his own sword (1 Sam. 17). The result was
a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines
to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened
Saul's jealousy (1 Sam. 18:6-16), which he showed in various
ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various
stratagems sought his death (1 Sam. 18-30). The deep-laid plots
of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David
"prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared
the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to
Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm
friendship was formed.
A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled
to Ramah (1 Sam. 19:12-18) to Samuel, who received him, and he
dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under
Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth,
seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time.
This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon
discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried
ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless
effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward
David (1 Sam. 20), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no
hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find
him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of
the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him
into his service, as he expected that he would, and David
accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam
(22:1-4; 1 Chr. 12:8-18). Here in a short time 400 men gathered
around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this
time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position,
cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well
of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines
of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed
(2 Sam. 23:13-17), but which he would not drink.
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David,
Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family
at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of
eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite.
The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by
Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Comp.
Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was
harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1
Sam. 23:1-14); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the
strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Comp. Ps. 31. While
encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was
visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement
(23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul
continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at
this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the
western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Sam. 23:29). Here Saul, who
still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the
generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what
David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and
David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he
maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district.
Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife
Abigail (1 Sam. 25), whom David married after Nabal's death.
Saul again went forth (1 Sam. 26) in pursuit of David, who had
hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in
the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his
forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence
for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his
elevation to the throne.
Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving
from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought
refuge among the Philistines (1 Sam. 27). He was welcomed by the
king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived
among his followers for some time as an independent chief
engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on
the south of Judah.
Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against
Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of
David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which
he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during
his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the
Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag
tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Sam. 1). An Amalekite
brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet.
David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who
had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a
beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a
"lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Sam.
1:18-27). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught
to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be
preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of
David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for
Hebron under divine direction (2 Sam. 2:1-4). There they were
cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was
now about thirty years of age.
But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took
Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to
Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war
in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies,
led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took
place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner.
Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2
Sam. 3:1, 5), but still success was on the side of David. For
the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron.
Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his
advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in
revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon
(3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for
the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also
treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and
there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all
David king over all Israel (2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Chr. 11:1-3). The
elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance
to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest
enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and
sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron,
as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite
fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also
Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's
capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards
built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The
Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now
made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place
afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim.
Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by
him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his
new capital (2 Sam. 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at
Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been
for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it
home (1 Sam. 6; 7). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it
was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the
ark, Num. 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when
the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the
roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed
the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath.
After three months David brought the ark from the house of
Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Comp. Ps. 24. Here it was placed in a
new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose.
About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the
tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at
which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chr. 16) carefully set in
order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with
Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service
of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship.
Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which
greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Sam. 8). In a
few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of
Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was
under his sway (2 Sam. 8:3-13; 10).
David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He
ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the
spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he
fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery
(2 Sam. 11:2-27). It has been noted as characteristic of the
Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few
verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story
full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the
attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder.
Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim,
the corps of heros (23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front
of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he
might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Sam. 7:1-17;
12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the
conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He
bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and
fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and
his spiritual recovery.
Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born
son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth
to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately
succeeded him on the throne (2 Sam. 12:24, 25).
Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David
formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he
was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a
man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious
message (2 Sam. 7:1-16). On receiving it he went into the
sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord,
and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving
(18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for his son
Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1 Chr. 22:9; 28:3).
A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of
great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His
eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was
guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Sam. 13). This was the
beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years
Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon
to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom,
afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond
Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought
back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Sam. 14).
After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three
years' famine (2 Sam. 21:1-14). This was soon after followed by
a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's
sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Sam. 24), in which no
fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.
Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly
lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular
sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of
the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of
jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the
tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this
state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length
openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne.
Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in
Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king.
David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Sam.
15:13-20), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous
day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness
of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament
history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east
of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks
the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in
hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:1-8). Absalom's
army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab
(9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled
the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to
the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to
the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom,
my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to
Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy
dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel
(19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of
Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to
death, and so the revolt came to an end.
The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and
that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life
passed away. During those years he seems to have been
principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for
the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his
successor to build (1 Chr. 22; 28; 29), a house which was to be
"exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all
countries" (22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent,
and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left
him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that
his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy
broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured
Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring,"
in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan
hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of
Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was
brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his
father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last words are a
grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his
joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Sam.
After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Sam. 5:5; 1
Chr. 3:4) David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years,
"and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed
out on Mount Zion.
Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a
type of the Messiah (1 Sam. 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly
bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance
that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the
collection. (See PSALMS ¯T0003013.)
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had
lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a
sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly
loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not
been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment
of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had
striven to act justly to all (2 Sam. 8:15). His weak indulgence
to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly
atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of
his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in
Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Sam. 5:5). Israel at
his accession had reached the lowest point of national
depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory
assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial
power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The
sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned
from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to
the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.
The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a
portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other
inspired poets in successive generations added now one now
another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the
wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of
human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." But it
is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this
precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of
which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to
David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second
psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About
two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.
Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung
after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are
addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in
the worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading
part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20:19), were intrusted
with the arranging and singing of Ps. 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and
In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i.e.,
the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews
divided the Old Testament. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580.)
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date
than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection
extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New
Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter.
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch,
into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:
(1.) The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of
which are ascribed to David except 1, 2, 10, and 33, which,
though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
(2.) Book second consists of the next 31 psalms (42-72), 18 of
which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The
rest are anonymous.
(3.) The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the
86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and
the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite.
(4.) The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106), of
which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103rd to
(5.) The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in
number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to
Ps. 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud
includes also Ps. 120-135. Ps. 113-118, inclusive, constitute
the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon,
and on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at
times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the
close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the
third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth
by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days
The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song
in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the
praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the
tabernacle music and song.
Divers names are given to the psalms. (1.) Some bear the
Hebrew designation _shir_ (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this
title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight
line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well
as sacred song.
(2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) _mitsmor_
(Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a
sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
(3.) Ps. 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.)
_tehillah_ (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a
song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
(4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) _michtam_
(5.) Ps. 7 and Hab. 3 bear the title (Heb.) _shiggaion_
father of light; i.e., "enlightening", the son of Ner and uncle
of Saul. He was commander-in-chief of Saul's army (1 Sam. 14:50;
17:55; 20:25). He first introduced David to the court of Saul
after the victory over Goliath (1 Sam. 17:57). After the death
of Saul, David was made king over Judah, and reigned in Hebron.
Among the other tribes there was a feeling of hostility to
Judah; and Abner, at the head of Ephraim, fostered this
hostility in the interest of the house of Saul, whose son
Ish-bosheth he caused to be proclaimed king (2 Sam. 2:8). A
state of war existed between these two kings. A battle fatal to
Abner, who was the leader of Ish-boseth's army, was fought with
David's army under Joab at Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:12). Abner, escaping
from the field, was overtaken by Asahel, who was "light of foot
as a wild roe," the brother of Joab and Abishai, whom he thrust
through with a back stroke of his spear (2 Sam. 2: 18-32).
Being rebuked by Ish-bosheth for the impropriety of taking to
wife Rizpah, who had been a concubine of King Saul, he found an
excuse for going over to the side of David, whom he now
professed to regard as anointed by the Lord to reign over all
Israel. David received him favourably, and promised that he
would have command of the armies. At this time Joab was absent
from Hebron, but on his return he found what had happened. Abner
had just left the city; but Joab by a stratagem recalled him,
and meeting him at the gate of the city on his return, thrust
him through with his sword (2 Sam. 3:27, 31-39; 4:12. Comp. 1
Kings 2:5, 32). David lamented in pathetic words the death of
Abner, "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man
fallen this day in Israel?" (2 Sam. 3:33-38.)
Numbering of the people
Besides the numbering of the tribes mentioned in the history of
the wanderings in the wilderness, we have an account of a
general census of the whole nation from Dan to Beersheba, which
David gave directions to Joab to make (1 Chr. 21:1). Joab very
reluctantly began to carry out the king's command.
This act of David in ordering a numbering of the people arose
from pride and a self-glorifying spirit. It indicated a reliance
on his part on an arm of flesh, an estimating of his power not
by the divine favour but by the material resources of his
kingdom. He thought of military achievement and of conquest, and
forgot that he was God's vicegerent. In all this he sinned
against God. While Joab was engaged in the census, David's heart
smote him, and he became deeply conscious of his fault; and in
profound humiliation he confessed, "I have sinned greatly in
what I have done." The prophet Gad was sent to him to put before
him three dreadful alternatives (2 Sam. 24:13; for "seven years"
in this verse, the LXX. and 1 Chr. 21:12 have "three years"),
three of Jehovah's four sore judgments (Ezek. 14:21). Two of
these David had already experienced. He had fled for some months
before Absalom, and had suffered three years' famine on account
of the slaughter of the Gibeonites. In his "strait" David said,
"Let me fall into the hands of the Lord." A pestilence broke out
among the people, and in three days swept away 70,000. At
David's intercession the plague was stayed, and at the
threshing-floor of Araunah (q.v.), where the destroying angel
was arrested in his progress, David erected an altar, and there
offered up sacrifies to God (2 Chr. 3:1).
The census, so far as completed, showed that there were at
least 1,300,000 fighting men in the kingdom, indicating at that
time a population of about six or seven millions in all. (See
a town in the Negeb, or south country of Judah (Josh. 15:31), in
the possession of the Philistines when David fled to Gath from
Ziph with all his followers. Achish, the king, assigned him
Ziklag as his place of residence. There he dwelt for over a year
and four months. From this time it pertained to the kings of
Judah (1 Sam. 27:6). During his absence with his army to join
the Philistine expedition against the Israelites (29:11), it was
destroyed by the Amalekites (30:1, 2), whom David, however,
pursued and utterly routed, returning all the captives (1 Sam.
30:26-31). Two days after his return from this expedition, David
received tidings of the disastrous battle of Gilboa and of the
death of Saul (2 Sam. 1:1-16). He now left Ziklag and returned
to Hebron, along with his two wives, Ahinoam and Abigail, and
his band of 600 men. It has been identified with 'Asluj, a heap
of ruins south of Beersheba. Conder, however, identifies it with
Khirbet Zuheilikah, ruins found on three hills half a mile
apart, some seventeen miles north-west of Beersheba, on the
confines of Philistia, Judah, and Amalek.
my Lord is Jehovah. (1.) The fourth son of David (2 Sam. 3:4).
After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he
became heir-apparent to the throne. But Solomon, a younger
brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his
father was dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But
Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon
should at once be proclaimed and admitted to the throne.
Adonijah fled and took refuge at the altar, and received pardon
for his conduct from Solomon on the condition that he showed
himself "a worthy man" (1 Kings 1:5-53). He afterwards made a
second attempt to gain the throne, but was seized and put to
death (1 Kings 2:13-25).
(2.) A Levite sent with the princes to teach the book of the
law to the inhabitants of Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).
(3.) One of the "chiefs of the people" after the Captivity
brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his
sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he
deserted David (Ps. 41:9; 55:12-14) and espoused the cause of
Absalom (2 Sam. 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to
Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of
Ahithophel (2 Sam. 15:31-37). This end was so far gained that
Ahithophel saw he had no longer any influence, and accordingly
he at once left the camp of Absalom and returned to Giloh, his
native place, where, after arranging his wordly affairs, he
hanged himself, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers
(2 Sam. 17:1-23). He was the type of Judas (Ps. 41:9).
agile; also called Ornan 1 Chr. 21:15, a Jebusite who dwelt in
Jerusalem before it was taken by the Israelites. The destroying
angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of
the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a
threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount
Moriah. Araunah offered it to David as a free gift, together
with the oxen and the threshing instruments; but the king
insisted on purchasing it at its full price (2 Sam. 24:24; 1
Chr. 21:24, 25), for, according to the law of sacrifices, he
could not offer to God what cost him nothing. On the same place
Solomon afterwards erected the temple (2 Sam. 24:16; 2 Chr.
3:1). (See ALTAR ¯T0000185.)
ruins. (1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deut. 4:48;
Judg. 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the
kingdom of Sihon (Josh. 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles
west of the Dead Sea.
(2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34)
"before Rabbah" (Josh. 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was
famous in the history of Jephthah (Judg. 11:33) and of David (2
Sam. 24:5). (Comp. Isa. 17:2; 2 Kings 15:29.)
(3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of
Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the
spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:26, 28). It was
the native city of two of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:44). It is
now called Ar'arah.
daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1
Chr. 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2 Sam. 11:3) or Ammiel (1
Chr. 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed
adultery with her (2 Sam. 11:4, 5; Ps. 51:1). The child born in
adultery died (2 Sam. 12:15-19). After her husband was slain
(11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother
of Solomon (12:24; 1 Kings 1:11; 2:13). She took a prominent
part in securing the succession of Solomon to the throne (1
Kings 1:11, 16-21).
whose God is he. (1.) "The son of Barachel, a Buzite" (Job
32:2), one of Job's friends. When the debate between Job and his
friends is brought to a close, Elihu for the first time makes
his appearance, and delivers his opinion on the points at issue
(2.) The son of Tohu, and grandfather of Elkanah (1 Sam. 1:1).
He is called also Eliel (1 Chr. 6:34) and Eliab (6:27).
(3.) One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who joined
David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20).
(4.) One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed
porters of the temple under David (1 Chr. 26:7).
a wine-vat, one of the five royal cities of the Philistines
(Josh. 13:3) on which the ark brought calamity (1 Sam. 5:8, 9;
6:17). It was famous also as being the birthplace or residence
of Goliath (1 Sam. 17:4). David fled from Saul to Achish, king
of Gath (1 Sam. 21:10; 27:2-4; Ps. 56), and his connection with
it will account for the words in 2 Sam. 1:20. It was afterwards
conquered by David (2 Sam. 8:1). It occupied a strong position
on the borders of Judah and Philistia (1 Sam. 21:10; 1 Chr.
18:1). Its site has been identified with the hill called Tell
esSafieh, the Alba Specula of the Middle Ages, which rises 695
feet above the plain on its east edge. It is noticed on
monuments about B.C. 1500. (See METHEGAMMAH ¯T0002516.)
whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the
father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).
(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag
(1 Chr. 12:3).
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1 Kings 22:26).
(4.) King of Judah (2 Kings 11:2; 12:19, 20). (See JEHOASH
(5.) King of Israel (2 Kings 13:9, 12, 13, 25). (See JEHOASH
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:8.
(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David
and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:28).