a skin prepared for writing on; so called from Pergamos (q.v.),
where this was first done (2 Tim. 4:13).
Mentioned only in Mark 6:9 and Acts 12:8. The sandal was simply
a sole, made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by
leathern straps. Sandals were also made of seal-skin (Ezek.
16:10; lit. tahash, "leather;" A.V., "badger's skin;" R.V.,
"sealskin," or marg., "porpoise-skin"). (See SHOE ¯T0003404.)
Skin, Coats made of
(Gen. 3:21). Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering
for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:5; Num. 4:8-14).
(Mark 7:4) means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the
Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of
raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the
Captivity. Before this they had, properly speaking, no table.
That which served the purpose was a skin or piece of leather
spread out on the carpeted floor. Sometimes a stool was placed
in the middle of this skin. (See ABRAHAM'S BOSOM ¯T0000055;
BANQUET ¯T0000434; MEALS ¯T0002451.)
a species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour
of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev.
11:30, where the Hebrew word so translated is _coah_ (R.V.,
"land crocodile"). In the same verse the Hebrew _tanshemeth_,
rendered in Authorized Version "mole," is in Revised Version
"chameleon," which is the correct rendering. This animal is very
common in Egypt and in the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan
Heb. ashishah, (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1),
meaning properly "a cake of pressed raisins." "Flagons of wine"
of the Authorized Version should be, as in the Revised Version,
"cakes of raisins" in all these passages. In Isa. 22:24 it is
the rendering of the Hebrew _nebel_, which properly means a
bottle or vessel of skin. (Comp. 1 Sam. 1:24; 10:3; 25:18; 2
Sam. 16:1, where the same Hebrew word is used.)
the wool of a sheep, whether shorn off or still attached to the
skin (Deut. 18:4; Job 31:20). The miracle of Gideon's fleece
(Judg. 6:37-40) consisted in the dew having fallen at one time
on the fleece without any on the floor, and at another time in
the fleece remaining dry while the ground was wet with dew.
(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant. 4:8), was that
great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of
Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its
fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6),
its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer.
13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6;
a small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle (1 Sam.
17:40); "a shepherd's bag."
In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr. pera, which
was a bag carried by travellers and shepherds, generally made of
skin (Matt. 10:10; Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; 10:4). The name "scrip"
is meant to denote that the bag was intended to hold scraps,
fragments, as if scraped off from larger articles, trifles.
the tunic worn like the shirt next the skin (Lev. 16:4; Cant.
5:3; 2 Sam. 15:32; Ex. 28:4; 29:5). The "coats of skins"
prepared by God for Adam and Eve were probably nothing more than
aprons (Gen. 3:21). This tunic was sometimes woven entire
without a seam (John 19:23); it was also sometimes of "many
colours" (Gen. 37:3; R.V. marg., "a long garment with sleeves").
The "fisher's coat" of John 21:7 was obviously an outer garment
or cloak, as was also the "coat" made by Hannah for Samuel (1
Sam. 2:19). (See DRESS ¯T0001076.)
a vessel made of skins for holding wine (Josh. 9:4. 13; 1 Sam.
16:20; Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37, 38), or milk (Judg.
4:19), or water (Gen. 21:14, 15, 19), or strong drink (Hab.
Earthenware vessels were also similarly used (Jer. 19:1-10; 1
Kings 14:3; Isa. 30:14). In Job 32:19 (comp. Matt. 9:17; Luke
5:37, 38; Mark 2:22) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to
burst through the fermentation of the wine. "Bottles of wine" in
the Authorized Version of Hos. 7:5 is properly rendered in the
Revised Version by "the heat of wine," i.e., the fever of wine,
its intoxicating strength.
The clouds are figuratively called the "bottles of heaven"
(Job 38:37). A bottle blackened or shrivelled by smoke is
referred to in Ps. 119:83 as an image to which the psalmist
In Num. 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the "skin" of a grape. In 2
Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a "sack" for grain, as
rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, in the parable
of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree,
or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however,
that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed,
it is called "St. John's bread" and "locust tree." This tree is
in "February covered with innumerable purple-red pendent
blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods
from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a
horn (whence the Greek name keratia, meaning 'little horns'),
with a sweetish taste when still unripe. Enormous quantities of
these are gathered for sale in various towns and for
exportation." "They were eaten as food, though only by the
poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord." The bean is
called a "gerah," which is used as the name of the smallest
Hebrew weight, twenty of these making a shekel.
This word denotes (1) absolute nakedness (Gen. 2:25; Job 1:21;
Eccl. 5:15; Micah 1:8; Amos 2:16); (2) being poorly clad (Isa.
58:7; James 2:15). It denotes also (3) the state of one who has
laid aside his loose outer garment (Lat. nudus), and appears
clothed only in a long tunic or under robe worn next the skin (1
Sam. 19:24; Isa. 47:3; comp. Mark 14:52; John 21:7). It is used
figuratively, meaning "being discovered" or "made manifest" (Job
26:6; Heb. 4:13). In Ex. 32:25 the expression "the people were
naked" (A.V.) is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version
"the people were broken loose", i.e., had fallen into a state of
lawlessness and insubordination. In 2 Chr. 28:19 the words "he
made Judah naked" (A.V.), but Revised Version "he had dealt
wantonly in Judah," mean "he had permitted Judah to break loose
from all the restraints of religion."
(1.) Heb. 'addereth, a large over-garment. This word is used of
Elijah's mantle (1 Kings 19:13, 19; 2 Kings 2:8, 13, etc.),
which was probably a sheepskin. It appears to have been his only
garment, a strip of skin or leather binding it to his loins.
_'Addereth_ twice occurs with the epithet "hairy" (Gen. 25:25;
Zech. 13:4, R.V.). It is the word denoting the "goodly
Babylonish garment" which Achan coveted (Josh. 7:21).
(2.) Heb. me'il, frequently applied to the "robe of the ephod"
(Ex. 28:4, 31; Lev. 8:7), which was a splendid under tunic
wholly of blue, reaching to below the knees. It was woven
without seam, and was put on by being drawn over the head. It
was worn not only by priests but by kings (1 Sam. 24:4),
prophets (15:27), and rich men (Job 1:20; 2:12). This was the
"little coat" which Samuel's mother brought to him from year to
year to Shiloh (1 Sam. 2:19), a miniature of the official
(3.) Semikah, "a rug," the garment which Jael threw as a
covering over Sisera (Judg. 4:18). The Hebrew word occurs
nowhere else in Scripture.
(4.) Maataphoth, plural, only in Isa. 3:22, denoting a large
exterior tunic worn by females. (See DRESS ¯T0001076.)
God hears. (1.) Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine
(Gen. 16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was
eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in
Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised
(17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and
wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and
wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery
(21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, "Expel
this slave and her son." Influenced by a divine admonition,
Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of
water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one
of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life
(Gen. 21:14-16). (See HAGAR ¯T0001583.)
Ishmael settled in the land of Paran, a region lying between
Canaan and the mountains of Sinai; and "God was with him, and he
became a great archer" (Gen. 21:9-21). He became a great desert
chief, but of his history little is recorded. He was about
ninety years of age when his father Abraham died, in connection
with whose burial he once more for a moment reappears. On this
occasion the two brothers met after being long separated. "Isaac
with his hundreds of household slaves, Ishmael with his troops
of wild retainers and half-savage allies, in all the state of a
Bedouin prince, gathered before the cave of Machpelah, in the
midst of the men of Heth, to pay the last duties to the 'father
of the faithful,' would make a notable subject for an artist"
(Gen. 25:9). Of the after events of his life but little is
known. He died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years,
but where and when are unknown (25:17). He had twelve sons, who
became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the
Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern
Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Gen. 37:25, 27, 28;
39:1), "their hand against every man, and every man's hand
(2.) The son of Nethaniah, "of the seed royal" (Jer. 40:8,
15). He plotted against Gedaliah, and treacherously put him and
others to death. He carried off many captives, "and departed to
go over to the Ammonites."
(Heb. tsara'ath, a "smiting," a "stroke," because the disease
was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is
from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated
the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the
disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Lev.
13; 14; Num. 12:10-15, etc. There were reckoned six different
circumstances under which it might develop itself, (1) without
any apparent cause (Lev. 13:2-8); (2) its reappearance (9-17);
(3) from an inflammation (18-28); (4) on the head or chin
(29-37); (5) in white polished spots (38, 39); (6) at the back
or in the front of the head (40-44).
Lepers were required to live outside the camp or city (Num.
5:1-4; 12:10-15, etc.). This disease was regarded as an awful
punishment from the Lord (2 Kings 5:7; 2 Chr. 26:20). (See
MIRIAM ¯T0002562; GEHAZI ¯T0001452; UZZIAH ¯T0003760.)
This disease "begins with specks on the eyelids and on the
palms, gradually spreading over the body, bleaching the hair
white wherever they appear, crusting the affected parts with
white scales, and causing terrible sores and swellings. From the
skin the disease eats inward to the bones, rotting the whole
body piecemeal." "In Christ's day no leper could live in a
walled town, though he might in an open village. But wherever he
was he was required to have his outer garment rent as a sign of
deep grief, to go bareheaded, and to cover his beard with his
mantle, as if in lamentation at his own virtual death. He had
further to warn passers-by to keep away from him, by calling
out, 'Unclean! unclean!' nor could he speak to any one, or
receive or return a salutation, since in the East this involves
That the disease was not contagious is evident from the
regulations regarding it (Lev. 13:12, 13, 36; 2 Kings 5:1).
Leprosy was "the outward and visible sign of the innermost
spiritual corruption; a meet emblem in its small beginnings, its
gradual spread, its internal disfigurement, its dissolution
little by little of the whole body, of that which corrupts,
degrades, and defiles man's inner nature, and renders him unmeet
to enter the presence of a pure and holy God" (Maclear's
Handbook O.T). Our Lord cured lepers (Matt. 8:2, 3; Mark
1:40-42). This divine power so manifested illustrates his
gracious dealings with men in curing the leprosy of the soul,
the fatal taint of sin.
Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place
is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor,
the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered
"psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.)
The gittith, occurring in the title of Ps. 8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim
(Ps. 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Ps. 45:8, in
the form _minni_, probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened)
plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the
Revised Version "stringed instruments." (6.) Machalath, in the
titles of Ps. 53 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or
Of wind instruments mention is made of, (1.) The 'ugab (Gen.
4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or
syrinx. (2.) The qeren or "horn" (Josh. 6:5; 1 Chr. 25:5). (3.)
The shophar, rendered "trumpet" (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8). The word
means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear,
shrill sound it emitted. It was often used (Ex. 19:13; Num.
10:10; Judg. 7:16, 18; 1 Sam. 13:3). (4.) The hatsotserah, or
straight trumpet (Ps. 98:6; Num. 10:1-10). This name is supposed
by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the
pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara.
Some have identified it with the modern trombone. (5.) The
halil, i.e, "bored through," a flute or pipe (1 Sam. 10:5; 1
Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; Jer. 48:36) which is still used in
Israel. (6.) The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" (Dan. 3:5),
probably a sort of bagpipe. (7.) The maskrokith'a (Dan. 3:5),
rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown.
Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, (1.) The
toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Ex.
15:20; Job 21:12; Ps. 68:25); also "tabret" (Gen. 31:27; Isa.
24:8; 1 Sam. 10:5). (2.) The paamon, the "bells" on the robe of
the high priest (Ex. 28:33; 39:25). (3.) The tseltselim,
"cymbals" (2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 150:5), which are struck together and
produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses
and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" (1 Chr.
13:8; Ezra 3:10, etc.). These words are all derived from the
same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle." (4.) The menaan'im, used
only in 2 Sam. 6:5, rendered "cornets" (R.V., "castanets"); in
the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation. (5.) The
shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Sam. 18:6, rendered "instruments
of music" (marg. of R.V., "triangles or three-stringed
The words in Eccl. 2:8, "musical instruments, and that of all
sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version
"concubines very many."
(1.) Materials used. The earliest and simplest an apron of
fig-leaves sewed together (Gen. 3:7); then skins of animals
(3:21). Elijah's dress was probably the skin of a sheep (2 Kings
1:8). The Hebrews were early acquainted with the art of weaving
hair into cloth (Ex. 26:7; 35:6), which formed the sackcloth of
mourners. This was the material of John the Baptist's robe
(Matt. 3:4). Wool was also woven into garments (Lev. 13:47;
Deut. 22:11; Ezek. 34:3; Job 31:20; Prov. 27:26). The Israelites
probably learned the art of weaving linen when they were in
Egypt (1 Chr. 4:21). Fine linen was used in the vestments of the
high priest (Ex. 28:5), as well as by the rich (Gen. 41:42;
Prov. 31:22; Luke 16:19). The use of mixed material, as wool and
flax, was forbidden (Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:11).
(2.) Colour. The prevailing colour was the natural white of
the material used, which was sometimes rendered purer by the
fuller's art (Ps. 104:1, 2; Isa. 63:3; Mark 9:3). The Hebrews
were acquainted with the art of dyeing (Gen. 37:3, 23). Various
modes of ornamentation were adopted in the process of weaving
(Ex. 28:6; 26:1, 31; 35:25), and by needle-work (Judg. 5:30; Ps.
45:13). Dyed robes were imported from foreign countries,
particularly from Phoenicia (Zeph. 1:8). Purple and scarlet
robes were the marks of the wealthy (Luke 16:19; 2 Sam. 1:24).
(3.) Form. The robes of men and women were not very much
different in form from each other.
(a) The "coat" (kethoneth), of wool, cotton, or linen, was
worn by both sexes. It was a closely-fitting garment, resembling
in use and form our shirt (John 19:23). It was kept close to the
body by a girdle (John 21:7). A person wearing this "coat" alone
was described as naked (1 Sam. 19:24; Isa. 20:2; 2 Kings 6:30;
John 21:7); deprived of it he would be absolutely naked.
(b) A linen cloth or wrapper (sadin) of fine linen, used
somewhat as a night-shirt (Mark 14:51). It is mentioned in Judg.
14:12, 13, and rendered there "sheets."
(c) An upper tunic (meil), longer than the "coat" (1 Sam.
2:19; 24:4; 28:14). In 1 Sam. 28:14 it is the mantle in which
Samuel was enveloped; in 1 Sam. 24:4 it is the "robe" under
which Saul slept. The disciples were forbidden to wear two
"coats" (Matt. 10:10; Luke 9:3).
(d) The usual outer garment consisted of a piece of woollen
cloth like a Scotch plaid, either wrapped round the body or
thrown over the shoulders like a shawl, with the ends hanging
down in front, or it might be thrown over the head so as to
conceal the face (2 Sam. 15:30; Esther 6:12). It was confined to
the waist by a girdle, and the fold formed by the overlapping of
the robe served as a pocket (2 Kings 4:39; Ps. 79:12; Hag. 2:12;
Prov. 17:23; 21:14).
Female dress. The "coat" was common to both sexes (Cant. 5:3).
But peculiar to females were (1) the "veil" or "wimple," a kind
of shawl (Ruth 3:15; rendered "mantle," R.V., Isa. 3:22); (2)
the "mantle," also a species of shawl (Isa. 3:22); (3) a "veil,"
probably a light summer dress (Gen. 24:65); (4) a "stomacher," a
holiday dress (Isa. 3:24). The outer garment terminated in an
ample fringe or border, which concealed the feet (Isa. 47:2;
The dress of the Persians is described in Dan. 3:21.
The reference to the art of sewing are few, inasmuch as the
garments generally came forth from the loom ready for being
worn, and all that was required in the making of clothes
devolved on the women of a family (Prov. 31:22; Acts 9:39).
Extravagance in dress is referred to in Jer. 4:30; Ezek.
16:10; Zeph. 1:8 (R.V., "foreign apparel"); 1 Tim. 2:9; 1 Pet.
3:3. Rending the robes was expressive of grief (Gen. 37:29, 34),
fear (1 Kings 21:27), indignation (2 Kings 5:7), or despair
(Judg. 11:35; Esther 4:1).
Shaking the garments, or shaking the dust from off them, was a
sign of renunciation (Acts 18:6); wrapping them round the head,
of awe (1 Kings 19:13) or grief (2 Sam. 15:30; casting them off,
of excitement (Acts 22:23); laying hold of them, of supplication
(1 Sam. 15:27). In the case of travelling, the outer garments
were girded up (1 Kings 18:46). They were thrown aside also when
they would impede action (Mark 10:50; John 13:4; Acts 7:58).
the official title borne by the Egyptian kings down to the time
when that country was conquered by the Greeks. (See EGYPT
¯T0001137.) The name is a compound, as some think, of the words
Ra, the "sun" or "sun-god," and the article phe, "the,"
prefixed; hence phera, "the sun," or "the sun-god." But others,
perhaps more correctly, think the name derived from Perao, "the
great house" = his majesty = in Turkish, "the Sublime Porte."
(1.) The Pharaoh who was on the throne when Abram went down
into Egypt (Gen. 12:10-20) was probably one of the Hyksos, or
"shepherd kings." The Egyptians called the nomad tribes of Syria
Shasu, "plunderers," their king or chief Hyk, and hence the name
of those invaders who conquered the native kings and established
a strong government, with Zoan or Tanis as their capital. They
were of Semitic origin, and of kindred blood accordingly with
Abram. They were probably driven forward by the pressure of the
Hittites. The name they bear on the monuments is "Mentiu."
(2.) The Pharaoh of Joseph's days (Gen. 41) was probably
Apopi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. To the old
native Egyptians, who were an African race, shepherds were "an
abomination;" but to the Hyksos kings these Asiatic shepherds
who now appeared with Jacob at their head were congenial, and
being akin to their own race, had a warm welcome (Gen. 47:5, 6).
Some argue that Joseph came to Egypt in the reign of Thothmes
III., long after the expulsion of the Hyksos, and that his
influence is to be seen in the rise and progress of the
religious revolution in the direction of monotheism which
characterized the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The wife of
Amenophis III., of that dynasty, was a Semite. Is this singular
fact to be explained from the presence of some of Joseph's
kindred at the Egyptian court? Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Thy
father and thy brethren are come unto thee: the land of Egypt is
before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and
brethren to dwell" (Gen. 47:5, 6).
(3.) The "new king who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8-22) has been
generally supposed to have been Aahmes I., or Amosis, as he is
called by Josephus. Recent discoveries, however, have led to the
conclusion that Seti was the "new king."
For about seventy years the Hebrews in Egypt were under the
powerful protection of Joseph. After his death their condition
was probably very slowly and gradually changed. The invaders,
the Hyksos, who for some five centuries had been masters of
Egypt, were driven out, and the old dynasty restored. The
Israelites now began to be looked down upon. They began to be
afflicted and tyrannized over. In process of time a change
appears to have taken place in the government of Egypt. A new
dynasty, the Nineteenth, as it is called, came into power under
Seti I., who was its founder. He associated with him in his
government his son, Rameses II., when he was yet young, probably
ten or twelve years of age.
Note, Professor Maspero, keeper of the museum of Bulak, near
Cairo, had his attention in 1870 directed to the fact that
scarabs, i.e., stone and metal imitations of the beetle (symbols
of immortality), originally worn as amulets by royal personages,
which were evidently genuine relics of the time of the ancient
Pharaohs, were being sold at Thebes and different places along
the Nile. This led him to suspect that some hitherto
undiscovered burial-place of the Pharaohs had been opened, and
that these and other relics, now secretly sold, were a part of
the treasure found there. For a long time he failed, with all
his ingenuity, to find the source of these rare treasures. At
length one of those in the secret volunteered to give
information regarding this burial-place. The result was that a
party was conducted in 1881 to Dier el-Bahari, near Thebes, when
the wonderful discovery was made of thirty-six mummies of kings,
queens, princes, and high priests hidden away in a cavern
prepared for them, where they had lain undisturbed for thirty
centuries. "The temple of Deir el-Bahari stands in the middle of
a natural amphitheatre of cliffs, which is only one of a number
of smaller amphitheatres into which the limestone mountains of
the tombs are broken up. In the wall of rock separating this
basin from the one next to it some ancient Egyptian engineers
had constructed the hiding-place, whose secret had been kept for
nearly three thousand years." The exploring party being guided
to the place, found behind a great rock a shaft 6 feet square
and about 40 feet deep, sunk into the limestone. At the bottom
of this a passage led westward for 25 feet, and then turned
sharply northward into the very heart of the mountain, where in
a chamber 23 feet by 13, and 6 feet in height, they came upon
the wonderful treasures of antiquity. The mummies were all
carefully secured and brought down to Bulak, where they were
deposited in the royal museum, which has now been removed to
Among the most notable of the ancient kings of Egypt thus
discovered were Thothmes III., Seti I., and Rameses II. Thothmes
III. was the most distinguished monarch of the brilliant
Eighteenth Dynasty. When this mummy was unwound "once more,
after an interval of thirty-six centuries, human eyes gazed on
the features of the man who had conquered Syria and Cyprus and
Ethiopia, and had raised Egypt to the highest pinnacle of her
power. The spectacle, however, was of brief duration. The
remains proved to be in so fragile a state that there was only
time to take a hasty photograph, and then the features crumbled
to pieces and vanished like an apparition, and so passed away
from human view for ever." "It seems strange that though the
body of this man," who overran Israel with his armies two
hundred years before the birth of Moses, "mouldered to dust, the
flowers with which it had been wreathed were so wonderfully
preserved that even their colour could be distinguished"
(Manning's Land of the Pharaohs).
Seti I. (his throne name Merenptah), the father of Rameses
II., was a great and successful warrior, also a great builder.
The mummy of this Pharaoh, when unrolled, brought to view "the
most beautiful mummy head ever seen within the walls of the
museum. The sculptors of Thebes and Abydos did not flatter this
Pharaoh when they gave him that delicate, sweet, and smiling
profile which is the admiration of travellers. After a lapse of
thirty-two centuries, the mummy retains the same expression
which characterized the features of the living man. Most
remarkable of all, when compared with the mummy of Rameses II.,
is the striking resemblance between the father and the son. Seti
I. is, as it were, the idealized type of Rameses II. He must
have died at an advanced age. The head is shaven, the eyebrows
are white, the condition of the body points to considerably more
than threescore years of life, thus confirming the opinions of
the learned, who have attributed a long reign to this king."
(4.) Rameses II., the son of Seti I., is probably the Pharaoh
of the Oppression. During his forty years' residence at the
court of Egypt, Moses must have known this ruler well. During
his sojourn in Midian, however, Rameses died, after a reign of
sixty-seven years, and his body embalmed and laid in the royal
sepulchre in the Valley of the Tombs of Kings beside that of his
father. Like the other mummies found hidden in the cave of Deir
el-Bahari, it had been for some reason removed from its original
tomb, and probably carried from place to place till finally
deposited in the cave where it was so recently discovered.
In 1886, the mummy of this king, the "great Rameses," the
"Sesostris" of the Greeks, was unwound, and showed the body of
what must have been a robust old man. The features revealed to
view are thus described by Maspero: "The head is long and small
in proportion to the body. The top of the skull is quite bare.
On the temple there are a few sparse hairs, but at the poll the
hair is quite thick, forming smooth, straight locks about two
inches in length. White at the time of death, they have been
dyed a light yellow by the spices used in embalmment. The
forehead is low and narrow; the brow-ridge prominent; the
eye-brows are thick and white; the eyes are small and close
together; the nose is long, thin, arched like the noses of the
Bourbons; the temples are sunk; the cheek-bones very prominent;
the ears round, standing far out from the head, and pierced,
like those of a woman, for the wearing of earrings; the jaw-bone
is massive and strong; the chin very prominent; the mouth small,
but thick-lipped; the teeth worn and very brittle, but white and
well preserved. The moustache and beard are thin. They seem to
have been kept shaven during life, but were probably allowed to
grow during the king's last illness, or they may have grown
after death. The hairs are white, like those of the head and
eyebrows, but are harsh and bristly, and a tenth of an inch in
length. The skin is of an earthy-brown, streaked with black.
Finally, it may be said, the face of the mummy gives a fair idea
of the face of the living king. The expression is
unintellectual, perhaps slightly animal; but even under the
somewhat grotesque disguise of mummification there is plainly to
be seen an air of sovereign majesty, of resolve, and of pride."
Both on his father's and his mother's side it has been pretty
clearly shown that Rameses had Chaldean or Mesopotamian blood in
his veins to such a degree that he might be called an Assyrian.
This fact is thought to throw light on Isa. 52:4.
(5.) The Pharaoh of the Exodus was probably Menephtah I., the
fourteenth and eldest surviving son of Rameses II. He resided at
Zoan, where he had the various interviews with Moses and Aaron
recorded in the book of Exodus. His mummy was not among those
found at Deir el-Bahari. It is still a question, however,
whether Seti II. or his father Menephtah was the Pharaoh of the
Exodus. Some think the balance of evidence to be in favour of
the former, whose reign it is known began peacefully, but came
to a sudden and disastrous end. The "Harris papyrus," found at
Medinet-Abou in Upper Egypt in 1856, a state document written by
Rameses III., the second king of the Twentieth Dynasty, gives at
length an account of a great exodus from Egypt, followed by
wide-spread confusion and anarchy. This, there is great reason
to believe, was the Hebrew exodus, with which the Nineteenth
Dynasty of the Pharaohs came to an end. This period of anarchy
was brought to a close by Setnekht, the founder of the Twentieth
"In the spring of 1896, Professor Flinders Petrie discovered,
among the ruins of the temple of Menephtah at Thebes, a large
granite stela, on which is engraved a hymn of victory
commemorating the defeat of Libyan invaders who had overrun the
Delta. At the end other victories of Menephtah are glanced at,
and it is said that 'the Israelites (I-s-y-r-a-e-l-u) are
minished (?) so that they have no seed.' Menephtah was son and
successor of Rameses II., the builder of Pithom, and Egyptian
scholars have long seen in him the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The
Exodus is also placed in his reign by the Egyptian legend of the
event preserved by the historian Manetho. In the inscription the
name of the Israelites has no determinative of 'country' or
'district' attached to it, as is the case with all the other
names (Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Khar or Southern Israel,
etc.) mentioned along with it, and it would therefore appear
that at the time the hymn was composed, the Israelites had
already been lost to the sight of the Egyptians in the desert.
At all events they must have had as yet no fixed home or
district of their own. We may therefore see in the reference to
them the Pharaoh's version of the Exodus, the disasters which
befell the Egyptians being naturally passed over in silence, and
only the destruction of the 'men children' of the Israelites
being recorded. The statement of the Egyptian poet is a
remarkable parallel to Ex. 1:10-22."
(6.) The Pharaoh of 1 Kings 11:18-22.
(7.) So, king of Egypt (2 Kings 17:4).
(8.) The Pharaoh of 1 Chr. 4:18.
(9.) Pharaoh, whose daughter Solomon married (1 Kings 3:1;
(10.) Pharaoh, in whom Hezekiah put his trust in his war
against Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:21).
(11.) The Pharaoh by whom Josiah was defeated and slain at
Megiddo (2 Chr. 35:20-24; 2 Kings 23:29, 30). (See NECHO
(12.) Pharaoh-hophra, who in vain sought to relieve Jerusalem
when it was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar (q.v.), 2 Kings 25:1-4;
comp. Jer. 37:5-8; Ezek. 17:11-13. (See ZEDEKIAH ¯T0003894.)