smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim
dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of
trial (Job 42:14).
Jezreel, Day of
the time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds
of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5).
an hundred, a tower in Jersalem on the east wall (Neh. 3:1) in
the time of Nehemiah.
a keeper of camels, an Ishmaelite who was "over the camels" in
the time of David (1 Chr. 27:30).
rock of redemption, the father of Gamaliel and prince of
Manasseh at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10; 2:20).
judicial, an Ephraimite prince at the time of the division of
Canaan (Num. 34:24).
rock of God, chief of the family of the Merarites (Num. 3:35) at
the time of the Exodus.
a labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1; 14:6;
Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over
(Lev. 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny"
(q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matt. 20:1-14).
gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion
of the four kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2, 8, 17, 21).
the Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius
Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved
that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to
Syria at the time of our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled,
being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he
was de jure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was
appointed governor of Syria for the second time. During his
tenure of office, at the time of our Lord's birth (Luke 2:2), a
"taxing" (R.V., "enrolment;" i.e., a registration) of the people
was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under his
government. (See TAXING ¯T0003595.)
to whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite
Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David (1 Chr.
bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were
loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem (Jer.
40:8, 13, 15, 16).
a lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple
porters in the time of David (1 Chr. 26:7). He was a "mighty man
friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled
Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zech. 7:2) to make
inquiries at the temple.
people of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of
the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25). This is
one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai,
king of the Ammonites at the time of the Babylonian captivity
(Jer. 40:14). He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah who had been
appointed governor over the cities of Judah.
the words of the days, (1 Kings 14:19; 1 Chr. 27:24), the daily
or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events
recorded in the order of time.
the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of
Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Ezek. 30:5. They were
probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt
in the south.
(Ex. 15:4; Amos 8:8; Heb. 11:29). Drowning was a mode of capital
punishment in use among the Syrians, and was known to the Jews
in the time of our Lord. To this he alludes in Matt. 18:6.
i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian
Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah,
king of Judah (Jer. 37:5 44:30; Ezek. 29:6, 7).
Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the
north-eastern part of Israel in the time of Abraham (Gen.
15:19). Probably they were identical with the "children of the
east," who inhabited the country between Israel and the
grasping. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, father of Elkanah (1 Chr.
(2.) Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr.
a name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the
time of David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:30), probably as one being
a native of some unknown town called Meronoth.
friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites,
called also Shelemiah (1 Chr. 9:21; 26:1, 2, 9, 14). He was a
temple gate-keeper in the time of David.
staves. (1.) An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:4).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:32; 9:37, 38).
only in Jer. 51:27, as the name of a province in Armenia, which
was at this time under the Median kings. Armenia is regarded by
some as = Har-minni i.e., the mountainous country of Minni. (See
restoring, or setting up. (1.) Father of the prophet Azariah (2
Chr. 15:1, 8).
(2.) A prophet in the time of Ahaz and Pekah (2 Chr. 28:9-15).
most high name. (1.) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2
(2.) A Levite in David's time (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(Esther 2:16), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the
cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the
tenth month of the year. Assyrian tebituv, "rain."
oppression. (1.) A porter of the temple in the time of Ezra
(2.) A town in the southern border of Judah (Josh. 15:24);
probably the same as Telaim.
originally a Saxon word (Eostre), denoting a goddess of the
Saxons, in honour of whom sacrifices were offered about the time
of the Passover. Hence the name came to be given to the festival
of the Resurrection of Christ, which occured at the time of the
Passover. In the early English versions this word was frequently
used as the translation of the Greek pascha (the Passover). When
the Authorized Version (1611) was formed, the word "passover"
was used in all passages in which this word pascha occurred,
except in Act 12:4. In the Revised Version the proper word,
"passover," is always used.
whom God will restore. (1.) A priest, head of one of the courses
of the priests of the time of David (1 Chr. 24:12).
(2.) A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh.
12:22, 23). He rebuilt the eastern city wall (3:1), his own
mansion being in that quarter, on the ridge Ophel (3:20, 21).
His indulgence of Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation
of Nehemiah (13:4, 7).
man the son of Seth, and grandson of Adam (Gen. 5:6-11; Luke
3:38). He lived nine hundred and five years. In his time "men
began to call upon the name of the Lord" (Gen. 4:26), meaning
either (1) then began men to call themselves by the name of the
Lord (marg.) i.e., to distinguish themselves thereby from
idolaters; or (2) then men in some public and earnest way began
to call upon the Lord, indicating a time of spiritual revival.
the wool of a sheep, whether shorn off or still attached to the
skin (Deut. 18:4; Job 31:20). The miracle of Gideon's fleece
(Judg. 6:37-40) consisted in the dew having fallen at one time
on the fleece without any on the floor, and at another time in
the fleece remaining dry while the ground was wet with dew.
(1.) Of time (Gal. 4:4), the time appointed by God, and foretold
by the prophets, when Messiah should appear. (2.) Of Christ
(John 1:16), the superabundance of grace with which he was
filled. (3.) Of the Godhead bodily dwelling in Christ (Col.
2:9), i.e., the whole nature and attributes of God are in
Christ. (4.) Eph. 1:23, the church as the fulness of Christ,
i.e., the church makes Christ a complete and perfect head.
according to some MSS., meaning "city of destruction." Other
MSS. read _'Irhahares_; rendered "city of the sun", Isa. 19:18,
where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to
Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews
would so increase in number there as that the city would fall
under their influence. This might be in the time of the
Ptolemies. (See ON ¯T0002786.)
invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection
of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which
we usually call the Old Testament (2 Tim. 3:15, 16; John 20:9;
Gal. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:20). It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate
his revealed will. From time to time he raised up men to commit
to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave. The
"Scripture," or collection of sacred writings, was thus enlarged
from time to time as God saw necessary. We have now a completed
"Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments. The Old
Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same
as that which we now possess under that name. He placed the seal
of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all
equally given by inspiration (Matt. 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Luke
16:29, 31). (See BIBLE ¯T0000580; CANON ¯T0000714.)
Nativity of Christ
The birth of our Lord took place at the time and place predicted
by the prophets (Gen. 49:10; Isa. 7:14; Jer. 31:15; Micah 5:2;
Hag. 2:6-9; Dan. 9:24, 25). Joseph and Mary were providentially
led to go up to Bethlehem at this period, and there Christ was
born (Matt. 2:1, 6; Luke 2:1, 7). The exact year or month or day
of his birth cannot, however, now be exactly ascertained. We
know, however, that it took place in the "fulness of the time"
(Gal. 4:4), i.e., at the fittest time in the world's history.
Chronologists are now generally agreed that the year 4 before
the Christian era was the year of Christ's nativity, and
consequently that he was about four years old in the year 1 A.D.
"Eastern modes of salutation are not unfrequently so prolonged
as to become wearisome and a positive waste of time. The
profusely polite Arab asks so many questions after your health,
your happiness, your welfare, your house, and other things, that
a person ignorant of the habits of the country would imagine
there must be some secret ailment or mysterious sorrow
oppressing you, which you wished to conceal, so as to spare the
feelings of a dear, sympathizing friend, but which he, in the
depth of his anxiety, would desire to hear of. I have often
listened to these prolonged salutations in the house, the
street, and the highway, and not unfrequently I have experienced
their tedious monotony, and I have bitterly lamented useless
waste of time" (Porter, Through Samaria, etc.). The work on
which the disciples were sent forth was one of urgency, which
left no time for empty compliments and prolonged greetings (Luke
princess, the wife and at the same time the half-sister of
Abraham (Gen. 11:29; 20:12). This name was given to her at the
time that it was announced to Abraham that she should be the
mother of the promised child. Her story is from her marriage
identified with that of the patriarch till the time of her
death. Her death, at the age of one hundred and twenty-seven
years (the only instance in Scripture where the age of a woman
is recorded), was the occasion of Abraham's purchasing the cave
of Machpelah as a family burying-place.
In the allegory of Gal. 4:22-31 she is the type of the
"Jerusalem which is above." She is also mentioned as Sara in
Heb. 11:11 among the Old Testament worthies, who "all died in
faith." (See ABRAHAM ¯T0000054.)
Adam, the city of
is referred to in Josh. 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the
west bank of Jordan (1 Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the
water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the
Israelites' passing over (Josh. 3:16).
(Acts 27:27; R.V., "the sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea,
including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying
between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the
_Mare Superum_ of the Romans, as distinguished from the _Mare
Inferum_ or Tyrrhenian Sea.
brother of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The chief of the tribe of
Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25; 10:25).
(2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to
David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
an officer selected by kings and generals because of his
bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by
them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our
modern armies (Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:7; 16:21; 31:6).
God has ascended, a place in the pastoral country east of
Jordan, in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:3, 37). It is not again
mentioned till the time of Isaiah (15:4; 16:9) and Jeremiah
(48:34). It is now an extensive ruin called el-A'al, about one
mile north-east of Heshbon.
(Josh. 5:3, marg.), hill of the foreskins, a place at Gilgal
where those who had been born in the wilderness were
circumcised. All the others, i.e., those who were under twenty
years old at the time of the sentence at Kadesh, had already
of a garment, the fringe of a garment. The Jews attached much
importance to these, because of the regulations in Num. 15:38,
39. These borders or fringes were in process of time enlarged so
as to attract special notice (Matt. 23:5). The hem of Christ's
garment touched (9:20; 14:36; Luke 8:44).
Mercury-born, at one time Paul's fellow-labourer in Asia Minor,
who, however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one
Phygellus, probably on account of the perils by which they were
beset (2 Tim. 1:15).
sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church
under the care of Epaphras (Col. 4:12, 13). This church was
founded at the same time as that of Colosse. It now bears the
name of Pambuk-Kalek, i.e., "Cotton Castle", from the white
appearance of the cliffs at the base of which the ruins are
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the
whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a
husband (Matt. 1:16, 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was
exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7; 24:5).
Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the
time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14, 15). He was carried
into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon.
He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with
able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal (Jer. 38:1).
He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the
prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3) during the
time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened,
was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7).
The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still
unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in
Mount of corruption
(2 Kings 23:13; Vulg., "mount of offence"), the name given to a
part of the Mount of Olives, so called because idol temples were
there erected in the time of Solomon, temples to the Zidonian
Ashtoreth and to the "abominations" of Moab and Ammon.
loosed of the Lord. (1.) The chief of one of the priestly
courses (the nineteenth) in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:16).
(2.) A Levite (Ezra 10:23). (3.) Neh. 9:5. (4.) A descendant of
Judah who had some office at the court of Persia (Neh. 11:24).
watchman. (1.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(2.) The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies
(1 Chr. 11:45).
(3.) Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of
Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:13).
Tongues, Confusion of
at Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their
division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to
prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language"
(Gen. 11:1-8), and they were scattered over the whole earth.
Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one
speech." (See SHINAR ¯T0003389.)
God is my light. (1.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (1 Chr.
(2.) The chief of the Kohathites at the time when the ark was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:5, 11).
(3.) The father of Michaiah, one of Rehoboam's wives, and
mother of Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2).
(Neh. 10:34; 13:31). It would seem that in the time of Nehemiah
arrangements were made, probably on account of the comparative
scarcity of wood, by which certain districts were required, as
chosen by lot, to furnish wood to keep the altar fire
perpetually burning (Lev. 6:13).
one of the most ancient cities of Assyria. "Out of that land he
[i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh,
Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Gen. 10:11, R.V.). Its site
is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of
the Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are
second only in size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite
Mosul. This city was at one time the capital of the empire, and
was the residence of Sardanapalus and his successors down to the
time of Sargon, who built a new capital, the modern Khorsabad.
It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned in Gen.
10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh
trees, (Ex. 15:27; Num. 33:9), the name of the second station
where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It had
"twelve wells of water and threescore and ten palm trees." It
has been identified with the Wady Ghurundel, the most noted of
the four wadies which descend from the range of et-Tih towards
the sea. Here they probably remained some considerable time. The
form of expression in Ex. 16:1 seems to imply that the people
proceeded in detachments or companies from Elim, and only for
the first time were assembled as a complete host when they
reached the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).
Jehovah has made perfect. (1.) The son of Shaphan, and one of
the Levites of the temple in the time of Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:10;
2 Kings 22:12). Baruch read aloud to the people from Gemariah's
chamber, and again in the hearing of Gemariah and other scribes,
the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jer. 36:11-20), which filled him
with terror. He joined with others in entreating the king not to
destroy the roll of the prophecies which Baruch had read
(2.) The son of Hilkiah, who accompanied Shaphan with the
tribute-money from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and was the
bearer at the same time of a letter from Jeremiah to the Jewish
captives at Babylon (Jer. 29:3, 4).
one of the original tribes scattered over Israel, from Hermon
to Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as "midlanders"
or "villagers" (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15). They were probably a
branch of the Hittites. At the time of Jacob's return to Canaan,
Hamor the Hivite was the "prince of the land" (Gen. 24:2-28).
They are next mentioned during the Conquest (Josh. 9:7;
11:19). They principally inhabited the northern confines of
Western Israel (Josh. 11:3; Judg. 3:3). A remnant of them
still existed in the time of Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).
the name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned
frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen.
10:16; 15:21; Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5, etc.). At the time of the
arrival of the Israelites in Israel they were ruled by
Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and
their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of
Jebus till the time of David, who made it the capital of his
kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was
afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it
was purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift
(2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chr. 21:24, 25).
Timothy, Second Epistle to
was probably written a year or so after the first, and from
Rome, where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent
to Timothy by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy
to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (comp.
Phil. 2:22). He was anticipating that "the time of his departure
was at hand" (2 Tim. 4:6), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to
all diligence and steadfastness, and to patience under
persecution (1:6-15), and to a faithful discharge of all the
duties of his office (4:1-5), with all the solemnity of one who
was about to appear before the Judge of quick and dead.
Heb. shanah, meaning "repetition" or "revolution" (Gen. 1:14;
5:3). Among the ancient Egyptians the year consisted of twelve
months of thirty days each, with five days added to make it a
complete revolution of the earth round the sun. The Jews
reckoned the year in two ways, (1) according to a sacred
calendar, in which the year began about the time of the vernal
equinox, with the month Abib; and (2) according to a civil
calendar, in which the year began about the time of the autumnal
equinox, with the month Nisan. The month Tisri is now the
beginning of the Jewish year.
the ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its
founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long
period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and
Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to
greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200
years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only
incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the
Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). Many Jews
from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue
(Acts 6:9), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it
is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It
possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned
by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible
was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint
version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were
engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated at
one time. It was begun B.C. 280, and finished about B.C. 200 or
150. (See VERSION ¯T0003768.)
the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his
conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke
1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from
the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas,
and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He
accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his
imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release
in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's
third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who
probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a
period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's
constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18).
He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at
Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out
for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and
where he remains with him till the close of his first
imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the
"beloved physician" is in 2 Tim. 4:11.
There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the
writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his
or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon
was the capital. They were so called till the time of the
Captivity (2 Kings 25; Isa. 13:19; 23:13), when, particularly in
the Book of Daniel (5:30; 9:1), the name began to be used with
special reference to a class of learned men ranked with the
magicians and astronomers. These men cultivated the ancient
Cushite language of the original inhabitants of the land, for
they had a "learning" and a "tongue" (1:4) of their own. The
common language of the country at that time had become
assimilated to the Semitic dialect, especially through the
influence of the Assyrians, and was the language that was used
for all civil purposes. The Chaldeans were the learned class,
interesting themselves in science and religion, which consisted,
like that of the ancient Arabians and Syrians, in the worship of
the heavenly bodies. There are representations of this priestly
class, of magi and diviners, on the walls of the Assyrian
Coming of Christ
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the
time" (1 John 5:20; 2 John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his
coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11; 3:20,
21; 1 Thess. 4:15; 2 Tim. 4:1; Heb. 9:28).
The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of
the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible
establishment of his kingdom in the world (Matt. 16:28), the
conferring on his people of the peculiar tokens of his love
(John 14:18, 23, 28), and his executing judgment on the wicked
(2 Thess. 2:8).
First found in Dan. 3:6; 4:19, 33;5:5. It is the rendering of
the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look." It is used in
the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season
(Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39).
With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were
"morning, evening, and noon-day" (Ps. 55:17, etc.). The Greeks,
following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours.
The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the
Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became
subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of
reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches (Luke
12:38; Matt. 14:25; 13:25). Frequent allusion is also made to
hours (Matt. 25:13; 26:40, etc.). (See DAY ¯T0000984.)
An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from
sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in
The Hebrew word so rendered is from a root meaning "to travel
about," "to migrate," and hence "a traveller." In the East, in
ancient times, merchants travelled about with their merchandise
from place to place (Gen. 37:25; Job 6:18), and carried on their
trade mainly by bartering (Gen. 37:28; 39:1). After the Hebrews
became settled in Israel they began to engage in commercial
pursuits, which gradually expanded (49:13; Deut. 33:18; Judg.
5:17), till in the time of Solomon they are found in the chief
marts of the world (1 Kings 9:26; 10:11, 26, 28; 22:48; 2 Chr.
1:16; 9:10, 21). After Solomon's time their trade with foreign
nations began to decline. After the Exile it again expanded into
wider foreign relations, because now the Jews were scattered in
befriended. (1.) One of the chief Gadites in Bashan in the time
of Jotham (1 Chr. 5:13).
(2.) Grandfather of Shaphan, "the scribe," in the reign of
Josiah (2 Kings 22:3).
(3.) A priest, father of Hilkiah (1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 11:11), in
the reign of Ammon; called Shallum in 1 Chr. 6:12.
(4.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (2 Chr. 34:12), in the
reign of Josiah.
(5.) 1 Chr. 8:17.
(6.) 1 Chr. 3:19.
(7.) Neh. 12:13.
(8.) A chief priest (Neh. 12:16).
(9.) One of the leading Levites in the time of Ezra (8:16).
(10.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
(11.) One of the principal Israelites who supported Ezra when
expounding the law to the people (Neh. 8:4).
king, the name of the national god of the Ammonites, to whom
children were sacrificed by fire. He was the consuming and
destroying and also at the same time the purifying fire. In Amos
5:26, "your Moloch" of the Authorized Version is "your king" in
the Revised Version (comp. Acts 7:43). Solomon (1 Kings 11:7)
erected a high place for this idol on the Mount of Olives, and
from that time till the days of Josiah his worship continued (2
Kings 23:10, 13). In the days of Jehoahaz it was partially
restored, but after the Captivity wholly disappeared. He is also
called Molech (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5, etc.), Milcom (1 Kings 11:5,
33, etc.), and Malcham (Zeph. 1:5). This god became Chemosh
among the Moabites.
Among the Egyptians the month of thirty days each was in use
long before the time of the Exodus, and formed the basis of
their calculations. From the time of the institution of the
Mosaic law the month among the Jews was lunar. The cycle of
religious feasts depended on the moon. The commencement of a
month was determined by the observation of the new moon. The
number of months in the year was usually twelve (1 Kings 4:7; 1
Chr. 27:1-15); but every third year an additional month
(ve-Adar) was inserted, so as to make the months coincide with
"The Hebrews and Phoenicians had no word for month save
'moon,' and only saved their calendar from becoming vague like
that of the Moslems by the interpolation of an additional month.
There is no evidence at all that they ever used a true solar
year such as the Egyptians possessed. The latter had twelve
months of thirty days and five epagomenac or odd days.",
Israel Quarterly, January 1889.
(Heb. pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its
power of carrying loads. It is not probable that the Hebrews
bred mules, as this was strictly forbidden in the law (Lev.
19:19), although their use was not forbidden. We find them in
common use even by kings and nobles (2 Sam. 18:9; 1 Kings 1:33;
2 Kings 5:17; Ps. 32:9). They are not mentioned, however, till
the time of David, for the word rendered "mules" (R.V.
correctly, "hot springs") in Gen. 36:24 (yemim) properly denotes
the warm springs of Callirhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead
Sea. In David's reign they became very common (2 Sam. 13:29; 1
Mules are not mentioned in the New Testament. Perhaps they had
by that time ceased to be used in Israel.
an ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain (Ex. 13:4;
23:15); the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the
seventh of the civil year. It began about the time of the vernal
equinox, on 21st March. It was called Nisan, after the Captivity
(Neh. 2:1). On the fifteenth day of the month, harvest was begun
by gathering a sheaf of barley, which was offered unto the Lord
on the sixteenth (Lev. 23:4-11).
(Ezra 6:2), called Ecbatana by classical writers, the capital of
northern Media. Here was the palace which was the residence of
the old Median monarchs, and of Cyrus and Cambyses. In the time
of Ezra, the Persian kings resided usually at Susa of Babylon.
But Cyrus held his court at Achmetha; and Ezra, writing a
century after, correctly mentions the place where the decree of
Cyrus was found.
the red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and
Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking
toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7; 18:17. It was nearly
half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name
of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place
referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke
10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and
carriages for the first time have come along this road from
flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was
of the Egyptian. (1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by
Balaam (Num. 24:7). He lived at the time of the Exodus.
(2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared
unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul
ordered, in retributive justice (Judg. 1), to be brought out and
cut in pieces (1 Sam. 15:8-33. Comp. Ex. 17:11; Num. 14:45).
people of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the
Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10;
2:18; 7:48, 53).
(2.) Num. 34:20. (3.) Num. 34:28.
(4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom
fled after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
(5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1 Chr. 9:4).
speech. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, and head of an Idumean
tribe, called a Horite, as in course of time all the branches of
this tribe were called from their dwelling in caves in Mount
Seir (Gen. 36:20, 29; 1 Chr. 1:38).
(2.) One of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite, and father of
Esau's wife Aholibamah (Gen. 36:18, 24).
From Acts 27:29, 30, 40, it would appear that the Roman vessels
carried several anchors, which were attached to the stern as
well as to the prow. The Roman anchor, like the modern one, had
two teeth or flukes. In Heb. 6:19 the word is used
metaphorically for that which supports or keeps one steadfast in
the time of trial or of doubt. It is an emblem of hope.
"If you fear,
Put all your trust in God: that anchor holds."
the place in which armour was deposited when not used (Neh.
3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own
arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or
magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large
collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his
tabernacle (1 Sa,. 21:9; 2 Sam. 8:7-12; 1 Chr. 26:26, 27).
strong as death. (1.) One of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam.
(2.) An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David
and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25).
(3.) A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem (Neh. 12:29;
(4.) 1 Chr. 8:36
a city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went
when persecuted at Thessalonica (Acts 17:10, 13), and from which
also he was compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the sea-coast
and thence sailed to Athens (14, 15). Sopater, one of Paul's
companions belonged to this city, and his conversion probably
took place at this time (Acts 20:4). It is now called Verria.
a gift, or in evil. (1.) One of Asher's four sons, and father of
Heber (Gen. 46:17).
(2.) A son of Ephraim (1 Chr. 7:20-23), born after the
slaughter of his brothers, and so called by his father "because
it went evil with his house" at that time.
(3.) A Benjamite who with his brother Shema founded Ajalon and
expelled the Gittites (1 Chr. 8:13).
to promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when
they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year
or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman
was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was
betrothed (Deut. 28:30; Judg. 14:2, 8; Matt. 1:18-21). The term
is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God
and his people (Hos. 2:19, 20).
a province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and
Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early
time (1 Pet. 1:1). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from
entering this province (Acts 16:7). It is noted in church
history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul,
who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the
numerous Christians brought before his tribunal on account of
their profession of Christianity and their conduct, and wrote to
Trajan, the emperor, for instructions (A.D. 107).
millet, the eastern harbour of Corinth, from which it was
distant about 9 miles east, and the outlet for its trade with
the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean. When Paul returned from
his second missionary journey to Syria, he sailed from this port
(Acts 18:18). In Rom. 16:1 he speaks as if there were at the
time of his writing that epistle an organized church there. The
western harbour of Corinth was Lechaeum, about a mile and a half
from the city. It was the channel of its trade with Italy and
(Ezek. 1:22, with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the
spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Rev. 4:6;
21:11; 22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined
kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally
"ice." The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water
congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time.
grove; trees, (Deut. 2:8), also in plural form Eloth (1 Kings
9:26, etc.); called by the Greeks and Romans Elana; a city of
Idumea, on the east, i.e., the Elanitic, gulf, or the Gulf of
Akabah, of the Red Sea. It is first mentioned in Deut. 2:8. It
is also mentioned along with Ezion-geber in 1 Kings 9:26. It was
within the limits of Solomon's dominion, but afterwards
revolted. It was, however, recovered and held for a time under
king Uzziah (2 Kings 14:22). Now the ruin Aila.
terrors, a warlike tribe of giants who were defeated by
Chedorlaomer and his allies in the plain of Kiriathaim. In the
time of Abraham they occupied the country east of Jordan,
afterwards the land of the Moabites (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:10).
They were, like the Anakim, reckoned among the Rephaim, and were
conquered by the Moabites, who gave them the name of Emims,
i.e., "terrible men" (Deut. 2:11). The Ammonites called them
a harbour in the south of Crete, some 5 miles to the east of
which was the town of Lasea (Acts 27:8). Here the ship of
Alexandria in which Paul and his companions sailed was detained
a considerable time waiting for a favourable wind. Contrary to
Paul's advice, the master of the ship determined to prosecute
the voyage, as the harbour was deemed incommodious for wintering
in (9-12). The result was that, after a stormy voyage, the
vessel was finally wrecked on the coast of Malta (27:40-44).
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations
except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and
more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it
acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of
In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning
literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1, 3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14),
generally denotes any non-Jewish nation.
bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near
Gilead, between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias (2 Sam.
15:8; 1 Chr. 2:23). The Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky
fastness of Argob, the modern Lejah, in the north-east corner of
Bashan. In the time of David it was ruled by Talmai, whose
daughter he married, and who was the mother of Absalom, who fled
to Geshur after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of
Canaan (Gen. 10:16), one of the original tribes inhabiting the
land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites (Gen. 15:21;
Deut. 7:1). They were a branch of the great family of the
Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly
known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of
Adod, brave(?). (1.) A son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15); in 1 Chr.
1:30 written Hadad.
(2.) One of the Edomitish kings (Gen. 36:39) about the time of
Saul. Called also Hadad (1 Chr. 1:50, 51).
It is probable that in these cases Hadar may be an error
simply of transcription for Hadad.
regarded by Jehovah. (1.) Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 6:45; 9:14).
(2.) A son of Jeduthun (25:3, 19). (3.) Son of Kemuel (26:30).
(4.) One of the chief Levites (2 Chr. 35:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh.
11:22). (6.) One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra (Ezra
8:24). (7.) A chief of the Levites (Neh. 12:24). (8.) Ezra 8:19.
(9.) Neh. 3:17.