agile; also called Ornan 1 Chr. 21:15, a Jebusite who dwelt in
Jerusalem before it was taken by the Israelites. The destroying
angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of
the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a
threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount
Moriah. Araunah offered it to David as a free gift, together
with the oxen and the threshing instruments; but the king
insisted on purchasing it at its full price (2 Sam. 24:24; 1
Chr. 21:24, 25), for, according to the law of sacrifices, he
could not offer to God what cost him nothing. On the same place
Solomon afterwards erected the temple (2 Sam. 24:16; 2 Chr.
3:1). (See ALTAR ¯T0000185.)
Judgments of God
(1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.)
The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Ps.
119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex.
6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in
Gen. 7; 19:24,25; Judg. 1:6,7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matt. 25:46; Mark
3:29; Heb. 6:2; 2 Thess. 1:9; Matt. 18:8; 25:41; Jude 1:7). The
Scripture as clearly teaches the unending duration of the penal
sufferings of the lost as the "everlasting life," the "eternal
life" of the righteous. The same Greek words in the New
Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the
eternal existence of God (1 Tim. 1:17; Rom. 1:20; 16:26); (2) of
Christ (Rev. 1:18); (3) of the Holy Ghost (Heb. 9:14); and (4)
the eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost (Matt. 25:46;
Their condition after casting off the mortal body is spoken of
in these expressive words: "Fire that shall not be quenched"
(Mark 9:45, 46), "fire unquenchable" (Luke 3:17), "the worm that
never dies," the "bottomless pit" (Rev. 9:1), "the smoke of
their torment ascending up for ever and ever" (Rev. 14:10, 11).
The idea that the "second death" (Rev. 20:14) is in the case
of the wicked their absolute destruction, their annihilation,
has not the slightest support from Scripture, which always
represents their future as one of conscious suffering enduring
The supposition that God will ultimately secure the repentance
and restoration of all sinners is equally unscriptural. There is
not the slightest trace in all the Scriptures of any such
restoration. Sufferings of themselves have no tendency to purify
the soul from sin or impart spiritual life. The atoning death of
Christ and the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit are the only
means of divine appointment for bringing men to repentance. Now
in the case of them that perish these means have been rejected,
and "there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins" (Heb. 10:26,
a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a
change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity.
(1.) In Col. 1:21, 22, the word there used refers to a change
wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be
an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full
confidence and love. In 2 Cor. 5:20 the apostle beseeches the
Corinthians to be "reconciled to God", i.e., to lay aside their
(2.) Rom. 5:10 refers not to any change in our disposition
toward God, but to God himself, as the party reconciled. Romans
5:11 teaches the same truth. From God we have received "the
reconciliation" (R.V.), i.e., he has conferred on us the token
of his friendship. So also 2 Cor. 5:18, 19 speaks of a
reconciliation originating with God, and consisting in the
removal of his merited wrath. In Eph. 2:16 it is clear that the
apostle does not refer to the winning back of the sinner in love
and loyalty to God, but to the restoration of God's forfeited
favour. This is effected by his justice being satisfied, so that
he can, in consistency with his own nature, be favourable toward
sinners. Justice demands the punishment of sinners. The death of
Christ satisfies justice, and so reconciles God to us. This
reconciliation makes God our friend, and enables him to pardon
and save us. (See ATONEMENT ¯T0000362.)
a modification of "Tertius;" a Roman advocate, whom the Jews
employed to state their case against Paul in the presence of
Felix (Acts 24:1-9). The charges he adduced against the apostle
were, "First, that he created disturbances among the Romans
throughout the empire, an offence against the Roman government
(crimen majestatis). Secondly, that he was a ringleader of the
sect of the Nazarenes; disturbed the Jews in the exercise of
their religion, guaranteed by the state; introduced new gods, a
thing prohibited by the Romans. And thirdly, that he attempted
to profane the temple, a crime which the Jews were permitted to
=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children
here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the
noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to
burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular
part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive
of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize
the agency by which God punishes or destroys the wicked. We are
not to assume from prophetical figures that material fire is the
precise agent to be used. It was not the agency employed in the
destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in Isa. 30:33...Tophet
properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom bends round to the
east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and the Hill of
Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer 'Ayub, where it
joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern side
especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of
beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be
either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that
fire that was never quenched." Thus Tophet came to represent the
place of punishment. (See HINNOM ¯T0001790.)
According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of
spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life.
"Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably (Deut. 6:5;
26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33), but this is not
generally the case.
The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man
is designated, according to his heart, wise (1 Kings 3:12,
etc.), pure (Ps. 24:4; Matt. 5:8, etc.), upright and righteous
(Gen. 20:5, 6; Ps. 11:2; 78:72), pious and good (Luke 8:15),
etc. In these and such passages the word "soul" could not be
substituted for "heart."
The heart is also the seat of the conscience (Rom. 2:15). It
is naturally wicked (Gen. 8:21), and hence it contaminates the
whole life and character (Matt. 12:34; 15:18; comp. Eccl. 8:11;
Ps. 73:7). Hence the heart must be changed, regenerated (Ezek.
36:26; 11:19; Ps. 51:10-14), before a man can willingly obey
The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing
reception of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that
testimony hardens the heart (Ps. 95:8; Prov. 28:14; 2 Chr.
36:13). "Hardness of heart evidences itself by light views of
sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of it; pride and
conceit; ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances of
God; inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of
conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance
of divine things."
chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and
the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This was
the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by
marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this
case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her
name on history as the representative of all that is designing,
crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great
instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by
no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man,
passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared
no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour.
Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to
Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V.,
'prophets of the Asherah'], which ate at her table (1 Kings
18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual
kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the
kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came
to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she
looked out at the window of the palace, and said, "Had Zimri
peace, who slew his master?" He looked up and called to her
chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that
she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her
under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of
the street (2 Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the
Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).
Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a
wicked woman (Rev. 2: 20).
It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt
of Dido, the founder of Carthage.
deliverance of the Lord. (1.) A son of Hananiah and grandson of
Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:21).
(2.) A captain of "the sons of Simeon" (4:42).
(3.) Neh. 10:22.
(4.) One of the twenty-five princes of the people against whom
Ezekiel prophesied on account of their wicked counsel (Ezek.
mentioned along with serpents (Deut. 8:15). Used also
figuratively to denote wicked persons (Ezek. 2:6; Luke 10:19);
also a particular kind of scourge or whip (1 Kings 12:11).
Scorpions were a species of spider. They abounded in the Jordan
trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2
Cor. 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal
sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, 29,
the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the
destruction of Jerusalem.
rest, (Heb. Noah) the grandson of Methuselah (Gen. 5:25-29), who
was for two hundred and fifty years contemporary with Adam, and
the son of Lamech, who was about fifty years old at the time of
Adam's death. This patriarch is rightly regarded as the
connecting link between the old and the new world. He is the
second great progenitor of the human family.
The words of his father Lamech at his birth (Gen. 5:29) have
been regarded as in a sense prophetical, designating Noah as a
type of Him who is the true "rest and comfort" of men under the
burden of life (Matt.11:28).
He lived five hundred years, and then there were born unto him
three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Gen. 5:32). He was a "just
man and perfect in his generation," and "walked with God" (comp.
Ezek. 14:14,20). But now the descendants of Cain and of Seth
began to intermarry, and then there sprang up a race
distinguished for their ungodliness. Men became more and more
corrupt, and God determined to sweep the earth of its wicked
population (Gen. 6:7). But with Noah God entered into a
covenant, with a promise of deliverance from the threatened
deluge (18). He was accordingly commanded to build an ark
(6:14-16) for the saving of himself and his house. An interval
of one hundred and twenty years elapsed while the ark was being
built (6:3), during which Noah bore constant testimony against
the unbelief and wickedness of that generation (1 Pet. 3:18-20;
2 Pet. 2:5).
When the ark of "gopher-wood" (mentioned only here) was at
length completed according to the command of the Lord, the
living creatures that were to be preserved entered into it; and
then Noah and his wife and sons and daughters-in-law entered it,
and the "Lord shut him in" (Gen.7:16). The judgment-threatened
now fell on the guilty world, "the world that then was, being
overflowed with water, perished" (2 Pet. 3:6). The ark floated
on the waters for one hundred and fifty days, and then rested on
the mountains of Ararat (Gen. 8:3,4); but not for a considerable
time after this was divine permission given him to leave the
ark, so that he and his family were a whole year shut up within
it (Gen. 6-14).
On leaving the ark Noah's first act was to erect an altar, the
first of which there is any mention, and offer the sacrifices of
adoring thanks and praise to God, who entered into a covenant
with him, the first covenant between God and man, granting him
possession of the earth by a new and special charter, which
remains in force to the present time (Gen. 8:21-9:17). As a sign
and witness of this covenant, the rainbow was adopted and set
apart by God, as a sure pledge that never again would the earth
be destroyed by a flood.
But, alas! Noah after this fell into grievous sin (Gen. 9:21);
and the conduct of Ham on this sad occasion led to the memorable
prediction regarding his three sons and their descendants. Noah
"lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years, and he
died" (28:29). (See DELUGE ¯T0001011).
Noah, motion, (Heb. No'ah) one of the five daughters of
Zelophehad (Num.26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Josh. 17:3).
salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards
called Joshua (Num. 13:8, 16; Deut. 32:44).
(2.) 1 Chr. 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time.
(3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew
his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the
throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2
Kings 17:1, 2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the
Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish
Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised
to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon,
who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the
Euphrates, B.C. 720 (2 Kings 17:5, 6; 18:9-12). No more is heard
of Hoshea. He disappeared like "foam upon the water" (Hos. 10:7;
used of children generally (Matt. 11:25; 21:16; Luke 10:21; Rom.
2:20). It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith
and knowledge (1 Cor. 3:1; Heb. 5:13; 1 Pet. 2:2). In Isa. 3:4
the word "babes" refers to a succession of weak and wicked
princes who reigned over Judah from the death of Josiah downward
to the destruction of Jerusalem.
The trust of the hypocrite is compared to the spider's web or
house (Job 8:14). It is said of the wicked by Isaiah that they
"weave the spider's web" (59:5), i.e., their works and designs
are, like the spider's web, vain and useless. The Hebrew word
here used is _'akkabish_, "a swift weaver."
In Prov. 30:28 a different Hebrew word (semamith) is used. It
is rendered in the Vulgate by stellio, and in the Revised
Version by "lizard." It may, however, represent the spider, of
which there are, it is said, about seven hundred species in
(1.) Heb. aven, "nothingness;" "vanity" (Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut.
32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).
(2.) 'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Ps. 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word
of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13).
(3.) 'Emah, "terror," in allusion to the hideous form of idols
(4.) Miphletzeth, "a fright;" "horror" (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr.
(5.) Bosheth, "shame;" "shameful thing" (Jer. 11:13; Hos.
9:10); as characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.
(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, "dung;" "refuse"
(Ezek. 16:36; 20:8; Deut. 29:17, marg.).
(7.) Shikkuts, "filth;" "impurity" (Ezek. 37:23; Nah. 3:6).
(8.) Semel, "likeness;" "a carved image" (Deut. 4:16).
(9.) Tselem, "a shadow" (Dan. 3:1; 1 Sam. 6:5), as
distinguished from the "likeness," or the exact counterpart.
(10.) Temunah, "similitude" (Deut. 4:12-19). Here Moses
forbids the several forms of Gentile idolatry.
(11.) 'Atsab, "a figure;" from the root "to fashion," "to
labour;" denoting that idols are the result of man's labour
(Isa. 48:5; Ps. 139:24, "wicked way;" literally, as some
translate, "way of an idol").
(12.) Tsir, "a form;" "shape" (Isa. 45:16).
(13.) Matztzebah, a "statue" set up (Jer. 43:13); a memorial
stone like that erected by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20),
by Joshua (4:9), and by Samuel (1 Sam. 7:12). It is the name
given to the statues of Baal (2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).
(14.) Hammanim, "sun-images." Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the
sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chr. 34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa. 17:8).
(15.) Maskith, "device" (Lev. 26:1; Num. 33:52). In Lev. 26:1,
the words "image of stone" (A.V.) denote "a stone or cippus with
the image of an idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc." In Ezek. 8:12,
"chambers of imagery" (maskith), are "chambers of which the
walls are painted with the figures of idols;" comp. ver. 10, 11.
(16.) Pesel, "a graven" or "carved image" (Isa. 44:10-20). It
denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deut. 7:25; 27:15; Isa.
(17.) Massekah, "a molten image" (Deut. 9:12; Judg. 17:3, 4).
(18.) Teraphim, pl., "images," family gods (penates)
worshipped by Abram's kindred (Josh. 24:14). Put by Michal in
David's bed (Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20; 1 Sam. 19:13).
"Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this
multiplicity and variety of words designating the instruments
and inventions of idolatry."
a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called
"Hill of Evil Counsel." It took its name from "some ancient
hero, the son of Hinnom." It is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8.
It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their
children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the
valley was called Tophet, or the "fire-stove," where the
children were burned. After the Exile, in order to show their
abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the
receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of
which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there.
The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that
of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed;
and (2) that of filth and corruption. It became thus to the
popular mind a symbol of the abode of the wicked hereafter. It
came to signify hell as the place of the wicked. "It might be
shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the
place of the damned, by this word. The word Gehenna [the Greek
contraction of Hinnom] was never used in the time of Christ in
any other sense than to denote the place of future punishment."
About this fact there can be no question. In this sense the word
is used eleven times in our Lord's discourses (Matt. 23:33; Luke
12:5; Matt. 5:22, etc.).
(1) of love (Hos. 11:4); (2) of Christ (Ps. 2:3); (3) uniting
together Christ's body the church (Col. 2:19; 3:14; Eph. 4:3);
(4) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezek. 34:27; Isa.
28:22; 52:2); (5) of brotherhood (Ezek. 37:15-28); (6) no bands
to the wicked in their death (Ps. 73:4; Job 21:7; Ps. 10:6).
Also denotes chains (Luke 8:29); companies of soldiers (Acts
21:31); a shepherd's staff, indicating the union between Judah
and Israel (Zech. 11:7).
That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant
evidence (Ex. 23:11; Deut. 15:11), but there is no mention of
beggars properly so called in the Old Testament. The poor were
provided for by the law of Moses (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 12:12;
14:29). It is predicted of the seed of the wicked that they
shall be beggars (Ps. 37:25; 109:10).
In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of
beggars (Mark 10:46; Luke 16:20, 21; Acts 3:2), yet there is no
mention of such a class as vagrant beggars, so numerous in the
East. "Beggarly," in Gal. 4:9, means worthless.
worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper
name. It is first used in Deut. 13:13. In the New Testament it
is found only in 2 Cor. 6:15, where it is used as a name of
Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated
"wicked" in Deut. 15:9; Ps. 41:8 (R.V. marg.); 101:3; Prov.
6:12, etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply
a worthless, lawless person (Judg. 19:22; 20:13; 1 Sam. 1:16;
Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude
(Ex. 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jer. 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the
"bitter and hasty nation" (Hab. 1:6). The "gall of bitterness"
expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A "root of
bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Heb. 12:15).
The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" (Ex. 12:8;
Num. 9:11). The kind of herbs so designated is not known.
Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and
time when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the
severity of the servitude under which the people groaned; and
have been regarded also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.
the refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned (Ex. 15:7;
Isa. 5:24; Matt. 3:12). This word sometimes, however, means
dried grass or hay (Isa. 5:24; 33:11). Chaff is used as a figure
of abortive wickedness (Ps. 1:4; Matt. 3:12). False doctrines
are also called chaff (Jer. 23:28), or more correctly rendered
"chopped straw." The destruction of the wicked, and their
powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of chaff by the
wind (Isa. 17:13; Hos. 13:3; Zeph. 2:2).
Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of
Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal
wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6).
He was very "subtil," but unprincipled.
(2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound
themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6-19). There
were different settlements of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16; 4:11; 1
Chr. 2:55). (See RECHABITE ¯T0003080.) His interview and
alliance with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23. He went
with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
Coming of Christ
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the
time" (1 John 5:20; 2 John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his
coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11; 3:20,
21; 1 Thess. 4:15; 2 Tim. 4:1; Heb. 9:28).
The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of
the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible
establishment of his kingdom in the world (Matt. 16:28), the
conferring on his people of the peculiar tokens of his love
(John 14:18, 23, 28), and his executing judgment on the wicked
(2 Thess. 2:8).
a contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old
Testament the Hebrew word _berith_ is always thus translated.
_Berith_ is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence
a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or
dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties
passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18,
The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is
_diatheke_, which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in
the Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the
word _berith_ of the Old Testament, "covenant."
This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and
man (Gen. 21:32), or between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1;
Josh. 9:6, 15). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was
solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Gen. 31:50), and
hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1 Sam. 20:8). The
marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Prov. 2:17),
because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are
spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death"
not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa.
(2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of
himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's
promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9;
Jer. 33:20, "my covenant"). We have an account of God's
covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, comp. Lev. 26:42), of the
covenant of the priesthood (Num. 25:12, 13; Deut. 33:9; Neh.
13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Ex. 34:27, 28; Lev.
26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the
history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 1:24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34;
Ezra 10; Neh. 9). In conformity with human custom, God's
covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deut. 4:31; Ps.
89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17). Hence the
covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Ps. 89:3,
4; 105:8-11; Heb. 6:13-20; Luke 1:68-75). God's covenant
consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isa. 59:21; Jer.
The term covenant is also used to designate the regular
succession of day and night (Jer. 33:20), the Sabbath (Ex.
31:16), circumcision (Gen. 17:9, 10), and in general any
ordinance of God (Jer. 34:13, 14).
A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the
sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity,
is used (Num. 18:19; Lev. 2:13; 2 Chr. 13:5).
COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was
placed at his creation. In this covenant, (1.) The contracting
parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free
moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity
(Rom. 5:12-19). (2.) The promise was "life" (Matt. 19:16, 17;
Gal. 3:12). (3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law,
the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of
the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen.
This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made
with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life,
because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a
legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the
The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life
which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually
called the seal of that covenant.
This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as
Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people,
and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still
in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God,
and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted
CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered
into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by
them in its several parts. In it the Father represented the
Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people
as their surety (John 17:4, 6, 9; Isa. 42:6; Ps. 89:3).
The conditions of this covenant were, (1.) On the part of the
Father (a) all needful preparation to the Son for the
accomplishment of his work (Heb. 10:5; Isa. 42:1-7); (b) support
in the work (Luke 22:43); and (c) a glorious reward in the
exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Phil. 2:6-11), his
investiture with universal dominion (John 5:22; Ps. 110:1), his
having the administration of the covenant committed into his
hands (Matt. 28:18; John 1:12; 17:2; Acts 2:33), and in the
final salvation of all his people (Isa. 35:10; 53:10, 11; Jer.
31:33; Titus 1:2). (2.) On the part of the Son the conditions
were (a) his becoming incarnate (Gal. 4:4, 5); and (b) as the
second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their
place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated
covenant of works; (c) obeying the law (Ps. 40:8; Isa. 42:21;
John 9:4, 5), and (d) suffering its penalty (Isa. 53; 2 Cor.
5:21; Gal. 3:13), in their stead.
Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf
of his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Heb.
8:6; 9:15; 12:24, this title is given to Christ. (See
Government of God
See PROVIDENCE ¯T0003012.
gift of God. Acts 1:23.
derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the
invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered:
(1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times.
This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask,"
"demand;" hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, 16). It is rendered
"grave" thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; 1 Sam.
2:6, etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the
historical books with the original word in the margin, while in
the poetical books they have reversed this rule.
In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is
rendered "hell," the place of disembodied spirits. The
inhabitants of sheol are "the congregation of the dead" (Prov.
21:16). It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Num. 16:33; Job
24:19; Ps. 9:17; 31:17, etc.); (b) of the good (Ps. 16:10; 30:3;
49:15; 86:13, etc.).
Sheol is described as deep (Job 11:8), dark (10:21, 22), with
bars (17:16). The dead "go down" to it (Num. 16:30, 33; Ezek.
31:15, 16, 17).
(2.) The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same
scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a
prison (1 Pet. 3:19), with gates and bars and locks (Matt.
16:18; Rev. 1:18), and it is downward (Matt. 11:23; Luke 10:15).
The righteous and the wicked are separated. The blessed dead
are in that part of hades called paradise (Luke 23:43). They are
also said to be in Abraham's bosom (Luke 16:22).
(3.) Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New
Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matt. 23:33). The
fearful nature of their condition there is described in various
figurative expressions (Matt. 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30; Luke
16:24, etc.). (See HINNOM ¯T0001790.)
the Hermes (i.e., "the speaker") of the Greeks (Acts 14:12), a
heathen God represented as the constant attendant of Jupiter,
and the god of eloquence. The inhabitants of Lystra took Paul
for this god because he was the "chief speaker."
(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word _goyim_ denoted generally
all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; comp. Gal. 3:8). The
Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner
from the other _goyim_. They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23;
26:14-45; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites,
Hittites, etc., were the _goyim_, the heathen, with whom the
Jews were forbidden to be associated in any way (Josh. 23:7; 1
Kings 11:2). The practice of idolatry was the characteristic of
these nations, and hence the word came to designate idolaters
(Ps. 106:47; Jer. 46:28; Lam. 1:3; Isa. 36:18), the wicked (Ps.
9:5, 15, 17).
The corresponding Greek word in the New Testament, _ethne_,
has similar shades of meaning. In Acts 22:21, Gal. 3:14, it
denotes the people of the earth generally; and in Matt. 6:7, an
idolater. In modern usage the word denotes all nations that are
strangers to revealed religion.
servant of God, (Jer. 36:26), the father of Shelemiah.
servant of God, (1 Chr. 5:15), a Gadite chief.
God with us, Matt. 1:23). (See IMMANUEL ¯T0001875.)
comforted by God, a Levitical musician (1 Chr. 15:18).
allotted by God, the first of the sons of Naphtali (Gen. 46:24).
vision of God, the father of Joel the prophet (Joel 1:1).
champion of El; man of God, a descendant of Cain (Gen. 4:18), so
called, perhaps, to denote that even among the descendants of
Cain God had not left himself without a witness.
father's brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the
seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings
16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil
influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam
he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by
Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account
kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He
undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of
Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a
complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and
was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all
the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other
concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause
Ahab renewed war (1 Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the
city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet Micaiah warned him
that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false prophets who
encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was
imprisoned for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose.
Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible
escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn
at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot
for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1
Kings 21:19) was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years.
Because of his idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is
referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2 Kings
8:18; 2 Chr. 22:3; Micah 6:16).
(2.) A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah (Jer. 29:21), of
whom nothing further is known.
This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Ex.
22:5; Num. 20:4, 8, 11; Ps. 78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen.
45:17); of eatable beasts (Prov. 9:2); and of swift beasts or
dromedaries (Isa. 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a
domestic animal as property (Rev. 18:13); as used for food (1
Cor. 15:39), for service (Luke 10:34; Acts 23:24), and for
sacrifice (Acts 7:42).
When used in contradistinction to man (Ps. 36:6), it denotes a
brute creature generally, and when in contradistinction to
creeping things (Lev. 11:2-7; 27:26), a four-footed animal.
The Mosaic law required that beasts of labour should have rest
on the Sabbath (Ex. 20:10; 23:12), and in the Sabbatical year
all cattle were allowed to roam about freely, and eat whatever
grew in the fields (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:7). No animal could be
castrated (Lev. 22:24). Animals of different kinds were to be
always kept separate (Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:10). Oxen when used
in threshing were not to be prevented from eating what was
within their reach (Deut. 25:4; 1 Cor.9:9).
This word is used figuratively of an infuriated multitude (1
Cor. 15:32; Acts 19:29; comp. Ps. 22:12, 16; Eccl. 3:18; Isa.
11:6-8), and of wicked men (2 Pet. 2:12). The four beasts of
Daniel 7:3, 17, 23 represent four kingdoms or kings.
frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Ex.
35:18; 39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isa. 5:18), binding
prisoners (Judg. 15:13; Ps. 2:3; 129:4), and measuring ground (2
Sam. 8;2; Ps. 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the
giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. "Is not their tent-cord
plucked up?" R.V.). To gird one's self with a cord was a token
of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant
to level it with the ground (Lam. 2:8). The "cords of sin" are
the consequences or fruits of sin (Prov. 5:22). A "threefold
cord" is a symbol of union (Eccl. 4:12). The "cords of a man"
(Hos. 11:4) means that men employ, in inducing each other,
methods such as are suitable to men, and not "cords" such as
oxen are led by. Isaiah (5:18) says, "Woe unto them that draw
iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart
rope." This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: "Woe
to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by
cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are
strong and are like a cart rope." This may be the true meaning.
The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by
their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart
rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the
persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of
provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his
vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of
iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon
themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which
their sins deserved."
may be simply defined as the termination of life. It is
represented under a variety of aspects in Scripture: (1.) "The
dust shall return to the earth as it was" (Eccl. 12:7).
(2.) "Thou takest away their breath, they die" (Ps. 104:29).
(3.) It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this
tabernacle" (2 Cor. 5:1); the "putting off this tabernacle" (2
Pet. 1:13, 14).
(4.) Being "unclothed" (2 Cor. 5:3, 4).
(5.) "Falling on sleep" (Ps. 76:5; Jer. 51:39; Acts 13:36; 2
(6.) "I go whence I shall not return" (Job 10:21); "Make me to
know mine end" (Ps. 39:4); "to depart" (Phil. 1:23).
The grave is represented as "the gates of death" (Job 38:17;
Ps. 9:13; 107:18). The gloomy silence of the grave is spoken of
under the figure of the "shadow of death" (Jer. 2:6).
Death is the effect of sin (Heb. 2:14), and not a "debt of
nature." It is but once (9:27), universal (Gen. 3:19), necessary
(Luke 2:28-30). Jesus has by his own death taken away its sting
for all his followers (1 Cor. 15:55-57).
There is a spiritual death in trespasses and sins, i.e., the
death of the soul under the power of sin (Rom. 8:6; Eph. 2:1, 3;
The "second death" (Rev. 2:11) is the everlasting perdition of
the wicked (Rev. 21:8), and "second" in respect to natural or
THE DEATH OF CHRIST is the procuring cause incidentally of all
the blessings men enjoy on earth. But specially it is the
procuring cause of the actual salvation of all his people,
together with all the means that lead thereto. It does not make
their salvation merely possible, but certain (Matt. 18:11; Rom.
5:10; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 1:4; 3:13; Eph. 1:7; 2:16; Rom.
The origin of this Jewish sect cannot definitely be traced. It
was probably the outcome of the influence of Grecian customs and
philosophy during the period of Greek domination. The first time
they are met with is in connection with John the Baptist's
ministry. They came out to him when on the banks of the Jordan,
and he said to them, "O generation of vipers, who hath warned
you to flee from the wrath to come?" (Matt. 3:7.) The next time
they are spoken of they are represented as coming to our Lord
tempting him. He calls them "hypocrites" and "a wicked and
adulterous generation" (Matt. 16:1-4; 22:23). The only reference
to them in the Gospels of Mark (12:18-27) and Luke (20:27-38) is
their attempting to ridicule the doctrine of the resurrection,
which they denied, as they also denied the existence of angels.
They are never mentioned in John's Gospel.
There were many Sadducees among the "elders" of the Sanhedrin.
They seem, indeed, to have been as numerous as the Pharisees
(Acts 23:6). They showed their hatred of Jesus in taking part in
his condemnation (Matt. 16:21; 26:1-3, 59; Mark 8:31; 15:1; Luke
9:22; 22:66). They endeavoured to prohibit the apostles from
preaching the resurrection of Christ (Acts 2:24, 31, 32; 4:1, 2;
5:17, 24-28). They were the deists or sceptics of that age. They
do not appear as a separate sect after the destruction of
plural of Baal; images of the god Baal (Judg. 2:11; 1 Sam. 7:4).
whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of
Job's friends (Job 32:2, 6).
the destroyer, subduer, or fish-god, the god of the Moabites
(Num. 21:29; Jer. 48:7, 13, 46). The worship of this god, "the
abomination of Moab," was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon (1
Kings 11:7), but was abolished by Josiah (2 Kings 23:13). On the
"Moabite Stone" (q.v.), Mesha (2 Kings 3:5) ascribes his
victories over the king of Israel to this god, "And Chemosh
drove him before my sight."
God is his rejector, one of David's thirty-seven distinguished
heros (2 Sam. 23:25).
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron
God his salvation, a son of David, 2 Sam. 5:15 = Elishama, 1
fortune (i.e., sent) of God, the representative of the tribe of
Zebulum among the twelve spies (Num. 13:10).
(Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:20; Col. 2:9), the essential being or the
nature of God.
upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of
Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).
snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah (1 Chr. 9:6).
smitten by God, the son of Irad, and father of Methusael (Gen.
tower of God, a fortified city of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38),
supposed by some to be identical with Magdala (q.v.).
God allots, a prince of the tribe of Asher (Num. 1:13), in the
deliverance of God, the prince of Issachar who assisted "to
divide the land by inheritance" (Num. 34:26).
redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud, a prince of Naphtali (Num.
face of God, father of the prophetess Anna (q.v.), Luke 2:36.
the Omnipotent, the name of God in frequent use in the Hebrew
Scriptures, generally translated "the Almighty."
asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).
rock of God, chief of the family of the Merarites (Num. 3:35) at
the time of the Exodus.
(Gr. Logos), one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the
writings of John (John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1; Rev. 19:13). As such,
Christ is the revealer of God. His office is to make God known.
"No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which
is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (John
1:18). This title designates the divine nature of Christ. As the
Word, he "was in the beginning" and "became flesh." "The Word
was with God " and "was God," and was the Creator of all things
(comp. Ps.33: 6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18; Isa. 40:8).
fly-lord, the god of the Philistines at Ekron (2 Kings 1:2, 3,
16). This name was given to the god because he was supposed to
be able to avert the plague of flies which in that region was to
be feared. He was consulted by Ahaziah as to his recovery.
(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only
in the New Testament (Matt. 10:25; 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22). It is
probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning
"the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or
God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5). She was
a descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.)
"were both righteous before God" (Luke 1:5, 13). Mary's visit to
Elisabeth is described in 1:39-63.
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed
to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings
infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God"
(R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2 Tim. 3:16. This is
true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their
being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as
"theopneustic," i.e., "breathed into by God" in such a sense
that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly
what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind
and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves
abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible
as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary
inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible
as it came from God, none have been proved to exist.
Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All
these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do
not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God.
The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God,
for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the
very manner and words in which it was originally given.
As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This
only we know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all
equally inspired, and are all equally infallible. The
inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their
characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities as
thinkers or writers. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580; WORD OF GOD
the principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was
worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was
identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because
he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed
Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside
the gates of Lystra (14:13).
helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor
(2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of
Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
an oblation, dedicated to God. Thus Cain consecrated to God of
the first-fruits of the earth, and Abel of the firstlings of the
flock (Gen. 4:3, 4). Under the Levitical system different kinds
of offerings are specified, and laws laid down as to their
presentation. These are described under their distinctive names.
(1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This
Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex. 12:5; Lev. 4:23;
Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, 20). Hence it may
be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated.
It literally means "strength," and points to the superior
strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.
(2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen.
31:10,12); he-goats (Num. 7:17-88; Isa. 1:11); goats (Deut.
32:14; Ps. 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Ps. 66:15). This
word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa. 14:9,
and in Zech. 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer. 50:8.)
(3.) Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among
the Hebrews (Gen. 27:9, 14, 17; Judg. 6:19).
(4.) Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat
(2 Chr. 29:23); "a goat" (Lev. 4:24); "satyr" (Isa. 13:21);
"devils" (Lev. 17:7). It is the goat of the sin-offering (Lev.
9:3, 15; 10:16).
(5.) Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chr. 29:21). In
Dan. 8:5, 8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
(6.) Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat"
(Gen. 30:35; 32:14).
(7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev. 16:8, 10,26).
(8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the
undomesticated goat:, _Yael_, only in plural mountain goats (1
Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18). It is derived from a word
meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the
mountainous parts of Moab. And _'akko_, only in Deut. 14:5, the
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matt. 25:32,33;
Heb. 9:12,13, 19; 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men
(Ezek. 34:17; 39:18; Matt. 25:33).
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews.
They had an important place in their rural economy on account of
the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the
kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen.
31:10, 12;32:14; 1 Sam. 25:2).
miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and
head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:13; 1 Chr. 1:29).
to whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite
Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David (1 Chr.
God his deliverance, one of David's sons (2 Sam. 5:16); called
also Eliphelet (1 Chr. 3:8).
whom God has judged, one of the "captains of hundreds"
associated with Jehoiada in the league to overthrow the
usurpation of Athaliah (2 Chr. 23:1).
God my bow, the birth-place of Nahum the prophet (Nah. 1:1). It
was probably situated in Galilee, but nothing definite is known
grace of God. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (Num.
34:23). (2.) A chief of the tribe of Asher (1 Chr. 7:39).
made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner (1 Chr.
27:21), called Jasiel in 1 Chr. 11:47.
praiser of God. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:16).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (2 Chr. 29:12).
assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite
archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
gift of God. (1.) The son of Levi, and father of Heli (Luke
(2.) Son of another Levi (Luke 3:29).
whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather
of Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah (Neh. 6:10).
friend of God, (Num. 10:29)=Reuel (q.v.), Ex. 2:18, the
father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro
goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and
Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz (Isa.
covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after
the death of Gideon (Judg. 8:33; 9:4). In 9:46 he is called
simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of the
covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites,
contrary to the command of Jehovah (Ex. 34:12), when they began
to fall away to the worship of idols.
man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God. (1.) The son of
Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Gen.
22:22, 23; 24:15, 24, 47). He appears in person only once
(2.) A southern city of Judah (1 Chr. 4:30); called also
Bethul (Josh. 19:4) and Bethel (12:16; 1 Sam. 30:27).
the transliteration of the Hebrew word _tsebha'oth_, meaning
"hosts," "armies" (Rom. 9:29; James 5:4). In the LXX. the Hebrew
word is rendered by "Almighty." (See Rev. 4:8; comp. Isa. 6:3.)
It may designate Jehovah as either (1) God of the armies of
earth, or (2) God of the armies of the stars, or (3) God of the
unseen armies of angels; or perhaps it may include all these
a corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian sun-god (the Adonis of the
Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. In the Chaldean
calendar there was a month set apart in honour of this god, the
month of June to July, the beginning of the summer solstice. At
this festival, which lasted six days, the worshippers, with loud
lamentations, bewailed the funeral of the god, they sat "weeping
for Tammuz" (Ezek. 8:14).
The name, also borrowed from Chaldea, of one of the months of
the Hebrew calendar.
denounced by God against the serpent (Gen. 3:14), and against
Cain (4:11). These divine maledictions carried their effect with
them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men
(Gen. 9:25; 49:7; Deut. 27:15; Josh. 6:26). Such curses are not
the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions.
No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother (Ex.
21:17), nor the prince of his people (22:28), nor the deaf (Lev.
19:14). Cursing God or blaspheming was punishable by death (Lev.
24:10-16). The words "curse God and die" (R.V., "renounce God
and die"), used by Job's wife (Job 2:9), have been variously
interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but death
was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and
destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.
In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2 Sam. 16:23, to
denote the most holy place in the temple (1 Kings 6:5, 19-23;
8:6). In 2 Sam. 16:23 it means the Word of God. A man inquired
"at the oracle of God" by means of the Urim and Thummim in the
breastplate on the high priest's ephod. In the New Testament it
is used only in the plural, and always denotes the Word of God
(Rom. 3:2; Heb. 5:12, etc.). The Scriptures are called "living
oracles" (comp. Heb. 4:12) because of their quickening power
(1.) Definitions. The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to
indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24).
According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens,
(a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" (Gen. 2:19; 7:3,
23; Ps. 8:8, etc.), "the eagles of heaven" (Lam. 4:19), etc.
(b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29).
(c) "The heaven of heavens," or "the third heaven" (Deut.
10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; Ps. 115:16; 148:4; 2 Cor. 12:2).
(2.) Meaning of words in the original,
(a) The usual Hebrew word for "heavens" is _shamayim_, a
plural form meaning "heights," "elevations" (Gen. 1:1; 2:1).
(b) The Hebrew word _marom_ is also used (Ps. 68:18; 93:4;
102:19, etc.) as equivalent to _shamayim_, "high places,"
(c) Heb. galgal, literally a "wheel," is rendered "heaven" in
Ps. 77:18 (R.V., "whirlwind").
(d) Heb. shahak, rendered "sky" (Deut. 33:26; Job 37:18; Ps.
18:11), plural "clouds" (Job 35:5; 36:28; Ps. 68:34, marg.
"heavens"), means probably the firmament.
(e) Heb. rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered
"firmamentum" in the Vulgate, whence our "firmament" (Gen. 1:6;
Deut. 33:26, etc.), regarded as a solid expanse.
(3.) Metaphorical meaning of term. Isa. 14:13, 14; "doors of
heaven" (Ps. 78:23); heaven "shut" (1 Kings 8:35); "opened"
(Ezek. 1:1). (See 1 Chr. 21:16.)
(4.) Spiritual meaning. The place of the everlasting
blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits.
(a) Christ calls it his "Father's house" (John 14:2).
(b) It is called "paradise" (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev.
(c) "The heavenly Jerusalem" (Gal. 4: 26; Heb. 12:22; Rev.
(d) The "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 25:1; James 2:5).
(e) The "eternal kingdom" (2 Pet. 1:11).
(f) The "eternal inheritance" (1 Pet. 1:4; Heb. 9:15).
(g) The "better country" (Heb. 11:14, 16).
(h) The blessed are said to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob," and to be "in Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22; Matt. 8:11);
to "reign with Christ" (2 Tim. 2:12); and to enjoy "rest" (Heb.
In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the
possession of "life everlasting," "an eternal weight of glory"
(2 Cor. 4:17), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a
deliverance from all evils (2 Cor. 5:1, 2) and from the society
of the wicked (2 Tim. 4:18), bliss without termination, the
"fulness of joy" for ever (Luke 20:36; 2 Cor. 4:16, 18; 1 Pet.
1:4; 5:10; 1 John 3:2). The believer's heaven is not only a
state of everlasting blessedness, but also a "place", a place
"prepared" for them (John 14:2).
people of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of
the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25). This is
one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai,
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen.
41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;
the Aramaic form of Baal, the national god of the Babylonians
(Isa. 46:1; Jer. 50:2; 51:44). It signifies "lord." (See BAAL
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1 Cor. 7:20).
The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting
from your being called into the kingdom of God.
God of Bethel, the name of the place where Jacob had the vision
of the ladder, and where he erected an altar (Gen. 31:13; 35:7).
whom God has loved, son of Chislon, and chief of the tribe of
Benjamin; one of those who were appointed to divide the Promised
Land among the tribes (Num. 34:21).
God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play
"on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark
to the city of David (1 Chr. 15:18, 21).
God is its fear, a city in the tribe of Dan. It was a city of
refuge and a Levitical city (Josh. 21:23). It has been
identified with Beit-Likia, north-east of latrum.
Flame of fire
is the chosen symbol of the holiness of God (Ex. 3:2; Rev.
2:18), as indicating "the intense, all-consuming operation of
his holiness in relation to sin."
to render sacred, to consecrate (Ex. 28:38; 29:1). This word is
from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of
God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).