a Persian word (Assyr, sivanu, "bricks"), used after the
Captivity as the name of the third month of the Jewish year,
extending from the new moon in June to the new moon in July
New Moon, Feast of
Special services were appointed for the commencement of a month
(Num. 28:11-15; 10:10). (See FESTIVALS ¯T0001325.)
(Neh. 6:15), the name of the sixth month of the ecclesiastical
year, and the twelfth of the civil year. It began with the new
moon of our August and September, and consisted of twenty-nine
the eleventh month of the Hebrew year, extending from the new
moon of February to that of March (Zech. 1:7). Assyrian sabatu,
"storm." (See MONTH ¯T0002592.)
large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the
ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7, 13; 8:12; 9:1, 15,
17, 19, 21). It included the days extending from the new moon of
our March to the new moon of April. The name was first used
after the Captivity. When the season was backward, and the lambs
not yet of a paschal size, or the barley not forward enough for
abib, then a month called Veadar, i.e., a second Adar, was
the post-biblical name of the month which was the eighth of the
sacred and the second of the civil year of the Jews. It began
with the new moon of our November. It is once called Bul (1
Kings 6:38). Assyrian, Arah Samna, "eighth month,"
Among the Egyptians the month of thirty days each was in use
long before the time of the Exodus, and formed the basis of
their calculations. From the time of the institution of the
Mosaic law the month among the Jews was lunar. The cycle of
religious feasts depended on the moon. The commencement of a
month was determined by the observation of the new moon. The
number of months in the year was usually twelve (1 Kings 4:7; 1
Chr. 27:1-15); but every third year an additional month
(ve-Adar) was inserted, so as to make the months coincide with
"The Hebrews and Phoenicians had no word for month save
'moon,' and only saved their calendar from becoming vague like
that of the Moslems by the interpolation of an additional month.
There is no evidence at all that they ever used a true solar
year such as the Egyptians possessed. The latter had twelve
months of thirty days and five epagomenac or odd days.",
Israel Quarterly, January 1889.
heb. yareah, from its paleness (Ezra 6:15), and lebanah, the
"white" (Cant. 6:10; Isa. 24:23), was appointed by the Creator
to be with the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days,
and years" (Gen. 1:14-16). A lunation was among the Jews the
period of a month, and several of their festivals were held on
the day of the new moon. It is frequently referred to along with
the sun (Josh. 10:12; Ps. 72:5, 7, 17; 89:36, 37; Eccl. 12:2;
Isa. 24:23, etc.), and also by itself (Ps. 8:3; 121:6).
The great brilliance of the moon in Eastern countries led to
its being early an object of idolatrous worship (Deut. 4:19;
17:3; Job 31:26), a form of idolatry against which the Jews were
warned (Deut. 4:19; 17:3). They, however, fell into this
idolatry, and offered incense (2 Kings 23:5; Jer. 8:2), and also
cakes of honey, to the moon (Jer. 7:18; 44:17-19, 25).
Queen of heaven
(Jer. 7:18; 44:17, 25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as
the receptive power in nature.
(1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year.
Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex.
29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the
New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of
Pentecost (Lev. 23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex. 12:5), and
on many other occasions (1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:21; Lev. 9:3;
(2.) Heb. taleh, a young sucking lamb (1 Sam. 7:9; Isa.
65:25). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the
type of meekness and innocence (Isa. 11:6; 65:25; Luke 10:3;
The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Gen. 4:4; Ex. 12:3; 29:38;
Isa. 16:1; 53:7; John 1:36; Rev. 13:8).
Christ is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36), as the great
sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Num.
6:12; Lev. 14:12-17; Isa. 53:7; 1 Cor. 5:7).
one of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who
colonized Samaria (2 Kings 17:31). The name means "Anu is king."
It was a female deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech
(q.v.) was the male representing the sun.
the name adopted from the Babylonians by the Jews after the
Captivity for the third civil, or ninth ecclesiastical, month
(Neh. 1:1; Zech. 7:1). It corresponds nearly with the moon in
lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate
with Chedorlamer (Gen. 14:1,9). The tablets recently discovered
by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA ¯T0000758) show the true reading is
Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the
moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O
moon-god." (2.) Dan. 2:14.
Colossians, Epistle to the
was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there
(Acts 28:16, 30), probably in the spring of A.D. 57, or, as some
think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the
Ephesians. Like some of his other epistles (e.g., those to
Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of
information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the
internal state of the church there (Col. 1:4-8). Its object was
to counteract false teaching. A large part of it is directed
against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the
doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with
Christianity, thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a
higher spiritual life and a deeper insight into the world of
spirits. Paul argues against such teaching, showing that in
Christ Jesus they had all things. He sets forth the majesty of
his redemption. The mention of the "new moon" and "sabbath days"
(2:16) shows also that there were here Judaizing teachers who
sought to draw away the disciples from the simplicity of the
Like most of Paul's epistles, this consists of two parts, a
doctrinal and a practical.
(1.) The doctrinal part comprises the first two chapters. His
main theme is developed in chapter 2. He warns them against
being drawn away from Him in whom dwelt all the fulness of the
Godhead, and who was the head of all spiritual powers. Christ
was the head of the body of which they were members; and if they
were truly united to him, what needed they more?
(2.) The practical part of the epistle (3-4) enforces various
duties naturally flowing from the doctrines expounded. They are
exhorted to mind things that are above (3:1-4), to mortify every
evil principle of their nature, and to put on the new man
(3:5-14). Many special duties of the Christian life are also
insisted upon as the fitting evidence of the Christian
character. Tychicus was the bearer of the letter, as he was also
of that to the Ephesians and to Philemon, and he would tell them
of the state of the apostle (4:7-9). After friendly greetings
(10-14), he bids them interchange this letter with that he had
sent to the neighbouring church of Laodicea. He then closes this
brief but striking epistle with his usual autograph salutation.
There is a remarkable resemblance between this epistle and that
to the Ephesians (q.v.). The genuineness of this epistle has not
been called in question.
Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Gen.
14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called
"Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon). The
Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present
es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of Damascus.
Host of heaven
The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the
Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deut. 4:19; 2
Kings 17:16; 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts 7:42).
probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease
were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In
Matt. 4:24 "lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs. In 17:15
the name "lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have
been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC ¯T0000957.)
of the sun alluded to in Amos 8:9; Micah 3:6; Zech. 14:6; Joel
2:10. Eclipses were regarded as tokens of God's anger (Joel
3:15; Job 9:7). The darkness at the crucifixion has been
ascribed to an eclipse (Matt. 27:45); but on the other hand it
is argued that the great intensity of darkness caused by an
eclipse never lasts for more than six minutes, and this darkness
lasted for three hours. Moreover, at the time of the Passover
the moon was full, and therefore there could not be an eclipse
of the sun, which is caused by an interposition of the moon
between the sun and the earth.
There were daily (Lev. 23), weekly, monthly, and yearly
festivals, and great stress was laid on the regular observance
of them in every particular (Num. 28:1-8; Ex. 29:38-42; Lev.
6:8-23; Ex. 30:7-9; 27:20).
(1.) The septenary festivals were,
(a) The weekly Sabbath (Lev. 23:1-3; Ex. 19:3-30; 20:8-11;
(b) The seventh new moon, or the feast of Trumpets (Num.
(c) The Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:10, 11; Lev. 25:2-7).
(d) The year of jubilee (Lev. 23-35; 25: 8-16; 27:16-25).
(2.) The great feasts were,
(a) The Passover. (b) The feast of Pentecost, or of weeks. (c)
The feast of Tabernacles, or of ingathering.
On each of these occasions every male Israelite was commanded
"to appear before the Lord" (Deut. 27:7; Neh. 8:9-12). The
attendance of women was voluntary. (Comp. Luke 2:41; 1 Sam. 1:7;
2:19.) The promise that God would protect their homes (Ex.
34:23, 24) while all the males were absent in Jerusalem at these
feasts was always fulfilled. "During the whole period between
Moses and Christ we never read of an enemy invading the land at
the time of the three festivals. The first instance on record is
thirty-three years after they had withdrawn from themselves the
divine protection by imbruing their hands in the Saviour's
blood, when Cestius, the Roman general, slew fifty of the people
of Lydda while all the rest had gone up to the feast of
Tabernacles, A.D. 66."
These festivals, besides their religious purpose, had an
important bearing on the maintenance among the people of the
feeling of a national unity. The times fixed for their
observance were arranged so as to interfere as little as
possible with the industry of the people. The Passover was kept
just before the harvest commenced, Pentecost at the conclusion
of the corn harvest and before the vintage, the feast of
Tabernacles after all the fruits of the ground had been gathered
(3.) The Day of Atonement, the tenth day of the seventh month
(Lev. 16:1, 34; 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11). (See ATONEMENT, DAY OF
Of the post-Exilian festivals reference is made to the feast
of Dedication (John 10:22). This feast was appointed by Judas
Maccabaeus in commemoration of the purification of the temple
after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes. The "feast of
Purim" (q.v.), Esther 9:24-32, was also instituted after the
Exile. (Cf. John 5:1.)
The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a
portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other
inspired poets in successive generations added now one now
another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the
wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of
human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." But it
is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this
precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of
which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to
David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second
psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About
two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.
Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung
after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are
addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in
the worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading
part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20:19), were intrusted
with the arranging and singing of Ps. 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and
In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i.e.,
the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews
divided the Old Testament. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580.)
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date
than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection
extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New
Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter.
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch,
into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:
(1.) The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of
which are ascribed to David except 1, 2, 10, and 33, which,
though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
(2.) Book second consists of the next 31 psalms (42-72), 18 of
which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The
rest are anonymous.
(3.) The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the
86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and
the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite.
(4.) The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106), of
which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103rd to
(5.) The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in
number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to
Ps. 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud
includes also Ps. 120-135. Ps. 113-118, inclusive, constitute
the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon,
and on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at
times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the
close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the
third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth
by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days
The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song
in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the
praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the
tabernacle music and song.
Divers names are given to the psalms. (1.) Some bear the
Hebrew designation _shir_ (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this
title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight
line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well
as sacred song.
(2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) _mitsmor_
(Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a
sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
(3.) Ps. 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.)
_tehillah_ (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a
song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
(4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) _michtam_
(5.) Ps. 7 and Hab. 3 bear the title (Heb.) _shiggaion_
image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul
describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21-25: men forsook
God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).
The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of
trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc.
(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars,
as the supposed powers of nature.
(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of
In Scripture, idolatry is regarded as of heathen origin, and
as being imported among the Hebrews through contact with heathen
nations. The first allusion to idolatry is in the account of
Rachel stealing her father's teraphim (Gen. 31:19), which were
the relics of the worship of other gods by Laban's progenitors
"on the other side of the river in old time" (Josh. 24:2).
During their long residence in Egypt the Hebrews fell into
idolatry, and it was long before they were delivered from it
(Josh. 24:14; Ezek. 20:7). Many a token of God's displeasure
fell upon them because of this sin.
The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from
among the people during the forty years' wanderings; but when
the Jews entered Israel, they came into contact with the
monuments and associations of the idolatry of the old
Canaanitish races, and showed a constant tendency to depart from
the living God and follow the idolatrous practices of those
heathen nations. It was their great national sin, which was only
effectually rebuked by the Babylonian exile. That exile finally
purified the Jews of all idolatrous tendencies.
The first and second commandments are directed against
idolatry of every form. Individuals and communities were equally
amenable to the rigorous code. The individual offender was
devoted to destruction (Ex. 22:20). His nearest relatives were
not only bound to denounce him and deliver him up to punishment
(Deut. 13:20-10), but their hands were to strike the first blow
when, on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was stoned
(Deut. 17:2-7). To attempt to seduce others to false worship was
a crime of equal enormity (13:6-10). An idolatrous nation shared
the same fate. No facts are more strongly declared in the Old
Testament than that the extermination of the Canaanites was the
punishment of their idolatry (Ex. 34:15, 16; Deut. 7; 12:29-31;
20:17), and that the calamities of the Israelites were due to
the same cause (Jer. 2:17). "A city guilty of idolatry was
looked upon as a cancer in the state; it was considered to be in
rebellion, and treated according to the laws of war. Its
inhabitants and all their cattle were put to death." Jehovah was
the theocratic King of Israel, the civil Head of the
commonwealth, and therefore to an Israelite idolatry was a state
offence (1 Sam. 15:23), high treason. On taking possession of
the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every
kind of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Ex. 23:24, 32;
34:13; Deut. 7:5, 25; 12:1-3).
In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate
covetousness (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5).
(Heb. shemesh), first mentioned along with the moon as the two
great luminaries of heaven (Gen. 1:14-18). By their motions and
influence they were intended to mark and divide times and
seasons. The worship of the sun was one of the oldest forms of
false religion (Job 31:26,27), and was common among the
Egyptians and Chaldeans and other pagan nations. The Jews were
warned against this form of idolatry (Deut. 4:19; 17:3; comp. 2
Kings 23:11; Jer. 19:13).
"To tire" the head is to adorn it (2 Kings 9:30). As a noun the
word is derived from "tiara," and is the rendering of the Heb.
p'er, a "turban" or an ornament for the head (Ezek. 24:17; R.V.,
"headtire;" 24:23). In Isa. 3:18 the word _saharonim_ is
rendered "round tires like the moon," and in Judg. 8:21, 26
"ornaments," but in both cases "crescents" in the Revised
new, a city in the valley of Judah (Josh. 15:37).
light, or the moon city, a city "of the Chaldees," the
birthplace of Haran (Gen. 11:28,31), the largest city of Shinar
or northern Chaldea, and the principal commercial centre of the
country as well as the centre of political power. It stood near
the mouth of the Euphrates, on its western bank, and is
represented by the mounds (of bricks cemented by bitumen) of
el-Mugheir, i.e., "the bitumined," or "the town of bitumen," now
150 miles from the sea and some 6 miles from the Euphrates, a
little above the point where it receives the Shat el-Hie, an
affluent from the Tigris. It was formerly a maritime city, as
the waters of the Persian Gulf reached thus far inland. Ur was
the port of Babylonia, whence trade was carried on with the
dwellers on the gulf, and with the distant countries of India,
Ethiopia, and Egypt. It was abandoned about B.C. 500, but long
continued, like Erech, to be a great sacred cemetery city, as is
evident from the number of tombs found there. (See ABRAHAM
The oldest king of Ur known to us is Ur-Ba'u (servant of the
goddess Ba'u), as Hommel reads the name, or Ur-Gur, as others
read it. He lived some twenty-eight hundred years B.C., and took
part in building the famous temple of the moon-god Sin in Ur
itself. The illustration here given represents his cuneiform
inscription, written in the Sumerian language, and stamped upon
every brick of the temple in Ur. It reads: "Ur-Ba'u, king of Ur,
who built the temple of the moon-god."
"Ur was consecrated to the worship of Sin, the Babylonian
moon-god. It shared this honour, however, with another city, and
this city was Haran, or Harran. Harran was in Mesopotamia, and
took its name from the highroad which led through it from the
east to the west. The name is Babylonian, and bears witness to
its having been founded by a Babylonian king. The same witness
is still more decisively borne by the worship paid in it to the
Babylonian moon-god and by its ancient temple of Sin. Indeed,
the temple of the moon-god at Harran was perhaps even more
famous in the Assyrian and Babylonian world than the temple of
the moon-god at Ur.
"Between Ur and Harran there must, consequently, have been a
close connection in early times, the record of which has not yet
been recovered. It may be that Harran owed its foundation to a
king of Ur; at any rate the two cities were bound together by
the worship of the same deity, the closest and most enduring
bond of union that existed in the ancient world. That Terah
should have migrated from Ur to Harran, therefore, ceases to be
extraordinary. If he left Ur at all, it was the most natural
place to which to go. It was like passing from one court of a
temple into another.
"Such a remarkable coincidence between the Biblical narrative
and the evidence of archaeological research cannot be the result
of chance. The narrative must be historical; no writer of late
date, even if he were a Babylonian, could have invented a story
so exactly in accordance with what we now know to have been the
truth. For a story of the kind to have been the invention of
Palestinian tradition is equally impossible. To the unprejudiced
mind there is no escape from the conclusion that the history of
the migration of Terah from Ur to Harran is founded on fact"
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of
Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers
from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with
lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1-3). Although it was
the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there
fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and
projecting rocks; there were there caverns and grottos, into
which a fugitive might retreat; finally, there were probably a
garden-house and tower, into whose gloom it might be necessary
for a searcher to throw light around." Lange's Commentary.
(Nahum 2:3, "torches," Revised Version, "steel," probably should
be "scythes" for war-chariots.)
new, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah (Josh.
the moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive
principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently
associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male
deity (Judg. 10:6; 1 Sam. 7:4; 12:10). These names often occur
in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either
different statues or different modifications of the deities.
This deity is spoken of as Ashtoreth of the Zidonians. She was
the Ishtar of the Accadians and the Astarte of the Greeks (Jer.
44:17; 1 Kings 11:5, 33; 2 Kings 23:13). There was a temple of
this goddess among the Philistines in the time of Saul (1 Sam.
31:10). Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great
deities of the Assyrians. The Phoenicians called her Astarte.
Solomon introduced the worship of this idol (1 Kings 11:33).
Jezebel's 400 priests were probably employed in its service (1
Kings 18:19). It was called the "queen of heaven" (Jer. 44:25).
(LXX., "Orech"), length, or Moon-town, one of the cities of
Nimrod's kingdom in the plain of Shinar (Gen. 10:10); the Orchoe
of the Greeks and Romans. It was probably the city of the
Archevites, who were transplanted to Samaria by Asnapper (Ezra
4:9). It lay on the left bank of the Euphrates, about 120 miles
south-east of Babylon, and is now represented by the mounds and
ruins of Warka. It appears to have been the necropolis of the
Assyrian kings, as the whole region is strewed with bricks and
the remains of coffins. "Standing on the summit of the principal
edifice, called the Buwarizza, a tower 200 feet square in the
centre of the ruins, the beholder is struck with astonishment at
the enormous accumulation of mounds and ancient relics at his
feet. An irregular circle, nearly 6 miles in circumference, is
defined by the traces of an earthen rampart, in some places 40
Heb. nophek (Ex. 28:18; 39:11); i.e., the "glowing stone",
probably the carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of
the high priest. It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the
foundations of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone
in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live
the Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized
Version of the New Testament (Matt. 3:3; 4:14), but in the
Revised Version always "Isaiah."
New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). It is
probably identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit
(Luke 22:20), rather "New Covenant," in contrast to the old
covenant of works, which is superseded. "The covenant of grace
is called new; it succeeds to the old broken covenant of works.
It is ever fresh, flourishing, and excellent; and under the
gospel it is dispensed in a more clear, spiritual, extensive,
and powerful manner than of old" (Brown of Haddington). Hence is
derived the name given to the latter portion of the Bible. (See
and Aij'alon, place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally
assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could
not drive the Amorites (Judg. 1:35). It was one of the Levitical
cities given to the Kohathites (1 Chr. 6:69). It was not far
from Beth-shemesh (2 Chr. 28:18). It was the boundary between
the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in
Jewish history (2 Chr. 11:10; 1 Sam. 14:31; 1 Chr. 8:13). With
reference to the valley named after the town, Joshua uttered the
celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou,
Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" (Josh. 10:12). It has been
identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon
pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q.v.)
speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by the
invaders, and describes himself as "afflicted, greatly
afflicted" by the calamities that had come on the land, urging
the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.
(2.) A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:12), the modern
Jalun, three miles north of Cabul.
(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many
centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the
Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and
in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty
which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Israel. The kings
of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once
South Arabic and Hebrew. The most famous king of the dynasty was
Khammu-rabi, who united Babylonia under one rule, and made
Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne, the country
was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into
two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of
Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku
("the servant of the moon-god"), the son of an Elamite prince,
Kudur-Mabug, who is entitled "the father of the land of the
Amorites." A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the
enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar ("the servant of the
goddess Lagamar") or Chedorlaomer, Eri-Aku or Arioch, and
Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read
Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in
overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia.
Assur-bani-pal, the last of the Assyrian conquerors, mentions in
two inscriptions that he took Susa 1635 years after
Kedor-nakhunta, king of Elam, had conquered Babylonia. It was in
the year B.C. 660 that Assur-bani-pal took Susa.
is said to be the oldest extant vellum manuscript. It and the
Codex Sinaiticus are the two oldest uncial manuscripts. They
were probably written in the fourth century. The Vaticanus was
placed in the Vatican Library at Rome by Pope Nicolas V. in
1448, its previous history being unknown. It originally
consisted in all probability of a complete copy of the
Septuagint and of the New Testament. It is now imperfect, and
consists of 759 thin, delicate leaves, of which the New
Testament fills 142. Like the Sinaiticus, it is of the greatest
value to Biblical scholars in aiding in the formation of a
correct text of the New Testament. It is referred to by critics
as Codex B.
as used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse
(Luke 12: 24), and hence a place of privacy and retirement
(Matt. 6:6; Luke 12:3).
the Greek form of Elijah (Matt. 11:14; 16:14, etc.), which the
Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament. (See
(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head (1 Sam. 17:5,
38). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Eph.
6:17; 1 Thess. 5:8). (See ARMS ¯T0000315.)
beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in
2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament.
(id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51, A.V.,
"Lord," R.V., "Rabboni;" John 20:16). It was the most honourable
of all the titles.
occurs twelve times in the New Testament (Heb. 9:15, etc.) as
the rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times
rendered "covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in
the Revised Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by
testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by
which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is
divided. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580.)
(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only
in the New Testament (Matt. 10:25; 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22). It is
probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning
"the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or
(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of
the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Ex.
28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev.
21:18, 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11).
It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).
new city, a town in Thrace at which Paul first landed in Europe
(Acts 16:11). It was the sea-port of the inland town of
Philippi, which was distant about 10 miles. From this port Paul
embarked on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 20:6). It is
identified with the modern Turco-Grecian Kavalla.
the capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence
of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on
their first missionary tour (Acts 13:6). It is new Paphos which
is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8
miles north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.
dry, an irregular and ill-defined district in Asia Minor. It was
divided into two parts, the Greater Phrygia on the south, and
the Lesser Phrygia on the west. It is the Greater Phrygia that
is spoken of in the New Testament. The towns of Antioch in
Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea
were situated in it.
to be treated with kindness (Ex. 22:22; Deut. 14:29; 16:11, 14;
24:17, 19-21; 26:12; 27:19, etc.). In the New Testament the same
tender regard for them is inculcated (Acts 6:1-6; 1 Tim. 5:3-16)
the title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In
the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as
sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive
proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to
Caesar (Matt. 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of
appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New
Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22),
Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Phil. 4:22).
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are
the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7);
they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 9); they warn of
danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the
commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they
associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and
forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with
the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from
justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially
as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
from the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are
not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament
was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into
chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When
Luke (20:37) refers to Ex. 3:6, he quotes from "Moses at the
bush", i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the
bush. So also Mark (2:26) refers to 1 Sam. 21:1-6, in the words,
"in the days of Abiathar;" and Paul (Rom. 11:2) refers to 1
Kings ch. 17-19, in the words, "in Elias", i.e., in the portion
of the history regarding Elias.
In general, the New Testament writers quote from the
Septuagint (q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then
in common use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these
quotations are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g.,
the quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or
the Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances.
Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety
instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the
quotations (in over eighty instances).
Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew
text (Matt. 4:15, 16; John 19:37; 1 Cor. 15:54). Besides the
quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions,
more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New
Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as
well as historical facts recorded in the Old.
There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct
quotations from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear
and certain case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).
Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there
are in Paul's writings three quotations from certain Greek
poets, Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12. These quotations
are memorials of his early classical education.
usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet,
is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New
Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of
St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr.
Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained
forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in
the university library of Leipsic, under the title of the Codex
Frederico-Augustanus, after his royal patron the king of Saxony.
In the year referred to (1859) the emperor of Russia sent him to
prosecute his search for MSS., which he was convinced were still
to be found in the Sinai convent. The story of his finding the
manuscript of the New Testament has all the interest of a
romance. He reached the convent on 31st January; but his
inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On the 4th February he had
resolved to return home without having gained his object. "On
that day, when walking with the provisor of the convent, he
spoke with much regret of his ill-success. Returning from their
promenade, Tischendorf accompanied the monk to his room, and
there had displayed to him what his companion called a copy of
the LXX., which he, the ghostly brother, owned. The MS. was
wrapped up in a piece of cloth, and on its being unrolled, to
the surprise and delight of the critic the very document
presented itself which he had given up all hope of seeing. His
object had been to complete the fragmentary LXX. of 1844, which
he had declared to be the most ancient of all Greek codices on
vellum that are extant; but he found not only that, but a copy
of the Greek New Testament attached, of the same age, and
perfectly complete, not wanting a single page or paragraph."
This precious fragment, after some negotiations, he obtained
possession of, and conveyed it to the Emperor Alexander, who
fully appreciated its importance, and caused it to be published
as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly
the ancient handwriting. The entire codex consists of 346 1/2
folios. Of these 199 belong to the Old Testament and 147 1/2 to
the New, along with two ancient documents called the Epistle of
Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. The books of the New
Testament stand thus: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul,
the Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, the Apocalypse
of John. It is shown by Tischendorf that this codex was written
in the fourth century, and is thus of about the same age as the
Vatican codex; but while the latter wants the greater part of
Matthew and sundry leaves here and there besides, the Sinaiticus
is the only copy of the New Testament in uncial characters which
is complete. Thus it is the oldest extant MS. copy of the New
Testament. Both the Vatican and the Sinai codices were probably
written in Egypt. (See VATICANUS ¯T0003766.)
of Sin (the moon god), called also Horeb, the name of the
mountain district which was reached by the Hebrews in the third
month after the Exodus. Here they remained encamped for about a
whole year. Their journey from the Red Sea to this encampment,
including all the windings of the route, was about 150 miles.
The last twenty-two chapters of Exodus, together with the whole
of Leviticus and Num. ch. 1-11, contain a record of all the
transactions which occurred while they were here. From Rephidim
(Ex. 17:8-13) the Israelites journeyed forward through the Wady
Solaf and Wady esh-Sheikh into the plain of er-Rahah, "the
desert of Sinai," about 2 miles long and half a mile broad, and
encamped there "before the mountain." The part of the mountain
range, a protruding lower bluff, known as the Ras Sasafeh
(Sufsafeh), rises almost perpendicularly from this plain, and is
in all probability the Sinai of history. Dean Stanley thus
describes the scene:, "The plain itself is not broken and uneven
and narrowly shut in, like almost all others in the range, but
presents a long retiring sweep, within which the people could
remove and stand afar off. The cliff, rising like a huge altar
in front of the whole congregation, and visible against the sky
in lonely grandeur from end to end of the whole plain, is the
very image of the 'mount that might be touched,' and from which
the voice of God might be heard far and wide over the plain
below." This was the scene of the giving of the law. From the
Ras Sufsafeh the law was proclaimed to the people encamped below
in the plain of er-Rahah. During the lengthened period of their
encampment here the Israelites passed through a very memorable
experience. An immense change passed over them. They are now an
organized nation, bound by covenant engagement to serve the Lord
their God, their ever-present divine Leader and Protector. At
length, in the second month of the second year of the Exodus,
they move their camp and march forward according to a prescribed
order. After three days they reach the "wilderness of Paran,"
the "et-Tih", i.e., "the desert", and here they make their first
encampment. At this time a spirit of discontent broke out
amongst them, and the Lord manifested his displeasure by a fire
which fell on the encampment and inflicted injury on them. Moses
called the place Taberah (q.v.), Num. 11:1-3. The journey
between Sinai and the southern boundary of the Promised Land
(about 150 miles) at Kadesh was accomplished in about a year.
(See MAP facing page 204.)
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally
means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia)
is used by classical writers with reference to the changes
produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is
equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In
Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as
a passing from death to life (1 John 3:14); becoming a new
creature in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17); being born again (John
3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom. 12:2); a resurrection from the
dead (Eph. 2:6); a being quickened (2:1, 5).
This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not
with man but with God (John 1:12, 13; 1 John 2:29; 5:1, 4).
As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting
of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation
of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses
The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in
Scripture (John 3:3; Rom. 7:18; 8:7-9; 1 Cor. 2:14; Eph. 2:1;
This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a
reed or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to
keep straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or
measured. It came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote
that they contained the authoritative rule of faith and
practice, the standard of doctrine and duty. A book is said to
be of canonical authority when it has a right to take a place
with the other books which contain a revelation of the Divine
will. Such a right does not arise from any ecclesiastical
authority, but from the evidence of the inspired authorship of
the book. The canonical (i.e., the inspired) books of the Old
and New Testaments, are a complete rule, and the only rule, of
faith and practice. They contain the whole supernatural
revelation of God to men. The New Testament Canon was formed
gradually under divine guidance. The different books as they
were written came into the possession of the Christian
associations which began to be formed soon after the day of
Pentecost; and thus slowly the canon increased till all the
books were gathered together into one collection containing the
whole of the twenty-seven New Testament inspired books.
Historical evidence shows that from about the middle of the
second century this New Testament collection was substantially
such as we now possess. Each book contained in it is proved to
have, on its own ground, a right to its place; and thus the
whole is of divine authority.
The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament
writers. Their evidence is conclusive. The quotations in the New
from the Old are very numerous, and the references are much more
numerous. These quotations and references by our Lord and the
apostles most clearly imply the existence at that time of a
well-known and publicly acknowledged collection of Hebrew
writings under the designation of "The Scriptures;" "The Law and
the Prophets and the Psalms;" "Moses and the Prophets," etc. The
appeals to these books, moreover, show that they were regarded
as of divine authority, finally deciding all questions of which
they treat; and that the whole collection so recognized
consisted only of the thirty-nine books which we now posses.
Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic the canon of the
Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint Version (q.v.) also contained
every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. As to
the time at which the Old Testament canon was closed, there are
many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah,
immediately after the return from Babylonian exile. (See BIBLE
¯T0000580, EZRA ¯T0001294, QUOTATIONS ¯T0003039.)
a name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person
clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence
(Gen. 50:7). It also denoted a political office (Num. 22:7). The
"elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of
authority. Moses opened his commission to them (Ex. 3:16). They
attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy of them
attended on him at the giving of the law (Ex. 24:1). Seventy
also were selected from the whole number to bear with Moses the
burden of the people (Num. 11:16, 17). The "elder" is the
keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the
patriarchal system exists. At the present day this is the case
among the Arabs, where the sheik (i.e., "the old man") is the
highest authority in the tribe. The body of the "elders" of
Israel were the representatives of the people from the very
first, and were recognized as such by Moses. All down through
the history of the Jews we find mention made of the elders as
exercising authority among the people. They appear as governors
(Deut. 31:28), as local magistrates (16:18), administering
justice (19:12). They were men of extensive influence (1 Sam.
30:26-31). In New Testament times they also appear taking an
active part in public affairs (Matt. 16:21; 21:23; 26:59).
The Jewish eldership was transferred from the old dispensation
to the new. "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere
recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and
apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new
and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from
the earlies times. In other words, the office of elder was the
only permanent essential office of the church under either
The "elders" of the New Testament church were the "pastors"
(Eph. 4:11), "bishops or overseers" (Acts 20:28), "leaders" and
"rulers" (Heb. 13:7; 1 Thess. 5:12) of the flock. Everywhere in
the New Testament bishop and presbyter are titles given to one
and the same officer of the Christian church. He who is called
presbyter or elder on account of his age or gravity is also
called bishop or overseer with reference to the duty that lay
upon him (Titus 1:5-7; Acts 20:17-28; Phil. 1:1).
This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New
Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6), and in each case is
followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father."
It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It
has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into
European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."
the red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and
Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking
toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7; 18:17. It was nearly
half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name
of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place
referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke
10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and
carriages for the first time have come along this road from
was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by
the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. Till then the
New Testament economy did not exist. John's baptism bound its
subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ. It was
not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John
baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24; 19:7).
a Greek word used in the New Testament (Rom. 1:14) to denote one
of another nation. In Col. 3:11, the word more definitely
designates those nations of the Roman empire that did not speak
Greek. In 1 Cor. 14:11, it simply refers to one speaking a
different language. The inhabitants of Malta are so called (Acts
28:1,2, 4). They were originally a Carthaginian colony. This
word nowhere in Scripture bears the meaning it does in modern
a method of taking away life practised among the Egyptians (Gen.
40:17-19). There are instances of this mode of punishment also
among the Hebrews (2 Sam. 4:8; 20:21,22; 2 Kings 10:6-8). It is
also mentioned in the New Testament (Matt. 14:8-12; Acts 12:2).
Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, as one of the precious stones in
the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is
derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first
discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an
agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian
ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew
_nophekh_, translated "emerald" (Ex. 28:18; 39:11; Ezek. 27:16;
28:13). It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX., and "carbunculus"
in the Vulgate. (See CARBUNCLE ¯T0000721.)
the name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to
the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names
by which the disciples were known among themselves were
"brethren," "the faithful," "elect," "saints," "believers." But
as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name
"Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted. This
name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26;
26:28; 1 Pet. 4:16).
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or
service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were
thus consecrated (Ex. 13:2, 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews
devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of
war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, 29). According to the Mosaic law
the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God.
In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated
to the Lord (1 Pet. 2:9).
the tiara of a king (Ezek. 21:26; Isa. 28:5; 62:3); the turban
(Job 29:14). In the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn
between the diadem as a badge of royalty (Rev. 12:3; 13:1;
19:12) and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life.
It is not known what the ancient Jewish "diadem" was. It was the
mark of Oriental sovereigns. (See CROWN ¯T0000929.)
The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity, although no special
mention is made of it in the Old Testament. The Hebrews probably
learned it from the Egyptians (see Ex. 26:1; 28:5-8), who
brought it to great perfection. In New Testament times Thyatira
was famed for its dyers (Acts 16:14). (See COLOUR ¯T0000868.)
(Heb. tsepharde'a, meaning a "marsh-leaper"). This reptile is
mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of
the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Ex. 8:2-14; Ps.
In the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev. 16:13,
where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only
species of frog existing in Israel is the green frog (Rana
esculenta), the well-known edible frog of the Continent.
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations
except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and
more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it
acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of
In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning
literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1, 3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14),
generally denotes any non-Jewish nation.
the holy writings, a term which came early into use in the
Christian church to denote the third division of the Old
Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e.,
"Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and
Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews
classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the
Kethubim, or Writings. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580.)
In the New Testament (Luke 24:44) we find three corresponding
divisions, viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.
the valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and
Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of
Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13, translate "of the
cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of
the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the
cedars which grew there. John 18:1, "Cedron," only here in New
Testament. (See KIDRON ¯T0002187.)
a town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New
Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in
healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of
Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old
Testament (1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the
Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of
Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint
of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.
a colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a
tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing
after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Comp. 1
Kings 7:6.) The word "porch" is in the New Testament the
rendering of three different Greek words:
(1.) Stoa, meaning a portico or veranda (John 5:2; 10:23; Acts
(2.) Pulon, a gateway (Matt. 26:71).
(3.) Proaulion, the entrance to the inner court (Mark 14:68).
This word is used of the deliverance of the Israelites from the
Egyptians (Ex. 14:13), and of deliverance generally from evil or
danger. In the New Testament it is specially used with reference
to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin
wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Heb. 2:3).
(See REDEMPTION ¯T0003084; REGENERATION ¯T0003091.)
a small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle (1 Sam.
17:40); "a shepherd's bag."
In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr. pera, which
was a bag carried by travellers and shepherds, generally made of
skin (Matt. 10:10; Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; 10:4). The name "scrip"
is meant to denote that the bag was intended to hold scraps,
fragments, as if scraped off from larger articles, trifles.
Heb. demeshek, "damask," silk cloth manufactured at Damascus,
Amos 3:12. A.V., "in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a
couch;" R.V., "in the corner of a couch, and on the silken
cushions of a bed" (marg., "in Damascus on a bed").
Heb. meshi, (Ezek. 16:10, 13, rendered "silk"). In Gen. 41:42
(marg. A.V.), Prov. 31:22 (R.V., "fine linen"), the word "silk"
ought to be "fine linen."
Silk was common in New Testament times (Rev. 18:12).
Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two
sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for
two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is
_tsippor_, which properly denotes the whole family of small
birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The
Greek word of the New Testament is _strouthion_ (Matt.
10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs
only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough
or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the
juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here
used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage
in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly
denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS
smelting-shop, "a workshop for the refining and smelting of
metals", a small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile
from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and
Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great
famine," when the "heaven was shut up three years and six
months" (Luke 4:26; 1 Kings 17:10). It is called Sarepta in the
New Testament (Luke 4:26).
Bible, the English form of the Greek name _Biblia_, meaning
"books," the name which in the fifth century began to be given
to the entire collection of sacred books, the "Library of Divine
Revelation." The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came
gradually into use in our English language. The Bible consists
of sixty-six different books, composed by many different
writers, in three different languages, under different
circumstances; writers of almost every social rank, statesmen
and peasants, kings, herdsmen, fishermen, priests,
tax-gatherers, tentmakers; educated and uneducated, Jews and
Gentiles; most of them unknown to each other, and writing at
various periods during the space of about 1600 years: and yet,
after all, it is only one book dealing with only one subject in
its numberless aspects and relations, the subject of man's
It is divided into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine
books, and the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books. The
names given to the Old in the writings of the New are "the
scriptures" (Matt. 21:42), "scripture" (2 Pet. 1:20), "the holy
scriptures" (Rom. 1:2), "the law" (John 12:34), "the law of
Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (Luke 24:44), "the law and
the prophets" (Matt. 5:17), "the old covenant" (2 Cor. 3:14,
R.V.). There is a break of 400 years between the Old Testament
and the New. (See APOCRYPHA ¯T0000263.)
The Old Testament is divided into three parts:, 1. The Law
(Torah), consisting of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses.
2. The Prophets, consisting of (1) the former, namely, Joshua,
Judges, the Books of Samuel, and the Books of Kings; (2) the
latter, namely, the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and
Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets. 3. The Hagiographa, or
holy writings, including the rest of the books. These were
ranked in three divisions:, (1) The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job,
distinguished by the Hebrew name, a word formed of the initial
letters of these books, _emeth_, meaning truth. (2) Canticles,
Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, called the five
rolls, as being written for the synagogue use on five separate
rolls. (3) Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles.
Between the Old and the New Testament no addition was made to
the revelation God had already given. The period of New
Testament revelation, extending over a century, began with the
appearance of John the Baptist.
The New Testament consists of (1) the historical books, viz.,
the Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles; (2) the Epistles; and
(3) the book of prophecy, the Revelation.
The division of the Bible into chapters and verses is
altogether of human invention, designed to facilitate reference
to it. The ancient Jews divided the Old Testament into certain
sections for use in the synagogue service, and then at a later
period, in the ninth century A.D., into verses. Our modern
system of chapters for all the books of the Bible was introduced
by Cardinal Hugo about the middle of the thirteenth century (he
died 1263). The system of verses for the New Testament was
introduced by Stephens in 1551, and generally adopted, although
neither Tyndale's nor Coverdale's English translation of the
Bible has verses. The division is not always wisely made, yet it
is very useful. (See VERSION ¯T0003768.)
hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which
found a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old
Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made
from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to
be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word.
(1.) They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers,
who frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles
confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which
was the same in all respects as we now have it.
(2.) These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and
during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after
which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the
(3.) The contents of the books themselves show that they were
no part of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of
fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the
Maccabees (q.v.), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the
Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit,
The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive
literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic
origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard.
The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an
early time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by
the ancient Hebrews into 54 _parshioth_ or sections, one of
which was read in the synagogue every Sabbath day (Acts. 13:15).
These sections were afterwards divided into 669 _sidrim_ or
orders of unequal length. The Prophets were divided in somewhat
the same manner into _haphtaroth_ or passages.
In the early Latin and Greek versions of the Bible, similar
divisions of the several books were made. The New Testament
books were also divided into portions of various lengths under
different names, such as titles and heads or chapters.
In modern times this ancient example was imitated, and many
attempts of the kind were made before the existing division into
chapters was fixed. The Latin Bible published by Cardinal Hugo
of St. Cher in A.D. 1240 is generally regarded as the first
Bible that was divided into our present chapters, although it
appears that some of the chapters were fixed as early as A.D.
1059. This division into chapters came gradually to be adopted
in the published editions of the Hebrew, with some few
variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other
Ezra, Book of
This book is the record of events occurring at the close of the
Babylonian exile. It was at one time included in Nehemiah, the
Jews regarding them as one volume. The two are still
distinguished in the Vulgate version as I. and II. Esdras. It
consists of two principal divisions:
(1.) The history of the first return of exiles, in the first
year of Cyrus (B.C. 536), till the completion and dedication of
the new temple, in the sixth year of Darius Hystapes (B.C. 515),
ch. 1-6. From the close of the sixth to the opening of the
seventh chapter there is a blank in the history of about sixty
(2.) The history of the second return under Ezra, in the
seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and of the events that
took place at Jerusalem after Ezra's arrival there (7-10).
The book thus contains memorabilia connected with the Jews,
from the decree of Cyrus (B.C. 536) to the reformation by Ezra
(B.C. 456), extending over a period of about eighty years.
There is no quotation from this book in the New Testament, but
there never has been any doubt about its being canonical. Ezra
was probably the author of this book, at least of the greater
part of it (comp. 7:27, 28; 8:1, etc.), as he was also of the
Books of Chronicles, the close of which forms the opening
passage of Ezra.
The first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the
first-born of man and animals.
The law required, (1.) That on the morrow after the Passover
Sabbath a sheaf of new corn should be waved by the priest before
the altar (Lev. 23:5, 6, 10, 12; 2:12).
(2.) That at the feast of Pentecost two loaves of leavened
bread, made from the new flour, were to be waved in like manner
(Lev. 23:15, 17; Num. 28:26).
(3.) The feast of Tabernacles was an acknowledgement that the
fruits of the harvest were from the Lord (Ex. 23:16; 34:22).
(4.) Every individual, besides, was required to consecrate to
God a portion of the first-fruits of the land (Ex. 22:29; 23:19;
34:26; Num. 15:20, 21).
(5.) The law enjoined that no fruit was to be gathered from
newly-planted fruit-trees for the first three years, and that
the first-fruits of the fourth year were to be consecrated to
the Lord (Lev. 19:23-25). Jeremiah (2:3) alludes to the
ordinance of "first-fruits," and hence he must have been
acquainted with the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers,
where the laws regarding it are recorded.
Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.)
Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isa. 5:14, elsewhere
"statute." (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jer. 13:25, elsewhere "garment."
(c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Ex. 26:2,
8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Lev. 19:35; 1 Chr. 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jer.
30:11, elsewhere "judgment." (f) Mithkoneth and token, Ezek.
45:11. (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus
rendered (Matt. 7:2; 23:32; Mark 4:24).
(2.) Those which are definite. (a) 'Eyphah, Deut. 25:14, 15,
usually "ephah." (b) Ammah, Jer. 51:13, usually "cubit." (c)
Kor, 1 Kings 4:22, elsewhere "cor;" Greek koros, Luke 16:7. (d)
Seah, Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam. 25:18, a seah; Greek saton, Matt. 13:33;
Luke 13:21. (e) Shalish, "a great measure," Isa. 40:12;
literally a third, i.e., of an ephah. (f) In New Testament
batos, Luke 16:6, the Hebrew "bath;" and choinix, Rev. 6:6, the
choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius.
something hidden, a town of Benjamin (Ezra 2:27), east of Bethel
and south of Migron, on the road to Jerusalem (Isa. 10:28). It
lay on the line of march of an invading army from the north, on
the north side of the steep and precipitous Wady es-Suweinit
("valley of the little thorn-tree" or "the acacia"), and now
bears the name of Mukhmas. This wady is called "the passage of
Michmash" (1 Sam. 13:23). Immediately facing Mukhmas, on the
opposite side of the ravine, is the modern representative of
Geba, and behind this again are Ramah and Gibeah.
This was the scene of a great battle fought between the army
of Saul and the Philistines, who were utterly routed and pursued
for some 16 miles towards Philistia as far as the valley of
Aijalon. "The freedom of Benjamin secured at Michmash led
through long years of conflict to the freedom of all its kindred
tribes." The power of Benjamin and its king now steadily
increased. A new spirit and a new hope were now at work in
Israel. (See SAUL ¯T0003230.)
i.e., "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament (Acts 2:1;
20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). The festival so named is first spoken of in
Ex. 23:16 as "the feast of harvest," and again in Ex. 34:22 as
"the day of the firstfruits" (Num. 28:26). From the sixteenth of
the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven
complete weeks, i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and
this feast was held on the fiftieth day. The manner in which it
was to be kept is described in Lev. 23:15-19; Num. 28:27-29.
Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion, every one
was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a free-will offering"
(Deut. 16:9-11). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate
the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature
was the offering of "two leavened loaves" made from the new corn
of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved
before the Lord as a thank offering.
The day of Pentecost is noted in the Christian Church as the
day on which the Spirit descended upon the apostles, and on
which, under Peter's preaching, so many thousands were converted
in Jerusalem (Acts 2).
invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection
of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which
we usually call the Old Testament (2 Tim. 3:15, 16; John 20:9;
Gal. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:20). It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate
his revealed will. From time to time he raised up men to commit
to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave. The
"Scripture," or collection of sacred writings, was thus enlarged
from time to time as God saw necessary. We have now a completed
"Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments. The Old
Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same
as that which we now possess under that name. He placed the seal
of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all
equally given by inspiration (Matt. 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Luke
16:29, 31). (See BIBLE ¯T0000580; CANON ¯T0000714.)
(2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; Dan. 2:4), more correctly rendered
"Aramaic," including both the Syriac and the Chaldee languages.
In the New Testament there are several Syriac words, such as
"Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" (Mark 15:34; Matt. 27:46 gives
the Heb. form, "Eli, Eli"), "Raca" (Matt. 5:22), "Ephphatha"
(Mark 7:34), "Maran-atha" (1 Cor. 16:22).
A Syriac version of the Old Testament, containing all the
canonical books, along with some apocryphal books (called the
Peshitto, i.e., simple translation, and not a paraphrase), was
made early in the second century, and is therefore the first
Christian translation of the Old Testament. It was made directly
from the original, and not from the LXX. Version. The New
Testament was also translated from Greek into Syriac about the
same time. It is noticeable that this version does not contain
the Second and Third Epistles of John, 2 Peter, Jude, and the
Apocalypse. These were, however, translated subsequently and
placed in the version. (See VERSION ¯T0003768.)
the name originally of a narrow strip of territory in Greece, on
the north-west of the Peloponnesus. Subsequently it was applied
by the Romans to the whole Peloponnesus, now called the Morea,
and the south of Greece. It was then one of the two provinces
(Macedonia being the other) into which they divided the country
when it fell under their dominion. It is in this latter enlarged
meaning that the name is always used in the New Testament (Acts
18:12, 27; 19:21; Rom. 15: 26; 16:5, etc.). It was at the time
when Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles under the proconsular
form of government; hence the appropriate title given to Gallio
as the "deputy," i.e., proconsul, of Achaia (Acts 18:12).
a solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the
obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1 Sam.
14:24; Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings 22:16).
We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matt.
26:63; Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to
avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the
person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer.
The word "adjure", i.e., cause to swear is used with reference
to the casting out of demons (Acts 19:13).
one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest
(Ex. 28:19; 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
(Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power
of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and
hence its Greek name formed from _a_, "privative," and _methuo_,
"to get drunk." Its Jewish name, _ahlamah'_, was derived by the
rabbins from the Hebrew word _halam_, "to dream," from its
supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.
It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark
purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different
parts of Europe.
That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant
evidence (Ex. 23:11; Deut. 15:11), but there is no mention of
beggars properly so called in the Old Testament. The poor were
provided for by the law of Moses (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 12:12;
14:29). It is predicted of the seed of the wicked that they
shall be beggars (Ps. 37:25; 109:10).
In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of
beggars (Mark 10:46; Luke 16:20, 21; Acts 3:2), yet there is no
mention of such a class as vagrant beggars, so numerous in the
East. "Beggarly," in Gal. 4:9, means worthless.
worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper
name. It is first used in Deut. 13:13. In the New Testament it
is found only in 2 Cor. 6:15, where it is used as a name of
Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated
"wicked" in Deut. 15:9; Ps. 41:8 (R.V. marg.); 101:3; Prov.
6:12, etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply
a worthless, lawless person (Judg. 19:22; 20:13; 1 Sam. 1:16;
one of the most ancient cities of Assyria. "Out of that land he
[i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh,
Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Gen. 10:11, R.V.). Its site
is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of
the Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are
second only in size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite
Mosul. This city was at one time the capital of the empire, and
was the residence of Sardanapalus and his successors down to the
time of Sargon, who built a new capital, the modern Khorsabad.
It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned in Gen.
10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh
the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense
the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon
heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more
special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine
grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things
pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak
of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (16:19-34), of Paul
(9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (8:26-40), of Cornelius
(10), of Lydia (16:13-15), and others. (See REGENERATION
a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and
left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a
gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this
word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the
temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the
year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16-24). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees
for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they
had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour
their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from
helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over
their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.
(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an
umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively
cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25,
27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, where
our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who
were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin,"
while they omitted the weightier matters of the law." "It is
used as a spice, both bruised, to mix with bread, and also
boiled, in the various messes and stews which compose an
Oriental banquet." Tristram, Natural History.
the Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of
the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings
(Matt. 8:16; 10:1; 12:43-45) at enmity with God, and as having a
certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev. 16:14). They recognize
our Lord as the Son of God (Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong
to the number of those angels that "kept not their first
estate," "unclean spirits," "fallen angels," the angels of the
devil (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7-9). They are the "principalities
and powers" against which we must "wrestle" (Eph. 6:12).
a scarcity of provisions (1 Kings 17). There were frequent
dearths in Israel. In the days of Abram there was a "famine
in the land" (Gen. 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (47:4,
13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth
1:1), and of the kings (2 Sam. 21:1; 1 Kings 18:2; 2 Kings 4:38;
In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in
Israel (Acts 11:28) in the fourth year of the reign of the
emperor Claudius (A.D. 44 and 45).
applied in the New Testament to the traditions and speculations,
"cunningly devised fables", of the Jews on religious questions
(1 Tim. 1:4; 4:7; 2 Tim. 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Pet. 1:16). In such
passages the word means anything false and unreal. But the word
is used as almost equivalent to parable. Thus we have (1) the
fable of Jotham, in which the trees are spoken of as choosing a
king (Judg. 9:8-15); and (2) that of the cedars of Lebanon and
the thistle as Jehoash's answer to Amaziah (2 Kings 14:9).