deliverance of the Lord. (1.) A son of Hananiah and grandson of
Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:21).
(2.) A captain of "the sons of Simeon" (4:42).
(3.) Neh. 10:22.
(4.) One of the twenty-five princes of the people against whom
Ezekiel prophesied on account of their wicked counsel (Ezek.
Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude
(Ex. 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jer. 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the
"bitter and hasty nation" (Hab. 1:6). The "gall of bitterness"
expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A "root of
bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Heb. 12:15).
The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" (Ex. 12:8;
Num. 9:11). The kind of herbs so designated is not known.
Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and
time when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the
severity of the servitude under which the people groaned; and
have been regarded also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.
Coming of Christ
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the
time" (1 John 5:20; 2 John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his
coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11; 3:20,
21; 1 Thess. 4:15; 2 Tim. 4:1; Heb. 9:28).
The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of
the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible
establishment of his kingdom in the world (Matt. 16:28), the
conferring on his people of the peculiar tokens of his love
(John 14:18, 23, 28), and his executing judgment on the wicked
(2 Thess. 2:8).
(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word _goyim_ denoted generally
all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; comp. Gal. 3:8). The
Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner
from the other _goyim_. They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23;
26:14-45; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites,
Hittites, etc., were the _goyim_, the heathen, with whom the
Jews were forbidden to be associated in any way (Josh. 23:7; 1
Kings 11:2). The practice of idolatry was the characteristic of
these nations, and hence the word came to designate idolaters
(Ps. 106:47; Jer. 46:28; Lam. 1:3; Isa. 36:18), the wicked (Ps.
9:5, 15, 17).
The corresponding Greek word in the New Testament, _ethne_,
has similar shades of meaning. In Acts 22:21, Gal. 3:14, it
denotes the people of the earth generally; and in Matt. 6:7, an
idolater. In modern usage the word denotes all nations that are
strangers to revealed religion.
may be simply defined as the termination of life. It is
represented under a variety of aspects in Scripture: (1.) "The
dust shall return to the earth as it was" (Eccl. 12:7).
(2.) "Thou takest away their breath, they die" (Ps. 104:29).
(3.) It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this
tabernacle" (2 Cor. 5:1); the "putting off this tabernacle" (2
Pet. 1:13, 14).
(4.) Being "unclothed" (2 Cor. 5:3, 4).
(5.) "Falling on sleep" (Ps. 76:5; Jer. 51:39; Acts 13:36; 2
(6.) "I go whence I shall not return" (Job 10:21); "Make me to
know mine end" (Ps. 39:4); "to depart" (Phil. 1:23).
The grave is represented as "the gates of death" (Job 38:17;
Ps. 9:13; 107:18). The gloomy silence of the grave is spoken of
under the figure of the "shadow of death" (Jer. 2:6).
Death is the effect of sin (Heb. 2:14), and not a "debt of
nature." It is but once (9:27), universal (Gen. 3:19), necessary
(Luke 2:28-30). Jesus has by his own death taken away its sting
for all his followers (1 Cor. 15:55-57).
There is a spiritual death in trespasses and sins, i.e., the
death of the soul under the power of sin (Rom. 8:6; Eph. 2:1, 3;
The "second death" (Rev. 2:11) is the everlasting perdition of
the wicked (Rev. 21:8), and "second" in respect to natural or
THE DEATH OF CHRIST is the procuring cause incidentally of all
the blessings men enjoy on earth. But specially it is the
procuring cause of the actual salvation of all his people,
together with all the means that lead thereto. It does not make
their salvation merely possible, but certain (Matt. 18:11; Rom.
5:10; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 1:4; 3:13; Eph. 1:7; 2:16; Rom.
mentioned along with serpents (Deut. 8:15). Used also
figuratively to denote wicked persons (Ezek. 2:6; Luke 10:19);
also a particular kind of scourge or whip (1 Kings 12:11).
Scorpions were a species of spider. They abounded in the Jordan
trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2
Cor. 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal
sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, 29,
the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the
destruction of Jerusalem.
used of children generally (Matt. 11:25; 21:16; Luke 10:21; Rom.
2:20). It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith
and knowledge (1 Cor. 3:1; Heb. 5:13; 1 Pet. 2:2). In Isa. 3:4
the word "babes" refers to a succession of weak and wicked
princes who reigned over Judah from the death of Josiah downward
to the destruction of Jerusalem.
Judgments of God
(1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.)
The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Ps.
119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex.
6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in
Gen. 7; 19:24,25; Judg. 1:6,7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.
The trust of the hypocrite is compared to the spider's web or
house (Job 8:14). It is said of the wicked by Isaiah that they
"weave the spider's web" (59:5), i.e., their works and designs
are, like the spider's web, vain and useless. The Hebrew word
here used is _'akkabish_, "a swift weaver."
In Prov. 30:28 a different Hebrew word (semamith) is used. It
is rendered in the Vulgate by stellio, and in the Revised
Version by "lizard." It may, however, represent the spider, of
which there are, it is said, about seven hundred species in
not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to
Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people
(Hos. 1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This
Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in ver. 10; 2:23.
a contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old
Testament the Hebrew word _berith_ is always thus translated.
_Berith_ is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence
a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or
dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties
passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18,
The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is
_diatheke_, which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in
the Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the
word _berith_ of the Old Testament, "covenant."
This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and
man (Gen. 21:32), or between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1;
Josh. 9:6, 15). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was
solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Gen. 31:50), and
hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1 Sam. 20:8). The
marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Prov. 2:17),
because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are
spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death"
not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa.
(2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of
himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's
promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9;
Jer. 33:20, "my covenant"). We have an account of God's
covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, comp. Lev. 26:42), of the
covenant of the priesthood (Num. 25:12, 13; Deut. 33:9; Neh.
13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Ex. 34:27, 28; Lev.
26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the
history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 1:24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34;
Ezra 10; Neh. 9). In conformity with human custom, God's
covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deut. 4:31; Ps.
89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17). Hence the
covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Ps. 89:3,
4; 105:8-11; Heb. 6:13-20; Luke 1:68-75). God's covenant
consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isa. 59:21; Jer.
The term covenant is also used to designate the regular
succession of day and night (Jer. 33:20), the Sabbath (Ex.
31:16), circumcision (Gen. 17:9, 10), and in general any
ordinance of God (Jer. 34:13, 14).
A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the
sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity,
is used (Num. 18:19; Lev. 2:13; 2 Chr. 13:5).
COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was
placed at his creation. In this covenant, (1.) The contracting
parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free
moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity
(Rom. 5:12-19). (2.) The promise was "life" (Matt. 19:16, 17;
Gal. 3:12). (3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law,
the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of
the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen.
This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made
with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life,
because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a
legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the
The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life
which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually
called the seal of that covenant.
This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as
Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people,
and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still
in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God,
and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted
CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered
into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by
them in its several parts. In it the Father represented the
Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people
as their surety (John 17:4, 6, 9; Isa. 42:6; Ps. 89:3).
The conditions of this covenant were, (1.) On the part of the
Father (a) all needful preparation to the Son for the
accomplishment of his work (Heb. 10:5; Isa. 42:1-7); (b) support
in the work (Luke 22:43); and (c) a glorious reward in the
exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Phil. 2:6-11), his
investiture with universal dominion (John 5:22; Ps. 110:1), his
having the administration of the covenant committed into his
hands (Matt. 28:18; John 1:12; 17:2; Acts 2:33), and in the
final salvation of all his people (Isa. 35:10; 53:10, 11; Jer.
31:33; Titus 1:2). (2.) On the part of the Son the conditions
were (a) his becoming incarnate (Gal. 4:4, 5); and (b) as the
second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their
place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated
covenant of works; (c) obeying the law (Ps. 40:8; Isa. 42:21;
John 9:4, 5), and (d) suffering its penalty (Isa. 53; 2 Cor.
5:21; Gal. 3:13), in their stead.
Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf
of his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Heb.
8:6; 9:15; 12:24, this title is given to Christ. (See
a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called
"Hill of Evil Counsel." It took its name from "some ancient
hero, the son of Hinnom." It is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8.
It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their
children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the
valley was called Tophet, or the "fire-stove," where the
children were burned. After the Exile, in order to show their
abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the
receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of
which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there.
The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that
of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed;
and (2) that of filth and corruption. It became thus to the
popular mind a symbol of the abode of the wicked hereafter. It
came to signify hell as the place of the wicked. "It might be
shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the
place of the damned, by this word. The word Gehenna [the Greek
contraction of Hinnom] was never used in the time of Christ in
any other sense than to denote the place of future punishment."
About this fact there can be no question. In this sense the word
is used eleven times in our Lord's discourses (Matt. 23:33; Luke
12:5; Matt. 5:22, etc.).
(1) of love (Hos. 11:4); (2) of Christ (Ps. 2:3); (3) uniting
together Christ's body the church (Col. 2:19; 3:14; Eph. 4:3);
(4) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezek. 34:27; Isa.
28:22; 52:2); (5) of brotherhood (Ezek. 37:15-28); (6) no bands
to the wicked in their death (Ps. 73:4; Job 21:7; Ps. 10:6).
Also denotes chains (Luke 8:29); companies of soldiers (Acts
21:31); a shepherd's staff, indicating the union between Judah
and Israel (Zech. 11:7).
That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant
evidence (Ex. 23:11; Deut. 15:11), but there is no mention of
beggars properly so called in the Old Testament. The poor were
provided for by the law of Moses (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 12:12;
14:29). It is predicted of the seed of the wicked that they
shall be beggars (Ps. 37:25; 109:10).
In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of
beggars (Mark 10:46; Luke 16:20, 21; Acts 3:2), yet there is no
mention of such a class as vagrant beggars, so numerous in the
East. "Beggarly," in Gal. 4:9, means worthless.
worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper
name. It is first used in Deut. 13:13. In the New Testament it
is found only in 2 Cor. 6:15, where it is used as a name of
Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated
"wicked" in Deut. 15:9; Ps. 41:8 (R.V. marg.); 101:3; Prov.
6:12, etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply
a worthless, lawless person (Judg. 19:22; 20:13; 1 Sam. 1:16;
the refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned (Ex. 15:7;
Isa. 5:24; Matt. 3:12). This word sometimes, however, means
dried grass or hay (Isa. 5:24; 33:11). Chaff is used as a figure
of abortive wickedness (Ps. 1:4; Matt. 3:12). False doctrines
are also called chaff (Jer. 23:28), or more correctly rendered
"chopped straw." The destruction of the wicked, and their
powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of chaff by the
wind (Isa. 17:13; Hos. 13:3; Zeph. 2:2).
Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of
Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal
wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6).
He was very "subtil," but unprincipled.
(2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound
themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6-19). There
were different settlements of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16; 4:11; 1
Chr. 2:55). (See RECHABITE ¯T0003080.) His interview and
alliance with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23. He went
with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
my people, a name given by Jehovah to the people of Israel (Hos.
2:1, 23. Comp. 1:9; Ezek. 16:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10).
a person mentioned in Cant. 6:12, whose chariots were famed for
their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing
people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."
the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of
Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Ezek. 30:5. They were
probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt
in the south.
a poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of
affection, meaning, "the dear upright people" (Deut. 32:15;
33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2).
dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the
people (Neh. 8:7; 10:10).
the victory of the people, a proselyte of Antioch, one of the
seven deacons (Acts 6:5).
id., a Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the
people (2 Chr. 17:8).
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matt. 25:46; Mark
3:29; Heb. 6:2; 2 Thess. 1:9; Matt. 18:8; 25:41; Jude 1:7). The
Scripture as clearly teaches the unending duration of the penal
sufferings of the lost as the "everlasting life," the "eternal
life" of the righteous. The same Greek words in the New
Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the
eternal existence of God (1 Tim. 1:17; Rom. 1:20; 16:26); (2) of
Christ (Rev. 1:18); (3) of the Holy Ghost (Heb. 9:14); and (4)
the eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost (Matt. 25:46;
Their condition after casting off the mortal body is spoken of
in these expressive words: "Fire that shall not be quenched"
(Mark 9:45, 46), "fire unquenchable" (Luke 3:17), "the worm that
never dies," the "bottomless pit" (Rev. 9:1), "the smoke of
their torment ascending up for ever and ever" (Rev. 14:10, 11).
The idea that the "second death" (Rev. 20:14) is in the case
of the wicked their absolute destruction, their annihilation,
has not the slightest support from Scripture, which always
represents their future as one of conscious suffering enduring
The supposition that God will ultimately secure the repentance
and restoration of all sinners is equally unscriptural. There is
not the slightest trace in all the Scriptures of any such
restoration. Sufferings of themselves have no tendency to purify
the soul from sin or impart spiritual life. The atoning death of
Christ and the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit are the only
means of divine appointment for bringing men to repentance. Now
in the case of them that perish these means have been rejected,
and "there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins" (Heb. 10:26,
derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the
invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered:
(1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times.
This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask,"
"demand;" hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, 16). It is rendered
"grave" thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; 1 Sam.
2:6, etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the
historical books with the original word in the margin, while in
the poetical books they have reversed this rule.
In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is
rendered "hell," the place of disembodied spirits. The
inhabitants of sheol are "the congregation of the dead" (Prov.
21:16). It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Num. 16:33; Job
24:19; Ps. 9:17; 31:17, etc.); (b) of the good (Ps. 16:10; 30:3;
49:15; 86:13, etc.).
Sheol is described as deep (Job 11:8), dark (10:21, 22), with
bars (17:16). The dead "go down" to it (Num. 16:30, 33; Ezek.
31:15, 16, 17).
(2.) The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same
scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a
prison (1 Pet. 3:19), with gates and bars and locks (Matt.
16:18; Rev. 1:18), and it is downward (Matt. 11:23; Luke 10:15).
The righteous and the wicked are separated. The blessed dead
are in that part of hades called paradise (Luke 23:43). They are
also said to be in Abraham's bosom (Luke 16:22).
(3.) Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New
Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matt. 23:33). The
fearful nature of their condition there is described in various
figurative expressions (Matt. 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30; Luke
16:24, etc.). (See HINNOM ¯T0001790.)
as used in the phrase "peculiar people" in 1 Pet. 2:9, is
derived from the Lat. peculium, and denotes, as rendered in the
Revised Version ("a people for God's own possession"), a special
possession or property. The church is the "property" of God, his
"purchased possession" (Eph. 1:14; R.V., "God's own
people of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and
chief captain of the host under David (1 Chr. 27:6).
(1.) Neh. 3:10. (2.) One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to
interpret the law to the people (Neh. 9:5).
not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a
type of Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people (Hos. 1:6;
love, one of the elders nominated to assist Moses in the
government of the people. He and Eldad "prophesied in the camp"
good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to
instruct the people of Judah in the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children
here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the
noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to
burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular
part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive
of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize
the agency by which God punishes or destroys the wicked. We are
not to assume from prophetical figures that material fire is the
precise agent to be used. It was not the agency employed in the
destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in Isa. 30:33...Tophet
properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom bends round to the
east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and the Hill of
Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer 'Ayub, where it
joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern side
especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of
beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be
either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that
fire that was never quenched." Thus Tophet came to represent the
place of punishment. (See HINNOM ¯T0001790.)
(Adoram, 1 Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was "over the
tribute," i.e., the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to
death by the people of Israel (1 Kings 4:6; 5:14)
people of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of
the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25). This is
one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai,
one of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who
colonized Samaria (2 Kings 17:31). The name means "Anu is king."
It was a female deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech
(q.v.) was the male representing the sun.
fortified, a people descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:14; 1 Chr.
1:12). Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower
Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Israel.
John the Baptist went before our Lord in this character (Mark
1:2, 3). Christ so called (Heb. 6:20) as entering before his
people into the holy place as their head and guide.
gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with
its suburbs to the Levites (1 Chr. 6:68). It lay somewhere in
the Jordan valley (1 Kings 4:12, R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly
whom God has loved, one of the seventy elders whom Moses
appointed (Num. 11:26, 27) to administer justice among the
people. He, with Medad, prophesied in the camp instead of going
with the rest to the tabernacle, as Moses had commanded. This
incident was announced to Moses by Joshua, who thought their
conduct in this respect irregular. Moses replied, "Enviest thou
for my sake? would God that all the Lord's people were prophets"
(Num. 11:24-30; comp. Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49).
dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the
Hachmonite (1 Chr. 11:11), one of David's chief heroes who
joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who
broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to
David from the well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:13-17). He is also
called Adino the Eznite (8).
(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor
of the Lydians probably.
(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen.
10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of
Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19;
comp. Jer. 46:9).
chief of the princes, the name given to the chief cup-bearer or
the vizier of the Assyrian court; one of Sennacherib's
messengers to Hezekiah. See the speech he delivered, in the
Hebrew language, in the hearing of all the people, as he stood
near the wall on the north side of the city (2 Kings 18:17-37).
He and the other envoys returned to their master and reported
that Hezekiah and his people were obdurate, and would not
In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin
[R.V. marg., 'the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son"
(comp. Luke 1:31-35). The people of the land of Zidon are thus
referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin,
daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah
(18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible
father's brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the
seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings
16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil
influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam
he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by
Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account
kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He
undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of
Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a
complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and
was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all
the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other
concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause
Ahab renewed war (1 Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the
city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet Micaiah warned him
that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false prophets who
encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was
imprisoned for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose.
Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible
escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn
at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot
for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1
Kings 21:19) was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years.
Because of his idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is
referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2 Kings
8:18; 2 Chr. 22:3; Micah 6:16).
(2.) A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah (Jer. 29:21), of
whom nothing further is known.
This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Ex.
22:5; Num. 20:4, 8, 11; Ps. 78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen.
45:17); of eatable beasts (Prov. 9:2); and of swift beasts or
dromedaries (Isa. 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a
domestic animal as property (Rev. 18:13); as used for food (1
Cor. 15:39), for service (Luke 10:34; Acts 23:24), and for
sacrifice (Acts 7:42).
When used in contradistinction to man (Ps. 36:6), it denotes a
brute creature generally, and when in contradistinction to
creeping things (Lev. 11:2-7; 27:26), a four-footed animal.
The Mosaic law required that beasts of labour should have rest
on the Sabbath (Ex. 20:10; 23:12), and in the Sabbatical year
all cattle were allowed to roam about freely, and eat whatever
grew in the fields (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:7). No animal could be
castrated (Lev. 22:24). Animals of different kinds were to be
always kept separate (Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:10). Oxen when used
in threshing were not to be prevented from eating what was
within their reach (Deut. 25:4; 1 Cor.9:9).
This word is used figuratively of an infuriated multitude (1
Cor. 15:32; Acts 19:29; comp. Ps. 22:12, 16; Eccl. 3:18; Isa.
11:6-8), and of wicked men (2 Pet. 2:12). The four beasts of
Daniel 7:3, 17, 23 represent four kingdoms or kings.
frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Ex.
35:18; 39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isa. 5:18), binding
prisoners (Judg. 15:13; Ps. 2:3; 129:4), and measuring ground (2
Sam. 8;2; Ps. 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the
giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. "Is not their tent-cord
plucked up?" R.V.). To gird one's self with a cord was a token
of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant
to level it with the ground (Lam. 2:8). The "cords of sin" are
the consequences or fruits of sin (Prov. 5:22). A "threefold
cord" is a symbol of union (Eccl. 4:12). The "cords of a man"
(Hos. 11:4) means that men employ, in inducing each other,
methods such as are suitable to men, and not "cords" such as
oxen are led by. Isaiah (5:18) says, "Woe unto them that draw
iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart
rope." This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: "Woe
to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by
cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are
strong and are like a cart rope." This may be the true meaning.
The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by
their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart
rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the
persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of
provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his
vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of
iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon
themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which
their sins deserved."
According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of
spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life.
"Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably (Deut. 6:5;
26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33), but this is not
generally the case.
The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man
is designated, according to his heart, wise (1 Kings 3:12,
etc.), pure (Ps. 24:4; Matt. 5:8, etc.), upright and righteous
(Gen. 20:5, 6; Ps. 11:2; 78:72), pious and good (Luke 8:15),
etc. In these and such passages the word "soul" could not be
substituted for "heart."
The heart is also the seat of the conscience (Rom. 2:15). It
is naturally wicked (Gen. 8:21), and hence it contaminates the
whole life and character (Matt. 12:34; 15:18; comp. Eccl. 8:11;
Ps. 73:7). Hence the heart must be changed, regenerated (Ezek.
36:26; 11:19; Ps. 51:10-14), before a man can willingly obey
The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing
reception of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that
testimony hardens the heart (Ps. 95:8; Prov. 28:14; 2 Chr.
36:13). "Hardness of heart evidences itself by light views of
sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of it; pride and
conceit; ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances of
God; inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of
conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance
of divine things."
chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and
the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This was
the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by
marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this
case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her
name on history as the representative of all that is designing,
crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great
instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by
no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man,
passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared
no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour.
Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to
Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V.,
'prophets of the Asherah'], which ate at her table (1 Kings
18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual
kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the
kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came
to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she
looked out at the window of the palace, and said, "Had Zimri
peace, who slew his master?" He looked up and called to her
chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that
she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her
under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of
the street (2 Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the
Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).
Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a
wicked woman (Rev. 2: 20).
It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt
of Dido, the founder of Carthage.
a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a
change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity.
(1.) In Col. 1:21, 22, the word there used refers to a change
wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be
an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full
confidence and love. In 2 Cor. 5:20 the apostle beseeches the
Corinthians to be "reconciled to God", i.e., to lay aside their
(2.) Rom. 5:10 refers not to any change in our disposition
toward God, but to God himself, as the party reconciled. Romans
5:11 teaches the same truth. From God we have received "the
reconciliation" (R.V.), i.e., he has conferred on us the token
of his friendship. So also 2 Cor. 5:18, 19 speaks of a
reconciliation originating with God, and consisting in the
removal of his merited wrath. In Eph. 2:16 it is clear that the
apostle does not refer to the winning back of the sinner in love
and loyalty to God, but to the restoration of God's forfeited
favour. This is effected by his justice being satisfied, so that
he can, in consistency with his own nature, be favourable toward
sinners. Justice demands the punishment of sinners. The death of
Christ satisfies justice, and so reconciles God to us. This
reconciliation makes God our friend, and enables him to pardon
and save us. (See ATONEMENT ¯T0000362.)
The origin of this Jewish sect cannot definitely be traced. It
was probably the outcome of the influence of Grecian customs and
philosophy during the period of Greek domination. The first time
they are met with is in connection with John the Baptist's
ministry. They came out to him when on the banks of the Jordan,
and he said to them, "O generation of vipers, who hath warned
you to flee from the wrath to come?" (Matt. 3:7.) The next time
they are spoken of they are represented as coming to our Lord
tempting him. He calls them "hypocrites" and "a wicked and
adulterous generation" (Matt. 16:1-4; 22:23). The only reference
to them in the Gospels of Mark (12:18-27) and Luke (20:27-38) is
their attempting to ridicule the doctrine of the resurrection,
which they denied, as they also denied the existence of angels.
They are never mentioned in John's Gospel.
There were many Sadducees among the "elders" of the Sanhedrin.
They seem, indeed, to have been as numerous as the Pharisees
(Acts 23:6). They showed their hatred of Jesus in taking part in
his condemnation (Matt. 16:21; 26:1-3, 59; Mark 8:31; 15:1; Luke
9:22; 22:66). They endeavoured to prohibit the apostles from
preaching the resurrection of Christ (Acts 2:24, 31, 32; 4:1, 2;
5:17, 24-28). They were the deists or sceptics of that age. They
do not appear as a separate sect after the destruction of
a people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments"
on the south-west corner of the sea-coast (Deut. 2:23). They
were subdued and driven northward by the Caphtorim. A trace of
them is afterwards found in Josh. 13:3, where they are called
a pole (Heb. to'ren) used as a standard or ensign set on the
tops of mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves
for some great national purpose (Isa. 30:17). In Isa. 33:23 and
Ezek. 27:5, the same word is rendered "mast." (See Banner
weepers, a place where the angel of the Lord reproved the
Israelites for entering into a league with the people of the
land. This caused them bitterly to weep, and hence the name of
the place (Judg. 2:1, 5). It lay probably at the head of one of
the valleys between Gilgal and Shiloh.
God's people. (1.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah (2
Sam. 11:3). In 1 Chr. 3:5 his name is Ammiel.
(2.) This name also occurs as that of a Gilonite, the son of
Ahithophel, and one of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:34).
perhaps these two were the same person.
people-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from
which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites
(Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70). It was
probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of
whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's
store-houses (1 Chr. 27:25).
(2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2
(3.) Neh. 12:18.
gathered by the people, (Josh. 19:11; 21:34), a city "of Carmel"
(12:22), i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the
Merarite Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles
south-west of Nazareth, on the south of the river Kishon.
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened,
was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7).
The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still
unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in
the dual form of matzor, meaning a "mound" or "fortress," the
name of a people descended from Ham (Gen. 10:6, 13; 1 Chr. 1:8,
11). It was the name generally given by the Hebrews to the land
of Egypt (q.v.), and may denote the two Egypts, the Upper and
the Lower. The modern Arabic name for Egypt is Muzr.
(Jer. 24:2). "The bad figs may have been such either from having
decayed, and thus been reduced to a rotten condition, or as
being the fruit of the sycamore, which contains a bitter juice"
(Tristram, Nat. Hist.). The inferiority of the fruit is here
referred to as an emblem of the rejected Zedekiah and his
Phut is placed between Egypt and Canaan in Gen. 10:6, and
elsewhere we find the people of Phut described as mercenaries in
the armies of Egypt and Tyre (Jer. 46:9; Ezek. 30:5; 27:10). In
a fragment of the annuals of Nebuchadrezzar which records his
invasion of Egypt, reference is made to "Phut of the Ionians."
(Num. 21:14, marg.; also R.V.), a place at the south-eastern
corner of the Dead Sea, the Ghor es-Safieh. This name is found
in an ode quoted from the "Book of the Wars of the Lord,"
probably a collection of odes commemorating the triumphs of
God's people (comp. 21:14, 17, 18, 27-30).
building of Jehovah, the son of Ginath, a man of some position,
whom a considerable number of the people chose as monarch. For
the period of four years he contended for the throne with Omri
(1 Kings 16:21, 22), who at length gained the mastery, and
became sole monarch of Israel.
common to all (Job 5:7; 14:1; Ps. 34:19); are for the good of
men (James 1:2, 3, 12; 2 Cor. 12:7) and the glory of God (2 Cor.
12:7-10; 1 Pet. 4:14), and are to be borne with patience by the
Lord's people (Ps. 94:12; Prov. 3:12). They are all directed by
God (Lam. 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his
people (2 Cor. 4:16-18) in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8:35-39).
habitations, (2 Chr. 26:7; R.V. "Meunim," Vulg. Ammonitae), a
people against whom Uzziah waged a successful war. This word is
in Hebrew the plural of Ma'on, and thus denotes the Maonites who
inhabited the country on the eastern side of the Wady el-Arabah.
They are again mentioned in 1 Chr. 4:41 (R.V.), in the reign of
King Hezekiah, as a Hamite people, settled in the eastern end of
the valley of Gedor, in the wilderness south of Israel. In
this passage the Authorized Version has "habitation,"
erroneously following the translation of Luther.
They are mentioned in the list of those from whom the Nethinim
were made up (Ezra 2:50; Neh. 7:52).
(1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This
Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex. 12:5; Lev. 4:23;
Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, 20). Hence it may
be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated.
It literally means "strength," and points to the superior
strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.
(2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen.
31:10,12); he-goats (Num. 7:17-88; Isa. 1:11); goats (Deut.
32:14; Ps. 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Ps. 66:15). This
word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa. 14:9,
and in Zech. 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer. 50:8.)
(3.) Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among
the Hebrews (Gen. 27:9, 14, 17; Judg. 6:19).
(4.) Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat
(2 Chr. 29:23); "a goat" (Lev. 4:24); "satyr" (Isa. 13:21);
"devils" (Lev. 17:7). It is the goat of the sin-offering (Lev.
9:3, 15; 10:16).
(5.) Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chr. 29:21). In
Dan. 8:5, 8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
(6.) Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat"
(Gen. 30:35; 32:14).
(7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev. 16:8, 10,26).
(8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the
undomesticated goat:, _Yael_, only in plural mountain goats (1
Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18). It is derived from a word
meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the
mountainous parts of Moab. And _'akko_, only in Deut. 14:5, the
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matt. 25:32,33;
Heb. 9:12,13, 19; 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men
(Ezek. 34:17; 39:18; Matt. 25:33).
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews.
They had an important place in their rural economy on account of
the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the
kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen.
31:10, 12;32:14; 1 Sam. 25:2).
Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the
feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4;
Malachi, Prophecies of
The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters. In the
Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but
one. The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an
introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet reminds Israel
of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6-2:9) contains
a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the
name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his
worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in
administering the law. In the second (2:9-16) the people are
rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen. In the
third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns
them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the
advent of the Messiah.
This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament
(Matt. 11:10; 17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).
(LXX. "deadly," Vulg. "burning"), Num. 21:6, probably the naja
haje of Egypt; some swift-springing, deadly snake (Isa. 14:29).
After setting out from their encampment at Ezion-gaber, the
Israelites entered on a wide sandy desert, which stretches from
the mountains of Edom as far as the Persian Gulf. While
traversing this region, the people began to murmur and utter
loud complaints against Moses. As a punishment, the Lord sent
serpents among them, and much people of Israel died. Moses
interceded on their behalf, and by divine direction he made a
"brazen serpent," and raised it on a pole in the midst of the
camp, and all the wounded Israelites who looked on it were at
once healed. (Comp. John 3:14, 15.) (See ASP ¯T0000348.) This
"brazen serpent" was preserved by the Israelites till the days
of Hezekiah, when it was destroyed (2 Kings 18:4). (See BRASS
a tax imposed by a king on his subjects (2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings
4:6; Rom. 13:6). In Matt. 17:24-27 the word denotes the temple
rate (the "didrachma," the "half-shekel," as rendered by the
R.V.) which was required to be paid for the support of the
temple by every Jew above twenty years of age (Ex. 30:12; 2
Kings 12:4; 2 Chr. 24:6, 9). It was not a civil but a religious
In Matt. 22:17, Mark 12:14, Luke 20:22, the word may be
interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans
imposed on the Jewish people. It may, however, be legitimately
regarded as denoting any tax whatever imposed by a foreign power
on the people of Israel. The "tribute money" shown to our Lord
(Matt. 22:19) was the denarius, bearing Caesar's superscription.
It was the tax paid by every Jew to the Romans. (See PENNY
(1.) Definitions. The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to
indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24).
According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens,
(a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" (Gen. 2:19; 7:3,
23; Ps. 8:8, etc.), "the eagles of heaven" (Lam. 4:19), etc.
(b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29).
(c) "The heaven of heavens," or "the third heaven" (Deut.
10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; Ps. 115:16; 148:4; 2 Cor. 12:2).
(2.) Meaning of words in the original,
(a) The usual Hebrew word for "heavens" is _shamayim_, a
plural form meaning "heights," "elevations" (Gen. 1:1; 2:1).
(b) The Hebrew word _marom_ is also used (Ps. 68:18; 93:4;
102:19, etc.) as equivalent to _shamayim_, "high places,"
(c) Heb. galgal, literally a "wheel," is rendered "heaven" in
Ps. 77:18 (R.V., "whirlwind").
(d) Heb. shahak, rendered "sky" (Deut. 33:26; Job 37:18; Ps.
18:11), plural "clouds" (Job 35:5; 36:28; Ps. 68:34, marg.
"heavens"), means probably the firmament.
(e) Heb. rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered
"firmamentum" in the Vulgate, whence our "firmament" (Gen. 1:6;
Deut. 33:26, etc.), regarded as a solid expanse.
(3.) Metaphorical meaning of term. Isa. 14:13, 14; "doors of
heaven" (Ps. 78:23); heaven "shut" (1 Kings 8:35); "opened"
(Ezek. 1:1). (See 1 Chr. 21:16.)
(4.) Spiritual meaning. The place of the everlasting
blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits.
(a) Christ calls it his "Father's house" (John 14:2).
(b) It is called "paradise" (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev.
(c) "The heavenly Jerusalem" (Gal. 4: 26; Heb. 12:22; Rev.
(d) The "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 25:1; James 2:5).
(e) The "eternal kingdom" (2 Pet. 1:11).
(f) The "eternal inheritance" (1 Pet. 1:4; Heb. 9:15).
(g) The "better country" (Heb. 11:14, 16).
(h) The blessed are said to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob," and to be "in Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22; Matt. 8:11);
to "reign with Christ" (2 Tim. 2:12); and to enjoy "rest" (Heb.
In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the
possession of "life everlasting," "an eternal weight of glory"
(2 Cor. 4:17), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a
deliverance from all evils (2 Cor. 5:1, 2) and from the society
of the wicked (2 Tim. 4:18), bliss without termination, the
"fulness of joy" for ever (Luke 20:36; 2 Cor. 4:16, 18; 1 Pet.
1:4; 5:10; 1 John 3:2). The believer's heaven is not only a
state of everlasting blessedness, but also a "place", a place
"prepared" for them (John 14:2).
(1.) Heb. aven, "nothingness;" "vanity" (Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut.
32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).
(2.) 'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Ps. 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word
of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13).
(3.) 'Emah, "terror," in allusion to the hideous form of idols
(4.) Miphletzeth, "a fright;" "horror" (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr.
(5.) Bosheth, "shame;" "shameful thing" (Jer. 11:13; Hos.
9:10); as characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.
(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, "dung;" "refuse"
(Ezek. 16:36; 20:8; Deut. 29:17, marg.).
(7.) Shikkuts, "filth;" "impurity" (Ezek. 37:23; Nah. 3:6).
(8.) Semel, "likeness;" "a carved image" (Deut. 4:16).
(9.) Tselem, "a shadow" (Dan. 3:1; 1 Sam. 6:5), as
distinguished from the "likeness," or the exact counterpart.
(10.) Temunah, "similitude" (Deut. 4:12-19). Here Moses
forbids the several forms of Gentile idolatry.
(11.) 'Atsab, "a figure;" from the root "to fashion," "to
labour;" denoting that idols are the result of man's labour
(Isa. 48:5; Ps. 139:24, "wicked way;" literally, as some
translate, "way of an idol").
(12.) Tsir, "a form;" "shape" (Isa. 45:16).
(13.) Matztzebah, a "statue" set up (Jer. 43:13); a memorial
stone like that erected by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20),
by Joshua (4:9), and by Samuel (1 Sam. 7:12). It is the name
given to the statues of Baal (2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).
(14.) Hammanim, "sun-images." Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the
sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chr. 34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa. 17:8).
(15.) Maskith, "device" (Lev. 26:1; Num. 33:52). In Lev. 26:1,
the words "image of stone" (A.V.) denote "a stone or cippus with
the image of an idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc." In Ezek. 8:12,
"chambers of imagery" (maskith), are "chambers of which the
walls are painted with the figures of idols;" comp. ver. 10, 11.
(16.) Pesel, "a graven" or "carved image" (Isa. 44:10-20). It
denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deut. 7:25; 27:15; Isa.
(17.) Massekah, "a molten image" (Deut. 9:12; Judg. 17:3, 4).
(18.) Teraphim, pl., "images," family gods (penates)
worshipped by Abram's kindred (Josh. 24:14). Put by Michal in
David's bed (Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20; 1 Sam. 19:13).
"Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this
multiplicity and variety of words designating the instruments
and inventions of idolatry."
rest, (Heb. Noah) the grandson of Methuselah (Gen. 5:25-29), who
was for two hundred and fifty years contemporary with Adam, and
the son of Lamech, who was about fifty years old at the time of
Adam's death. This patriarch is rightly regarded as the
connecting link between the old and the new world. He is the
second great progenitor of the human family.
The words of his father Lamech at his birth (Gen. 5:29) have
been regarded as in a sense prophetical, designating Noah as a
type of Him who is the true "rest and comfort" of men under the
burden of life (Matt.11:28).
He lived five hundred years, and then there were born unto him
three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Gen. 5:32). He was a "just
man and perfect in his generation," and "walked with God" (comp.
Ezek. 14:14,20). But now the descendants of Cain and of Seth
began to intermarry, and then there sprang up a race
distinguished for their ungodliness. Men became more and more
corrupt, and God determined to sweep the earth of its wicked
population (Gen. 6:7). But with Noah God entered into a
covenant, with a promise of deliverance from the threatened
deluge (18). He was accordingly commanded to build an ark
(6:14-16) for the saving of himself and his house. An interval
of one hundred and twenty years elapsed while the ark was being
built (6:3), during which Noah bore constant testimony against
the unbelief and wickedness of that generation (1 Pet. 3:18-20;
2 Pet. 2:5).
When the ark of "gopher-wood" (mentioned only here) was at
length completed according to the command of the Lord, the
living creatures that were to be preserved entered into it; and
then Noah and his wife and sons and daughters-in-law entered it,
and the "Lord shut him in" (Gen.7:16). The judgment-threatened
now fell on the guilty world, "the world that then was, being
overflowed with water, perished" (2 Pet. 3:6). The ark floated
on the waters for one hundred and fifty days, and then rested on
the mountains of Ararat (Gen. 8:3,4); but not for a considerable
time after this was divine permission given him to leave the
ark, so that he and his family were a whole year shut up within
it (Gen. 6-14).
On leaving the ark Noah's first act was to erect an altar, the
first of which there is any mention, and offer the sacrifices of
adoring thanks and praise to God, who entered into a covenant
with him, the first covenant between God and man, granting him
possession of the earth by a new and special charter, which
remains in force to the present time (Gen. 8:21-9:17). As a sign
and witness of this covenant, the rainbow was adopted and set
apart by God, as a sure pledge that never again would the earth
be destroyed by a flood.
But, alas! Noah after this fell into grievous sin (Gen. 9:21);
and the conduct of Ham on this sad occasion led to the memorable
prediction regarding his three sons and their descendants. Noah
"lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years, and he
died" (28:29). (See DELUGE ¯T0001011).
Noah, motion, (Heb. No'ah) one of the five daughters of
Zelophehad (Num.26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Josh. 17:3).
people of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the
Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10;
2:18; 7:48, 53).
(2.) Num. 34:20. (3.) Num. 34:28.
(4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom
fled after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
(5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1 Chr. 9:4).
ruler of the people, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a
Samaritan woman. He was educated along with his brother Antipas
at Rome. He inherited from his father a third part of his
kingdom viz., Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called
"king" (Matt. 2:22). It was for fear of him that Joseph and Mary
turned aside on their way back from Egypt. Till a few days
before his death Herod had named Antipas as his successor, but
in his last moments he named Archelaus.
to promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when
they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year
or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman
was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was
betrothed (Deut. 28:30; Judg. 14:2, 8; Matt. 1:18-21). The term
is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God
and his people (Hos. 2:19, 20).
fellowship with God (Gen. 18:17-33; Ex. 33:9-11; Num. 12:7, 8),
between Christ and his people (John 14:23), by the Spirit (2
Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1), of believers with one another (Eph.
4:1-6). The Lord's Supper is so called (1 Cor. 10:16, 17),
because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his
disciples, and of the disciples with one another.
(Dan. 8:12; 11:31; 12:11), a burnt offering of two lambs of a
year old, which were daily sacrificed in the name of the whole
Israelitish people upon the great altar, the first at dawn of
day, and the second at evening (Dan. 9:21), or more correctly,
"between the two evenings." (See SACRIFICE ¯T0003179.)
whom God hears. (1.) A prince of Benjamin, grandfather of Joshua
(Num. 1:10; 1 Chr. 7:26). (2.) One of David's sons (2 Sam.
5:16). (3.) Another of David's sons (1 Chr. 3:6). (4.) A priest
sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
(2 Sam. 3:14), to betroth. The espousal was a ceremony of
betrothing, a formal agreement between the parties then coming
under obligation for the purpose of marriage. Espousals are in
the East frequently contracted years before the marriage is
celebrated. It is referred to as figuratively illustrating the
relations between God and his people (Jer. 2:2; Matt. 1:18; 2
Cor. 11:2). (See BETROTH ¯T0000573.)
(1.) The inhabitants of Geshur. They maintained friendly
relations with the Israelites on the east of Jordan (Josh. 12:5;
(2.) Another aboriginal people of Israel who inhabited the
south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Josh. 13:2 should be
"the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in ver. 11, 13,
but the tribe mentioned in 1 Sam. 27:8.
cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves
which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably
gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch
of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 39). They were
dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people
gradually became extinct (Deut. 2:12-22).
occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9, where the extent of the
dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so
designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the
country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the
products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have
carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, 24).
the name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one
belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of
Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in
contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten
tribes, who were called Israelites.
During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name,
however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without
distinction (Esther 3:6, 10; Dan. 3:8, 12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5).
Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen. 39:14; 40:15;
Ex. 2:7; 3:18; 5:3; 1 Sam. 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile
this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Cor.
11:22; Phil. 3:5).
The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the
history of Israel and with the narratives of the lives of
their rulers and chief men. They are now  dispersed over
all lands, and to this day remain a separate people, "without a
king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without
an image [R.V. 'pillar,' marg. 'obelisk'], and without an ephod,
and without teraphim" (Hos. 3:4). Till about the beginning of
the present century  they were everywhere greatly
oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now their condition
is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European
countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the
"Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted to a
seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated
at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe.
There are three names used in the New Testament to designate
this people, (1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to
distinguish them from Gentiles. (2.) Hebrews, with regard to
their language and education, to distinguish them from
Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language. (3.)
Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen
people of God. "To other races we owe the splendid inheritance
of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious
education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."
bitterness, a fountain at the sixth station of the Israelites
(Ex. 15:23, 24; Num. 33:8) whose waters were so bitter that they
could not drink them. On this account they murmured against
Moses, who, under divine direction, cast into the fountain "a
certain tree" which took away its bitterness, so that the people
drank of it. This was probably the 'Ain Hawarah, where there are
still several springs of water that are very "bitter," distant
some 47 miles from 'Ayun Mousa.
Micah, Book of
the sixth in order of the so-called minor prophets. The
superscription to this book states that the prophet exercised
his office in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. If we
reckon from the beginning of Jotham's reign to the end of
Hezekiah's (B.C. 759-698), then he ministered for about
fifty-nine years; but if we reckon from the death of Jotham to
the accession of Hezekiah (B.C. 743-726), his ministry lasted
only sixteen years. It has been noticed as remarkable that this
book commences with the last words of another prophet, "Micaiah
the son of Imlah" (1 Kings 22:28): "Hearken, O people, every one
The book consists of three sections, each commencing with a
rebuke, "Hear ye," etc., and closing with a promise, (1) ch. 1;
2; (2) ch. 3-5, especially addressed to the princes and heads of
the people; (3) ch. 6-7, in which Jehovah is represented as
holding a controversy with his people: the whole concluding with
a song of triumph at the great deliverance which the Lord will
achieve for his people. The closing verse is quoted in the song
of Zacharias (Luke 1:72, 73). The prediction regarding the place
"where Christ should be born," one of the most remarkable
Messianic prophecies (Micah 5:2), is quoted in Matt. 2:6.
There are the following references to this book in the New
5:2, with Matt. 2:6; John 7:42.
7:6, with Matt. 10:21,35,36.
7:20, with Luke 1:72,73.
of copper; a brazen thing a name of contempt given to the
serpent Moses had made in the wilderness (Num. 21:8), and which
Hezekiah destroyed because the children of Israel began to
regard it as an idol and "burn incense to it." The lapse of
nearly one thousand years had invested the "brazen serpent" with
a mysterious sanctity; and in order to deliver the people from
their infatuation, and impress them with the idea of its
worthlessness, Hezekiah called it, in contempt, "Nehushtan," a
brazen thing, a mere piece of brass (2 Kings 18:4).
Numbers, Book of
the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew
be-midbar, i.e., "in the wilderness." In the LXX. version it is
called "Numbers," and this name is now the usual title of the
book. It is so called because it contains a record of the
numbering of the people in the wilderness of Sinai (1-4), and of
their numbering afterwards on the plain of Moab (26).
This book is of special historical interest as furnishing us
with details as to the route of the Israelites in the wilderness
and their principal encampments. It may be divided into three
1. The numbering of the people at Sinai, and preparations for
their resuming their march (1-10:10). The sixth chapter gives an
account of the vow of a Nazarite.
2. An account of the journey from Sinai to Moab, the sending
out of the spies and the report they brought back, and the
murmurings (eight times) of the people at the hardships by the
3. The transactions in the plain of Moab before crossing the
Jordan (21:21-ch. 36).
The period comprehended in the history extends from the second
month of the second year after the Exodus to the beginning of
the eleventh month of the fortieth year, in all about
thirty-eight years and ten months; a dreary period of
wanderings, during which that disobedient generation all died in
the wilderness. They were fewer in number at the end of their
wanderings than when they left the land of Egypt. We see in this
history, on the one hand, the unceasing care of the Almighty
over his chosen people during their wanderings; and, on the
other hand, the murmurings and rebellions by which they offended
their heavenly Protector, drew down repeated marks of his
displeasure, and provoked him to say that they should "not enter
into his rest" because of their unbelief (Heb. 3:19).
This, like the other books of the Pentateuch, bears evidence
of having been written by Moses.
The expression "the book of the wars of the Lord," occurring
in 21:14, has given rise to much discussion. But, after all,
"what this book was is uncertain, whether some writing of Israel
not now extant, or some writing of the Amorites which contained
songs and triumphs of their king Sihon's victories, out of which
Moses may cite this testimony, as Paul sometimes does out of
heathen poets (Acts 17:28; Titus 1:12)."
(1.) One of the sons of Ham (Gen. 10:6).
(2.) A land or people from among whom came a portion of the
mercenary troops of Egypt, Jer. 46:9 (A.V., "Libyans," but
correctly, R.V., "Put"); Ezek. 27:10; 30:5 (A.V., "Libya;" R.V.,
"Put"); 38:5; Nahum 3:9.
Assyrian Rab-mugi, "chief physician," "who was attached to the
king (Jer. 39:3, 13), the title of one of Sennacherib's officers
sent with messages to Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem (2
Kings 18:17-19:13; Isa. 36:12-37:13) demanding the surrender of
the city. He was accompanied by a "great army;" but his mission
firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (q.v.) in an
invasion of the kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 15:37; 16:5-9; Isa.
7:1-8). Ahaz induced Tiglath-pileser III. to attack Damascus,
and this caused Rezin to withdraw for the purpose of defending
his own kingdom. Damascus was taken, and Rezin was slain in
battle by the Assyrian king, and his people carried into
captivity, B.C. 732 (2 Kings 16:9).
cloth made of black goats' hair, coarse, rough, and thick, used
for sacks, and also worn by mourners (Gen. 37:34; 42:25; 2 Sam.
3:31; Esther 4:1, 2; Ps. 30:11, etc.), and as a sign of
repentance (Matt. 11:21). It was put upon animals by the people
of Nineveh (Jonah 3:8).
(Heb. shebet = Gr. skeptron), properly a staff or rod. As a
symbol of authority, the use of the sceptre originated in the
idea that the ruler was as a shepherd of his people (Gen. 49:10;
Num. 24:17; Ps. 45:6; Isa. 14:5). There is no example on record
of a sceptre having ever been actually handled by a Jewish king.
The Scythians consisted of "all the pastoral tribes who dwelt to
the north of the Black Sea and the Caspian, and were scattered
far away toward the east. Of this vast country but little was
anciently known. Its modern representative is Russia, which, to
a great extent, includes the same territories." They were the
descendants of Japheth (Gen. 9:27). It appears that in apostolic
times there were some of this people that embraced Christianity
(Luke 2:2; R.V., "enrolment"), "when Cyrenius was governor of
Syria," is simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of
them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrolment
was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It
has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of
Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some
years afterwards. This decree for the taxing referred to the
whole Roman world, and not to Judea alone. (See CENSUS
a word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under
the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all
things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the
people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public
and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the
medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly,
not of an earthly, king. They were Jehovah's own subjects, ruled
directly by him (comp. 1 Sam. 8:6-9).
Vine of Sodom
referred to only in Deut. 32:32. Among the many conjectures as
to this tree, the most probable is that it is the 'osher of the
Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit
are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to
the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See EN-GEDI
¯T0001207.) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses
as being utterly corrupt, bringing forth only bitter fruit.
a race of giants; "a people great, and many, and tall, as the
Anakims" (Deut. 2:20, 21). They were overcome by the Ammonites,
"who called them Zamzummims." They belonged to the Rephaim, and
inhabited the country afterwards occupied by the Ammonites. It
has been conjectured that they might be Ham-zuzims, i.e., Zuzims
dwelling in Ham, a place apparently to the south of Ashteroth
(Gen. 14:5), the ancient Rabbath-ammon.