a Roman Christian saluted by Paul (Rom. 16:8).
a Roman Christian whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:15).
he that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica.
The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing
to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city
(Acts 17:5-9). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul
(Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth.
the father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman
of Paul (Rom. 16:21), a Christian of the city of Berea who
accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4-6).
man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and
fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:10), and styles
"approved in Christ."
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman"
a Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations
(Rom. 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.
(Rom. 16:7), a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations
along with Andronicus.
the maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul
for her faith (2 Tim. 1:5).
a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutation (Rom.
nymph, saluted by Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians as a
member of the church of Laodicea (Col. 4:15).
a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom. 16:14).
burning, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom.
fourth, a Corinthian Christian who sent by Paul his salutations
to friends at Rome (Rom. 16:23).
second, a Christian of Thessalonica who accompanied Paul into
Asia (Acts 20:4).
spike; an ear of corn, a convert at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom.
the third, a Roman Christian whom Paul employed as his
amanuensis in writing his epistle to the Romans (16:22).
Tryphena and Tryphosa
two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his
epistle to the Romans (16:12).
the centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's
body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome (Acts
27:1, 3, 43). He entreated Paul "courteously," showing in many
ways a friendly regard for him.
new city, a town in Thrace at which Paul first landed in Europe
(Acts 16:11). It was the sea-port of the inland town of
Philippi, which was distant about 10 miles. From this port Paul
embarked on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 20:6). It is
identified with the modern Turco-Grecian Kavalla.
bringing profit, an Ephesian Christian who showed great kindness
to Paul at Rome. He served him in many things, and had oft
refreshed him. Paul expresses a warm interest in him and his
household (2 Tim. 1:16-18; 4:19).
curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He
was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1 Cor.
(1.) A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveller, and his host at
Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to the Romans (16:23). He with
his household were baptized by Paul (1 Cor. 1:14). During a
heathen outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius
and Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed
with them into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with
(2.) A man of Derbe who accompanied Paul into Asia on his last
journey to Jerusalem
(3.) A Christain of Asia Minor to whom John addressed his
third epistle (3 John 1:1).
a friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome;
Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14).
a female Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:12). She
is spoken of as "beloved," and as having "laboured much in the
breach, a town in the south of Italy, on the Strait of Messina,
at which Paul touched on his way to Rome (Acts 28:13). It is now
a promontory on the east of Crete, under which Paul sailed on
his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:7); the modern Cape Sidero.
fortunate; affable, a female member of the church at Philippi,
whom Paul beseeches to be of one mind with Euodias (Phil.
a disciple called "the lawyer," whom Paul wished Titus to bring
with him (Titus 3:13). Nothing more is known of him.
a city on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay
running north from the Bay of Naples, at which Paul landed on
his way to Rome, from which it was distant 170 miles. Here he
tarried for seven days (Acts 28:13, 14). This was the great
emporium for the Alexandrian corn ships. Here Paul and his
companions began their journey, by the "Appian Way," to Rome. It
is now called Pozzuoli. The remains of a huge amphitheatre, and
of the quay at which Paul landed, may still be seen here.
Adam, a type
The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to
come." On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second
Adam. This typical relation is described in Rom. 5:14-19.
a city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from
which it was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed
through it on their way to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1).
best ruler, native of Thessalonica (Acts 20:4), a companion of
Paul (Acts 19:29; 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome
(Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24).
son of Joshua, the patronymic of Elymas the sorcerer (Acts
13:6), who met Paul and Barnabas at Paphos. Elymas is a word of
Arabic origin meaning "wise."
verdure, a female Christian (1 Cor. 1:11), some of whose
household had informed Paul of the divided state of the
Corinthian church. Nothing is known of her.
a small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul
on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:16). It is about 7 miles long and
3 broad. It is now called Gozzo (R.V., "Cauda").
a town and harbour on the extreme south-west of the peninsula of
Doris in Asia Minor. Paul sailed past it on his voyage to Rome
after leaving Myra (Acts 27:7).
a heifer, an Athenian woman converted to Christianity under the
preaching of Paul (Acts 17:34). Some have supposed that she may
have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.
magician or sorcerer, the Arabic name of the Jew Bar-jesus, who
withstood Paul and Barnabas in Cyprus. He was miraculously
struck with blindness (Acts 13:11).
happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned"
(Acts 24:25). He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and
therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds"
referred to in 24:2 was his clearing the country of banditti and
At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed
in the room of Felix (A.D. 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was
there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews
of Caesarea. The accusation was rendered nugatory by the
influence of his brother Pallas with Nero. (See Josephus, Ant.
xx. 8, 9.)
Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced
by Felix to desert her husband, the king of Emesa, became his
adulterous companion. She was seated beside him when Paul
"reasoned" before the judge. When Felix gave place to Festus,
being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound.
fortunate, a disciple of Corinth who visited Paul at Ephesus,
and returned with Stephanas and Achaicus, the bearers of the
apostle's first letter to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 16:17).
the Hermes (i.e., "the speaker") of the Greeks (Acts 14:12), a
heathen God represented as the constant attendant of Jupiter,
and the god of eloquence. The inhabitants of Lystra took Paul
for this god because he was the "chief speaker."
a province in the north-west of Asia Minor. On his first voyage
to Europe (Acts 16:7, 8) Paul passed through this province and
embarked at its chief port Troas.
daffodil, a Roman whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:11). He is supposed
to have been the private secretary of the emperor Claudius. This
is, however, quite uncertain.
fugitive, a Christian of Asia, who "turned away" from Paul
during his second imprisonment at Rome (2 Tim. 1:15). Nothing
more is known of him.
a district in Asia Minor, to the north of Pamphylia. The Taurus
range of mountains extends through it. Antioch, one of its chief
cities, was twice visited by Paul (Acts 13:14; 14:21-24).
a town on the western coast of Asia Minor, where Paul "tarried"
when on his way from Assos to Miletus, on his third missionary
journey (Acts 20:15).
a reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court.
Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories
such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Ex.
Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that
of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the
emperor at Rome (Acts 25:11, 12, 21, 25). Paul availed himself
of the privilege of a Roman citizen in this matter.
lovely, spoken of by Paul (Col. 1:7; 4:12) as "his dear
fellow-servant," and "a faithful minister of Christ." He was
thus evidently with him at Rome when he wrote to the Colossians.
He was a distinguished disciple, and probably the founder of the
Colossian church. He is also mentioned in the Epistle to
Philemon (1:23), where he is called by Paul his
fortunate, (Acts 20:9-12), a young man of Troas who fell through
drowsiness from the open window of the third floor of the house
where Paul was preaching, and was "taken up dead." The
lattice-work of the window being open to admit the air, the lad
fell out and down to the court below. Paul restored him to life
again. (Comp. 1 Kings 17:21; 2 Kings 4:34.)
the capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. Paul and
his companions landed at this place from Cyprus on their first
missionary journey (Acts 13:13, 14), and here Mark forsook the
party and returned to Jerusalem. Some time afterwards Paul and
Barnabas again visited this city and "preached the word"
(14:25). It stood on the banks of the river Cestrus, some 7
miles from its mouth, and was a place of some commercial
importance. It is now a ruin, called Eski Kalessi.
safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth,
who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio,
the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at
the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18:12-17). The motives of this
assault against Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned
whether it was made by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but
without sufficient grounds, with one whom Paul calls "Sosthenes
our brother," a convert to the faith (1 Cor. 1:1).
the chief city of Cilicia. It was distinguished for its wealth
and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay,
excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as
"no mean city." It was the native place of the Apostle Paul
(Acts 21:39). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about
12 miles north of the Mediterranean. It is said to have been
founded by Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. It is now a filthy,
ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous. (See PAUL ¯T0002871.)
a foster-child, an Ephesian who accompanied Paul during a part
of his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4; 21:29). He was with
Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had
brought him with him into the temple, raised a tumult which
resulted in Paul's imprisonment. (See TEMPLE, HEROD'S
¯T0003611.) In writing to Timothy, the apostle says, "Trophimus
have I left at Miletum sick" (2 Tim. 4:20). This must refer to
some event not noticed in the Acts.
chance, an Asiatic Christian, a "faithful minister in the Lord"
(Eph. 6:21, 22), who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part
of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). He is
alluded to also in Col. 4:7, Titus 3:12, and 2 Tim. 4:12 as
having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus,
probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the
honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and
accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1-3; Acts
15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the
Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been
chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly
refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the
cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a later
period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by
Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of
the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent
forward (2 Cor. 8:6; 12:18). He rejoined the apostle when he was
in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from
Corinth (7:6-15). After this his name is not mentioned till
after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the
organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left
him for this purpose (Titus 1:5). The last notice of him is in 2
Tim. 4:10, where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second
imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on
some important missionary errand. We have no record of his
death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present
when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts
(2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of
Christ (Mark 15:21).
(3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar
raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put
him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably
intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no
sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is
possible that this man was the same as the following.
(4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated
certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim.
4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience.
Paul excommunicated him (1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).
a maritime province in the south-east of Asia Minor. Tarsus, the
birth-place of Paul, was one of its chief towns, and the seat of
a celebrated school of philosophy. Its luxurious climate
attracted to it many Greek residents after its incorporation
with the Macedonian empire. It was formed into a Roman province,
B.C. 67. The Jews of Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts
6:9). Paul visited it soon after his conversion (Gal. 1:21; Acts
9:30), and again, on his second missionary journey (15:41), "he
went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches." It was
famous for its goat's-hair cloth, called cilicium. Paul learned
in his youth the trade of making tents of this cloth.
the successor of Felix (A.D. 60) as procurator of Judea (Acts
24:27). A few weeks after he had entered on his office the case
of Paul, then a prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The
"next day," after he had gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul
defend himself in the presence of Herod Agrippa II. and his
sister Bernice, and not finding in him anything worthy of death
or of bonds, would have set him free had he not appealed unto
Caesar (Acts 25:11, 12). In consequence of this appeal Paul was
sent to Rome. Festus, after being in office less than two years,
died in Judea. (See AGRIPPA ¯T0000126.)
useful, a slave who, after robbing his master Philemon (q.v.) at
Colosse, fled to Rome, where he was converted by the apostle
Paul, who sent him back to his master with the epistle which
bears his name. In it he beseeches Philemon to receive his slave
as a "faithful and beloved brother." Paul offers to pay to
Philemon anything his slave had taken, and to bear the wrong he
had done him. He was accompanied on his return by Tychicus, the
bearer of the Epistle to the Colossians (Philemon 1:16, 18).
The story of this fugitive Colossian slave is a remarkable
evidence of the freedom of access to the prisoner which was
granted to all, and "a beautiful illustration both of the
character of St. Paul and the transfiguring power and righteous
principles of the gospel."
(1 Cor. 16:17), one of the members of the church of Corinth who,
with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at
Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the
church. These three probably were the bearers of the letter from
Corinth to the apostle to which he alludes in 1 Cor. 7:1.
a "prophet," probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He
prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27, 28).
Many years afterwards he met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of
the bonds and affliction that awaited him at Jerusalem should he
persist in going thither (Acts 21:10-12).
city on both sides, a Macedonian city, a great Roman military
station, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from
Philippi to Thessalonica, a distance of 33 Roman miles from
Philippi (Acts 17:1).
a Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures
and eloquent (Acts 18:24; R.V., "learned"). He came to Ephesus
(about A.D. 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue
(18:26), although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth
was the Messiah. Aquila and Priscilla instructed him more
perfectly in "the way of God", i.e., in the knowledge of Christ.
He then proceeded to Corinth, where he met Paul (Acts 18:27;
19:1). He was there very useful in watering the good seed Paul
had sown (1 Cor. 1:12), and in gaining many to Christ. His
disciples were much attached to him (1 Cor. 3:4-7, 22). He was
with Paul at Ephesus when he wrote the First Epistle to the
Corinthians; and Paul makes kindly reference to him in his
letter to Titus (3:13). Some have supposed, although without
sufficient ground, that he was the author of the Epistle to the
mentioned in Acts 20:15, an island in the Aegean Sea, about 5
miles distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the
shelter of which Paul and his companions anchored for a night
when on his third missionary return journey. It is now called
The Christians in Israel, from various causes, suffered from
poverty. Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile
churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf (Acts
24:17; Rom. 15:25, 26; 1 Cor. 16:1-3; 2 Cor. 8:9; Gal. 2:10).
(written Cos in the R.V.), a small island, one of the Sporades
in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of
Caria. Paul on his return from his third missionary journey,
passed the night here after sailing from Miletus (Acts 21:1). It
is now called Stanchio.
a companion and fellow-labourer of Paul during his first
imprisonment at Rome (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). It appears,
however, that the love of the world afterwards mastered him, and
he deserted the apostle (2 Tim. 4:10).
fair, graceful; belonging to Aphrodite or Venus the messenger
who came from Phillipi to the apostle when he was a prisoner at
Rome (Phil. 2:25-30; 4:10-18). Paul mentions him in words of
esteem and affection. On his return to Philippi he was the
bearer of Paul's letter to the church there.
a good journey, a female member of the church at Philippi. She
was one who laboured much with Paul in the gospel. He exhorts
her to be of one mind with Syntyche (Phil. 4:2). From this it
seems they had been at variance with each other.
Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings (Rom.
16: 14). Some suppose him to have been the author of the
celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very
probable that that work is the production of a later generation.
a wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the
island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh.
It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts
21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2)
and Myra (27:5).
a town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among
a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had
been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also
he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and
superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he
was the "chief speaker," and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter,
probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance;
and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13), when Paul
earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true
source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence
of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned
Paul and left him for dead (14:19). On recovering, Paul left for
Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the
disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited
this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23).
Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Tim. 3:10, 11), was no
doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul's
persecution and his courage in Lystra.
the Areopagus or rocky hill in Athens, north-west of the
Acropolis, where the Athenian supreme tribunal and court of
morals was held. From some part of this hill Paul delivered the
address recorded in Acts 17:22-31. (See AREOPAGUS ¯T0000300.)
of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure
of God, which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses
(Num. 11:33, 34; 12; 14:27, 30, 31; 16:3; 21:4-6; Ps. 106:25).
Forbidden by Paul (1 Cor. 10:10).
one of the chief towns of Lycia, in Asia Minor, about 2 1/2
miles from the coast (Acts 27:5). Here Paul removed from the
Adramyttian ship in which he had sailed from Caesarea, and
entered into the Alexandrian ship, which was afterwards wrecked
at Melita (27:39-44).
the capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence
of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on
their first missionary tour (Acts 13:6). It is new Paphos which
is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8
miles north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.
a "deaconess of the church at Cenchrea," the port of Corinth.
She was probably the bearer of Paul's epistle to the Romans.
Paul commended her to the Christians at Rome; "for she hath
been," says he, "a succourer of many, and of myself also" (Rom.
an island in the AEgean Sea, which Paul passed on his voyage
from Assos to Miletus (Acts 20:15), on his third missionary
journey. It is about 27 miles long and 20 broad, and lies about
42 miles south-west of Smyrna.
an island in the AEgean Sea, off the coast of Thracia, about 32
miles distant. This Thracian Samos was passed by Paul on his
voyage from Troas to Neapolis (Acts 16:11) on his first
missionary journey. It is about 8 miles long and 6 miles broad.
Its modern name is Samothraki.
Paul expresses his intention (Rom. 15:24, 28) to visit Spain.
There is, however, no evidence that he ever carried it into
effect, although some think that he probably did so between his
first and second imprisonment. (See TARSHISH ¯T0003588.)
a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2; 24:14; Deut. 13:10; 17:5;
22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25),
Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2
a city on the south-east coast of Sicily, where Paul landed and
remained three days when on his way to Rome (Acts 28:12). It was
distinguished for its magnitude and splendour. It is now a small
town of some 13,000 inhabitants.
prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul
disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to
him (Acts 19:9). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that
his "school" was a private synagogue.
now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the
Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one
time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred
cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's
quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his
epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts,
slow bellies" (Titus 1:12). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on
the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). The island was visited by Paul
on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left
Titus (1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was
the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.
the capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul
and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first
missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted
by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to
Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the
church which had been founded there (14:21,22). It was probably
again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along
with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of
Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.
(1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia
Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen.
10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and
on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.
(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in
Philippi (Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte.
The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips
of Paul (16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who
embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of
considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul
and his companions. (See THYATIRA ¯T0003650.)
wood, a prominent member of the church at Jerusalem; also called
Silvanus. He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the
church there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to
Antioch from the council of the apostles and elders (Acts
15:22), as bearers of the decree adopted by the council. He
assisted Paul there in his evangelistic labours, and was also
chosen by him to be his companion on his second missionary tour
(Acts 16:19-24). He is referred to in the epistles under the
name of Silvanus (2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1; 1
Pet. 5:12). There is no record of the time or place of his
a common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the
members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife
Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and
immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood (Acts
5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian
community devoted their property to the work of furthering the
gospel and of assisting the poor and needy. The proceeds of the
possessions they sold were placed at the disposal of the
apostles (Acts 4:36, 37). Ananias might have kept his property
had he so chosen; but he professed agreement with the brethren
in the common purpose, and had of his own accord devoted it all,
as he said, to these sacred ends. Yet he retained a part of it
for his own ends, and thus lied in declaring that he had given
it all. "The offence of Ananias and Sapphira showed contempt of
God, vanity and ambition in the offenders, and utter disregard
of the corruption which they were bringing into the society.
Such sin, committed in despite of the light which they
possessed, called for a special mark of divine indignation."
(2.) A Christian at Damascus (Acts 9:10). He became Paul's
instructor; but when or by what means he himself became a
Christian we have no information. He was "a devout man according
to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt" at
(3.) The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the
procuratorship of Felix (Acts 23:2, 5, 24). He was so enraged at
Paul's noble declaration, "I have lived in all good conscience
before God until this day," that he commanded one of his
attendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this
unprovoked insult, Paul quickly replied, "God shall smite thee,
thou whited wall." Being reminded that Ananias was the high
priest, to whose office all respect was to be paid, he answered,
"I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest" (Acts 23:5).
This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is
scarcely probable that Paul should have been ignorant of so
public a fact. The expression may mean (a) that Paul had at the
moment overlooked the honour due to the high priest; or (b), as
others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had said,
"The high priest breaking the law! God's high priest a tyrant
and a lawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and have heard his
voice, but surely it cannot, it ought not to be, the voice of
the high priest." (See Dr. Lindsay on Acts, _in loco_.) (c)
Others think that from defect of sight Paul could not observe
that the speaker was the high priest. In all this, however, it
may be explained, Paul, with all his excellency, comes short of
the example of his divine Master, who, when he was reviled,
reviled not again.
one who serves, as distinguished from the master. (1.) Heb.
meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as
to Joshua, the servant of Moses (Ex. 33:11), and to the servant
of Elisha (2 Kings 4:43). This name is also given to attendants
at court (2 Chr. 22:8), and to the priests and Levites (Jer.
33:21; Ezek. 44:11).
(2.) Heb. pelah (Ezra 7:24), a "minister" of religion. Here
used of that class of sanctuary servants called "Solomon's
servants" in Ezra 2:55-58 and Neh. 7:57-60.
(3.) Greek leitourgos, a subordinate public administrator, and
in this sense applied to magistrates (Rom. 13:6). It is applied
also to our Lord (Heb. 8:2), and to Paul in relation to Christ
(4.) Greek hyperetes (literally, "under-rower"), a personal
attendant on a superior, thus of the person who waited on the
officiating priest in the synagogue (Luke 4:20). It is applied
also to John Mark, the attendant on Paul and Barnabas (Acts
(5.) Greek diaconos, usually a subordinate officer or
assistant employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel, as
to Paul and Apollos (1 Cor. 3:5), Tychicus (Eph. 6:21), Epaphras
(Col. 1:7), Timothy (1 Thess. 3:2), and also to Christ (Rom.
a large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the
capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was
ruled by a praetor. It was named after Thessalonica, the wife of
Cassander, who built the city. She was so called by her father,
Philip, because he first heard of her birth on the day of his
gaining a victory over the Thessalians. On his second missionary
journey, Paul preached in the synagogue here, the chief
synagogue of the Jews in that part of Macedonia, and laid the
foundations of a church (Acts 17:1-4; 1 Thes. 1:9). The violence
of the Jews drove him from the city, when he fled to Berea (Acts
17:5-10). The "rulers of the city" before whom the Jews "drew
Jason," with whom Paul and Silas lodged, are in the original
called politarchai, an unusual word, which was found, however,
inscribed on an arch in Thessalonica. This discovery confirms
the accuracy of the historian. Paul visited the church here on a
subsequent occasion (20:1-3). This city long retained its
importance. It is the most important town of European Turkey,
under the name of Saloniki, with a mixed population of about
the capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient
world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden
period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty
(Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship
of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist
that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man."
On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts
17:15; comp. 1 Thess. 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his
famous speech (17:22-31). The altar of which Paul there speaks
as dedicated "to the [properly "an"] unknown God" (23) was
probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is
supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a
flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the
occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at
the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and
for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy",
i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the
emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The
word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows
his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius,
and the governor of such a province was called a "proconsul." He
is spoken of by his contemporaries as "sweet Gallio," and is
described as a most popular and affectionate man. When the Jews
brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading
"men to worship God contrary to the law" (18:13), he refused to
listen to them, and "drave them from the judgment seat" (18:16).
in New Testament times, was a Roman province lying north of
Greece. It was governed by a propraetor with the title of
proconsul. Paul was summoned by the vision of the "man of
Macedonia" to preach the gospel there (Acts 16:9). Frequent
allusion is made to this event (18:5; 19:21; Rom. 15:26; 2 Cor.
1:16; 11:9; Phil. 4:15). The history of Paul's first journey
through Macedonia is given in detail in Acts 16:10-17:15. At the
close of this journey he returned from Corinth to Syria. He
again passed through this country (20:1-6), although the details
of the route are not given. After many years he probably visited
it for a third time (Phil. 2:24; 1 Tim. 1:3). The first convert
made by Paul in Europe was (Acts 16:13-15) Lydia (q.v.), a
"seller of purple," residing in Philippi, the chief city of the
eastern division of Macedonia.
an implement, a Jew, chief of the priests at Ephesus (Acts
19:13-16); i.e., the head of one of the twenty-four courses of
the house of Levi. He had seven sons, who "took upon them to
call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord
Jesus," in imitation of Paul. They tried their method of
exorcism on a fierce demoniac, and failed. His answer to them
was to this effect (19:15): "The Jesus whom you invoke is One
whose authority I acknowledge; and the Paul whom you name I
recognize to be a servant or messenger of God; but what sort of
men are ye who have been empowered to act as you do by neither?"
(Lindsay on the Acts of the Apostles.)
Taverns, The three
a place on the great "Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome,
designed for the reception of travellers, as the name indicates.
Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman
Christians (Acts 28:15). The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio
or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the
last on the way to the city. At this point three roads run into
the Via Appia, that from Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and
that from Antium; so necessarily here would be a halting-place,
which took its name from the three shops there, the general
store, the blacksmith's, and the refreshment-house...Tres
Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but it more correctly
means three shops" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul, p.20).
sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe
of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judg. 1:31). It was known
to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from
Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B.C. 100. Here
Paul landed on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). During
the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and
subsequently, on account of its being occupied by the Knights
Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was called St. Jean d'Acre, or
a city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times
was called AEolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea
belonged to this city (Acts 27:2). He was conveyed in it only to
Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to
Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of
Israel direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti,
and is a place of some traffic.
a city built by Herod the Great, and called by this name in
honour of his father, Antipater. It lay between Caesarea and
Lydda, two miles inland, on the great Roman road from Caesarea
to Jerusalem. To this place Paul was brought by night (Acts
23:31) on his way to Caesarea, from which it was distant 28
miles. It is identified with the modern, Ras-el-Ain, where rise
the springs of Aujeh, the largest springs in Israel.