watchman, a Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 26:10).
grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron (1 Chr.
rock of God, chief of the family of the Merarites (Num. 3:35) at
the time of the Exodus.
union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom (1 Chr.
(2.) One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath (1
(3.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of
the repairs of the temple under Josiah (2 Chr. 34:12).
curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He
was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1 Cor.
intelligent. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Neh. 11:15;
1 Chr. 9:14). (2.) Neh. 3:23. 3:11.
praiser of God. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:16).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (2 Chr. 29:12).
a Levitical family descended from Korah (Ex. 6:24; 1 Chr. 12:6;
26:1; 2 Chr. 20:19).
(1.) 2 Sam. 9:12 =MICAH (2).
(2.) The son of Zabdi, a Levite of the family of Asaph (Neh.
drought. (1.) The name of a family of Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Neh.
7:46). (2.) A ruler among the Nethinim (Neh. 11:21).
father of gathering; the gatherer, the youngest of the three
sons of Korah the Levite, head of a family of Korhites (Ex.
6:24); called Ebisaph (1 Chr. 6:37).
a boy. (1.) A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those
of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13,24).
(2.) A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's
family (1 Chr. 6:70).
master of the horse, a "fellow-soldier" of Paul's (Philemon
1:2), whom he exhorts to renewed activity (Col. 4:17). He was a
member of Philemon's family, probably his son.
flock. (1.) A city in the south of Judah, on the border of
Idumea (Josh. 15:21).
(2.) The second of the three sons of Mushi, of the family of
Merari, appointed to the Levitical office (1 Chr. 23:23; 24:30).
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was
brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of
Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1 Kings 11:20.
refuge. (1.) A place on the border of the tribe of Asher (Josh.
19:29), a little to the south of Zidon.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 16:38).
city, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of
the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical with Kattath
(19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).
beginnings; easternmost, a city of Reuben, assigned to the
Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 13:18). It lay not far
north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.
friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites,
called also Shelemiah (1 Chr. 9:21; 26:1, 2, 9, 14). He was a
temple gate-keeper in the time of David.
strong, the second son of Judah (Gen. 38:4-10; comp. Deut. 25:5;
Matt. 22:24). He died before the going down of Jacob and his
family into Egypt.
palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:3). He
was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Ex.
6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar
alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, 12;
Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common
priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the
person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not
recorded. (See ZADOK ¯T0003864.)
deliverance of Jehovah. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, the father of
Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1 Chr. 26:25); called also
(2.) One of the sons of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3, 15).
(3.) One of the three sons of Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) Son of Athaliah (Ezra 8:7).
(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (8:19).
the hearing prayer. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathsheba (1
Chr. 3:5); called also Shammua (14:4).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 6:30).
(3.) Another Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:39).
(4.) One of David's brothers (1 Sam. 16:9, marg.).
servant. (1.) The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the
tribute (1 Kings 4:6); i.e., the forced labour (R.V., "levy").
(2.) A Levite of the family of Jeduthun (Neh. 11:17), also
called Obadiah (1 Chr. 9:16).
ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer
under David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25). (2.) A family head of
the tribe of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36). (3.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
Dale, the king's
the name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh"
(q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham
(Gen. 14:17). Some have identified it with the southern part of
the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family
monument (2 Sam. 18:18).
First-born, Sanctification of the
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man
and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and
of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest
(Ex. 19:22, 24), representing the family to which he belonged,
and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4).
Deut. 27:15; Ps. 97:7 (Heb. pesel), refers to the household gods
of idolaters. "Every nation and city had its own gods...Yet
every family had its separate household or tutelary god."
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the
whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a
husband (Matt. 1:16, 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was
exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7; 24:5).
reigned over, or reigning. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari
(1 Chr. 6:44).
(2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2).
(3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32
God is my light. (1.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (1 Chr.
(2.) The chief of the Kohathites at the time when the ark was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:5, 11).
(3.) The father of Michaiah, one of Rehoboam's wives, and
mother of Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2).
first-born, of the tribe of Manasseh, and of the family of
Gilead; died in the wilderness. Having left no sons, his
daughters, concerned lest their father's name should be "done
away from among his family," made an appeal to Moses, who, by
divine direction, appointed it as "a statute of judgment" in
Israel that daughters should inherit their father's portion when
no sons were left (Num. 27:1-11). But that the possession of
Zelophehad might not pass away in the year of jubilee from the
tribe to which he belonged, it was ordained by Moses that his
daughters should not marry any one out of their father's tribe;
and this afterwards became a general law (Num. 36).
God's living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon (1 Chr. 9:35).
(2.) One of David's guard (1 Chr. 11:44).
(3.) One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to
conduct the music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to
Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the
close of his reign (1 Chr. 27:32).
(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted
Hezekiah in his work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).
(7.) A "prince" and "ruler of the house of God" who
contributed liberally to the renewal of the temple sacrifices
under Josiah (2 Chr. 35:8).
(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).
(9.) One of the "sons" of Elam (Ezra 10:26).
(10.) Ezra 10:21.
for grinding corn, mentioned as used in the time of Abraham
(Gen. 18:6). That used by the Hebrews consisted of two circular
stones, each 2 feet in diameter and half a foot thick, the lower
of which was called the "nether millstone" (Job 41:24) and the
upper the "rider." The upper stone was turned round by a stick
fixed in it as a handle. There were then no public mills, and
thus each family required to be provided with a hand-mill. The
corn was ground daily, generally by the women of the house (Isa.
47:1, 2; Matt. 24:41). It was with the upper stone of a
hand-mill that "a certain woman" at Thebez broke Abimelech's
skull (Judg. 9:53, "a piece of a millstone;" literally, "a
millstone rider", i.e., the "runner," the stone which revolves.
Comp. 2 Sam. 11:21). Millstones could not be pledged (Deut.
24:6), as they were necessary in every family.
snorting. (1.) The father of Terah, who was the father of
Abraham (Gen. 11:22-25; Luke 3:34).
(2.) A son of Terah, and elder brother of Abraham (Gen. 11:26,
27; Josh. 24:2, R.V.). He married Milcah, the daughter of his
brother Haran, and remained in the land of his nativity on the
east of the river Euphrates at Haran (Gen. 11:27-32). A
correspondence was maintained between the family of Abraham in
Canaan and the relatives in the old ancestral home at Haran till
the time of Jacob. When Jacob fled from Haran all intercourse
between the two branches of the family came to an end (Gen.
31:55). His grand-daughter Rebekah became Isaac's wife (24:67).
father of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The second of the three
sons of Hammoleketh, the sister of Gilead. He was the grandson
of Manasseh (1 Chr. 7:18). From his family Gideon sprang (Josh.
17:2; comp. Judg. 6:34; 8:2). He was also called Jeezer (Num.
(2.) One of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:27; comp. 1
(3.) The prince of the tribe of Dan at the Exodus (Num. 1:12).
brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the
death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high
priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1 Sam.
14:3; 22:9, 11, 12, 20).
(2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul
after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1 Chr. 6:7,
8; 2 Sam. 8:17).
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh.
19:33, "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in
the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word
denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and
which served as a landmark.
(2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who
expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1 Chr. 4:37).
bravery, the third king of the separate kingdom of Israel, and
founder of its second dynasty (1 Kings 15; 16; 2 Chr. 16:1-6).
He was the son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar. The city of
Tirzah he made the capital of his kingdom, and there he was
buried, after an eventful reign of twenty-four years (1 Kings
15:33). On account of his idolatries his family was
exterminated, according to the word of the prophet Jehu (1 Kings
16:3, 4, 10-13).
an apartment in Eastern houses, furnished with a slightly
elevated platform at the upper end and sometimes along the
sides, on which were laid mattresses. This was the general
arrangement of the public sleeping-room for the males of the
family and for guests, but there were usually besides distinct
bed-chambers of a more private character (2 Kings 4:10; Ex. 8:3;
2 Kings 6:12). In 2 Kings 11:2 this word denotes, as in the
margin of the Revised Version, a store-room in which mattresses
blessed by Jehovah. (1.) Son of Shimea, and father of Asaph the
musician (1 Chr. 6:39; 15:17).
(2.) One of the seven Ephraimite chieftains, son of
Meshillemoth (2 Chr. 28:12).
(3.) The fourth of the five sons of Zerubbabel, of the royal
family of Judah (1 Chr. 3:20).
(4.) The father of the prophet Zechariah (1:1,7).
a centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a
"devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in
the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him
into contact with Jews who communicated to him their
expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to
welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit
of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized
and admitted into the Christian church (Acts 10:1, 44-48). (See
A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Lev.
22:28; Ex. 23:19; Deut. 22:6, 7). The reason for this enactment
is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words
of Isa. 7:21-25, where, instead of possessing great resources, a
man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family
on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.
judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of
Simeon and Levi (Gen. 30:21). She was seduced by Shechem, the
son of Hamor, the Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the
neighbourhood of Shechem. This led to the terrible revenge of
Simeon and Levi in putting the Shechemites to death (Gen. 34).
Jacob makes frequent reference to this deed of blood with
abhorrence and regret (Gen. 34:30; 49:5-7). She is mentioned
among the rest of Jacob's family that went down into Egypt (Gen.
God made. (1.) One of the descendants of Judah, of the family of
Hezron (1 Chr. 2:39, "Eleasah").
(2.) A descendant of king Saul (1 Chr. 8:37; 9:43).
(3.) The son of Shaphan, one of the two who were sent by
Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and also took charge of Jeremiah's
letter to the captives in Babylon (Jer. 29:3).
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the
Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the
days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with
his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of
Moab. There he and his sons died (Ruth 1:2,3; 2:1,3; 4:3,9).
Naomi afterwards returned to Israel with her daughter Ruth.
toward Jehovah are my eyes, the name of several men mentioned in
the Old Testament (1 Chr. 7:8; 4:36; Ezra 10:22, 27). Among
these was the eldest son of Neariah, son of Shemaiah, of the
descendants of Zerubbabel. His family are the latest mentioned
in the Old Testament (1 Chr. 3:23, 24).
firm. (1.) "The Ezrahite," distinguished for his wisdom (1 Kings
4:31). He is named as the author of the 89th Psalm. He was of
the tribe of Levi.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the leaders of
the temple music (1 Chr. 6:44; 15:17, 19). He was probably the
same as Jeduthun. He is supposed by some to be the same also as
heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob
and Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they
entered with each other (Gen. 31:47, 48). This was the name
given to the "heap" by Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name
Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or
Syriac). Probably Nahor's family originally spoke Aramaic, and
Abraham and his descendants learned Hebrew, a kindred dialect,
in the land of Canaan.
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of
Canaan (Gen. 10:16), one of the original tribes inhabiting the
land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites (Gen. 15:21;
Deut. 7:1). They were a branch of the great family of the
Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly
known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of
(of Persian origin), magnificent, the name of the vizier (i.e.,
the prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1,
etc.). He is called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he
was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the
bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of
the Amalekite kings. He or his parents were brought to Persia as
captives taken in war. He was hanged on the gallows which he had
erected for Mordecai the Jew (Esther 7:10). (See ESTHER
beheld by God. (1.) The third son of Hebron (1 Chr. 23:19).
(2.) A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.
(3.) A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to
Jerusalem (1 Chr. 16:6).
(4.) The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph (2
Chr. 20:14-17). He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites
known by God. (1.) One of the sons of Benjamin, whose
descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1 Chr. 7:6, 10, 11).
(2.) A Shimrite, one of David's bodyguard (1 Chr. 11:45).
Probably same as in 12:20.
(3.) A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the
gate-keepers to the temple (1 Chr. 26:2).
Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of the sons of
Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 6:21), probably
the same as Ethan (42).
(3.) The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to
King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37).
(4.) Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the
state archives under King Josiah (2 Chr. 34:8).
hunter. (1.) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He
became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42).
(2.) Caleb's younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh.
15:17), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the
time of David (1 Chr. 27:15). Some think that Othniel (Judg.
1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb's brother.
(3.) Caleb's grandson (1 Chr. 4:15).
from Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient
custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died
without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the
widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son
that might be born of that marriage (Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5-10;
comp. Ruth 3; 4:10). Its object was "to raise up seed to the
gift of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Jeduthun (1 Chr. 25:3,
(2.) The eldest son of Shallum, of the family of Korah (1 Chr.
(3.) One who stood by Ezra while reading the law (Neh. 8:4).
(4.) The son of Amos, and father of Joseph, in the genealogy
of our Lord (Luke 3:25).
=Pharez, (q.v.), breach, the son of Judah (Neh. 11:4). "The
chief of all the captains of the host for the first month" in
the reign of David was taken from his family (1 Chr. 27:3). Four
hundred and sixty-eight of his "sons" came back from captivity
with Zerubbabel, who himself was one of them (1 Chr. 9:4; Neh.
(2 Kings 10:12, 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep."
R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of
gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu
slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb.
word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper
Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two
sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for
two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is
_tsippor_, which properly denotes the whole family of small
birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The
Greek word of the New Testament is _strouthion_ (Matt.
10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.
crown, a member of the church at Corinth, whose family were
among those the apostle had baptized (1 Cor. 1:16; 16:15, 17).
He has been supposed by some to have been the "jailer of
Philippi" (comp. Acts 16:33). The First Epistle to the
Corinthians was written from Philippi some six years after the
jailer's conversion, and he was with the apostle there at that
a sandy place, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, on the
south-western border of the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles south of
Megiddo. Its king was conquered by Joshua (12:21). It was
assigned to the Levites of the family of Kohath (17:11-18;
21:25). It is mentioned in the song of Deborah (Judg. 5:19). It
is identified with the small modern village of Ta'annuk.
a collection of families descending from one ancestor. The
"twelve tribes" of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of
families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matt. 24:30 the
word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred
to as types of the spiritual family of God (Rev. 7). (See
ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF ¯T0001909; JUDAH, KINGDOM OF ¯T0002126.)
praise, the fourth son of Jacob by Leah. The name originated in
Leah's words of praise to the Lord on account of his birth: "Now
will I praise [Heb. odeh] Jehovah, and she called his name
Yehudah" (Gen. 29:35).
It was Judah that interposed in behalf of Joseph, so that his
life was spared (Gen. 37:26, 27). He took a lead in the affairs
of the family, and "prevailed above his brethren" (Gen. 43:3-10;
44:14, 16-34; 46:28; 1 Chr. 5:2).
Soon after the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelites, Judah went
to reside at Adullam, where he married a woman of Canaan. (See
ONAN ¯T0002787; TAMAR ¯T0003579.) After the death of his wife
Shuah, he returned to his father's house, and there exercised
much influence over the patriarch, taking a principal part in
the events which led to the whole family at length going down
into Egypt. We hear nothing more of him till he received his
father's blessing (Gen. 49:8-12).
Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of
the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar
coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt,
and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and
rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit
and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It
was one of the principal ingredients in the holy anointing oil
(Ex. 30:23). It is mentioned elsewhere only in Prov. 7:17; Cant.
4:14; Rev. 18:13. The mention of it indicates a very early and
extensive commerce carried on between Israel and the East.
beyond. (1.). The third post-duluvian patriach after Shem (Gen.
10:24; 11:14). He is regarded as the founder of the Hebrew race
(10:21; Num. 24:24). In Luke 3:35 he is called Heber.
(2.) One of the seven heads of the families of the Gadites (1
(3.) The oldest of the three sons of Elpaal the Benjamite
(4.) One of the heads of the familes of Benjamites in
(5.) The head of the priestly family of Amok in the time of
Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:20).
God has helped. (1.) The third son of Aaron (Ex. 6:23). His
wife, a daughter of Putiel, bore him Phinehas (Ex. 6:25). After
the death of Nadab and Abihu (Lev. 10:12; Num. 3:4) he was
appointed to the charge of the sanctuary (Num. 3:32). On Mount
Hor he was clothed with the sacred vestments, which Moses took
from off his brother Aaron and put upon him as successor to his
father in the high priest's office, which he held for more than
twenty years (Num. 20:25-29). He took part with Moses in
numbering the people (26:3, 4), and assisted at the inauguration
of Joshua. He assisted in the distribution of the land after the
conquest (Josh. 14:1). The high-priesthood remained in his
family till the time of Eli, into whose family it passed, till
it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok
(1 Sam. 2:35; comp. 1 Kings 2:27). "And Eleazar the son of Aaron
died; and they buried him in a hill that pertained to Phinehas
his son" (Josh. 24:33). The word here rendered "hill" is Gibeah,
the name of several towns in Israel which were generally on
or near a hill. The words may be more suitably rendered, "They
buried him in Gibeah of Phinehas", i.e., in the city of
Phinehas, which has been identified, in accordance with Jewish
and Samaritan traditions, with Kefr Ghuweirah='Awertah, about 7
miles north of Shiloh, and a few miles south-east of Nablus.
"His tomb is still shown there, overshadowed by venerable
terebinths." Others, however, have identified it with the
village of Gaba or Gebena of Eusebius, the modern Khurbet Jibia,
5 miles north of Guphna towards Nablus.
(2.) An inhabitant of Kirjath-jearim who was "sanctified" to
take charge of the ark, although not allowed to touch it, while
it remained in the house of his father Abinadab (1 Sam. 7:1, 2;
comp. Num. 3:31; 4:15).
(3.) The son of Dodo the Ahohite, of the tribe of Benjamin,
one of the three most eminent of David's thirty-seven heroes (1
Chr. 11:12) who broke through the Philistine host and brought
him water from the well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:9, 16).
(4.) A son of Phinehas associated with the priests in taking
charge of the sacred vessels brought back to Jerusalem after the
Exile (Ezra 8:33).
(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21, 22).
double fruitfulness ("for God had made him fruitful in the land
of his affliction"). The second son of Joseph, born in Egypt
(Gen. 41:52; 46:20). The first incident recorded regarding him
is his being placed, along with his brother Manasseh, before
their grandfather, Jacob, that he might bless them (48:10; comp.
27:1). The intention of Joseph was that the right hand of the
aged patriarch should be placed on the head of the elder of the
two; but Jacob set Ephraim the younger before his brother,
"guiding his hands wittingly." Before Joseph's death, Ephraim's
family had reached the third generation (Gen. 50:23).
lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of
the three masters of music appointed by David (1 Chr. 16:41, 42;
25:1-6). He is called in 2 Chr. 35:15 "the king's seer." His
descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments
(Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1 Chr. 15:17,
19). In the superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words
"upon Jeduthun" probably denote a musical instrument; or they
may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun,
or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.
firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth
4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight
sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase
"stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and
"root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse
was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam.
17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of
David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1
Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of Samuel's two sons
appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:2). (See
VASHNI ¯(n/a).) (2.) A descendant of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:4,8). (3.)
One of David's famous warriors (1 Chr. 11:38). (4.) A Levite of
the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 15:7, 11). (5.) 1 Chr. 7:3. (6.) 1
Chr. 27:20. (7.) The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was
the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his
a bow. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21;
(2.) A Benjamite of Jerusalem (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36).
(3.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).
(4.) The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5).
(5.) A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul (1
Sam. 9:1, 3; 10:11, 21; 14:51; 2 Sam. 21:14). All that is
recorded of him is that he sent his son Saul in search of his
asses that had strayed, and that he was buried in Zelah. Called
Cis, Acts 13:21 (R.V., Kish).
(Gr. heduosmon, i.e., "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden
herbs of which the Pharisees paid tithes (Matt. 23:23; Luke
11:42). It belongs to the labiate family of plants. The species
most common in Syria is the Mentha sylvestris, the wild mint,
which grows much larger than the garden mint (M. sativa). It was
much used in domestic economy as a condiment, and also as a
medicine. The paying of tithes of mint was in accordance with
the Mosiac law (Deut. 14:22), but the error of the Pharisees lay
in their being more careful about this little matter of the mint
than about weightier matters.
i.e., "grained apple" (pomum granatum), Heb. rimmon. Common in
Egypt (Num. 20:5) and Israel (13:23; Deut. 8:8). The Romans
called it Punicum malum, i.e., Carthaginian apple, because they
received it from Carthage. It belongs to the myrtle family of
trees. The withering of the pomegranate tree is mentioned among
the judgments of God (Joel 1:12). It is frequently mentioned in
the Song of Solomon (Cant. 4:3, 13, etc.). The skirt of the high
priest's blue robe and ephod was adorned with the representation
of pomegranates, alternating with golden bells (Ex. 28:33,34),
as also were the "chapiters upon the two pillars" (1 Kings 7:20)
which "stood before the house."
behold a son!, the eldest son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 29:32).
His sinful conduct, referred to in Gen. 35:22, brought down upon
him his dying father's malediction (48:4). He showed kindness to
Joseph, and was the means of saving his life when his other
brothers would have put him to death (37:21,22). It was he also
who pledged his life and the life of his sons when Jacob was
unwilling to let Benjamin go down into Egypt. After Jacob and
his family went down into Egypt (46:8) no further mention is
made of Reuben beyond what is recorded in ch. 49:3,4.
the law so designated by Paul (Gal. 3:24, 25). As so used, the
word does not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the
modern page), i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision
of a family, taking them to and from the school, being
responsible for their safety and manners. Hence the pedagogue
was stern and severe in his discipline. Thus the law was a
pedagogue to the Jews, with a view to Christ, i.e., to prepare
for faith in Christ by producing convictions of guilt and
helplessness. The office of the pedagogue ceased when "faith
came", i.e., the object of that faith, the seed, which is
famous. (1.) A son of Gershon, and grandson of Levi (Num. 3:18;
1 Chr. 6:17, 29); called Shimi in Ex. 6:17.
(2.) A Benjamite of the house of Saul, who stoned and cursed
David when he reached Bahurim in his flight from Jerusalem on
the occasion of the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam. 16:5-13). After
the defeat of Absalom he "came cringing to the king, humbly
suing for pardon, bringing with him a thousand of his Benjamite
tribesmen, and representing that he was heartily sorry for his
crime, and had hurried the first of all the house of Israel to
offer homage to the king" (19:16-23). David forgave him; but on
his death-bed he gave Solomon special instructions regarding
Shimei, of whose fidelity he seems to have been in doubt (1
Kings 2:8,9). He was put to death at the command of Solomon,
because he had violated his word by leaving Jerusalem and going
to Gath to recover two of his servants who had escaped (36-46).
(3.) One of David's mighty men who refused to acknowledge
Adonijah as David's successor (1 Kings 1:8). He is probably the
same person who is called elsewhere (4:18) "the son of Elah."
(4.) A son of Pedaiah, the brother of Zerubbabel (1 Chr.
(5.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:26, 27).
(6.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:4).
(7.) A Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:42).
(8.) A Ramathite who was "over the vineyards" of David (1 Chr.
(9.) One of the sons of Heman, who assisted in the
purification of the temple (2 Chr. 29:14).
(10.) A Levite (2 Chr. 31:12, 13).
(11.) Another Levite (Ezra 10:23). "The family of Shimei"
(Zech. 12:13; R.V., "the family of the Shimeites") were the
descendants of Shimei (1).
The Heb. kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who
At first every man was his own priest, and presented his own
sacrifices before God. Afterwards that office devolved on the
head of the family, as in the cases of Noah (Gen. 8:20), Abraham
(12:7; 13:4), Isaac (26:25), Jacob (31:54), and Job (Job 1:5).
The name first occurs as applied to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18).
Under the Levitical arrangements the office of the priesthood
was limited to the tribe of Levi, and to only one family of that
tribe, the family of Aaron. Certain laws respecting the
qualifications of priests are given in Lev. 21:16-23. There are
ordinances also regarding the priests' dress (Ex. 28:40-43) and
the manner of their consecration to the office (29:1-37).
Their duties were manifold (Ex. 27:20, 21; 29:38-44; Lev.
6:12; 10:11; 24:8; Num. 10:1-10; Deut. 17:8-13; 33:10; Mal.
2:7). They represented the people before God, and offered the
various sacrifices prescribed in the law.
In the time of David the priests were divided into twenty-four
courses or classes (1 Chr. 24:7-18). This number was retained
after the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
"The priests were not distributed over the country, but lived
together in certain cities [forty-eight in number, of which six
were cities of refuge, q.v.], which had been assigned to their
use. From thence they went up by turns to minister in the temple
at Jerusalem. Thus the religious instruction of the people in
the country generally was left to the heads of families, until
the establishment of synagogues, an event which did not take
place till the return from the Captivity, and which was the main
source of the freedom from idolatry that became as marked a
feature of the Jewish people thenceforward as its practice had
been hitherto their great national sin."
The whole priestly system of the Jews was typical. It was a
shadow of which the body is Christ. The priests all prefigured
the great Priest who offered "one sacrifice for sins" "once for
all" (Heb. 10:10, 12). There is now no human priesthood. (See
Epistle to the Hebrews throughout.) The term "priest" is indeed
applied to believers (1 Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6), but in these cases
it implies no sacerdotal functions. All true believers are now
"kings and priests unto God." As priests they have free access
into the holiest of all, and offer up the sacrifices of praise
and thanksgiving, and the sacrifices of grateful service from
day to day.
The duty of preparing bread was usually, in ancient times,
committed to the females or the slaves of the family (Gen. 18:6;
Lev. 26:26; 1 Sam. 8:13); but at a later period we find a class
of public bakers mentioned (Hos. 7:4, 6; Jer. 37:21).
The bread was generally in the form of long or round cakes
(Ex. 29:23; 1 Sam. 2:36), of a thinness that rendered them
easily broken (Isa. 58:7; Matt. 14:19; 26:26; Acts 20:11).
Common ovens were generally used; at other times a jar was
half-filled with hot pebbles, and the dough was spread over
them. Hence we read of "cakes baken on the coals" (1 Kings
19:6), and "baken in the oven" (Lev. 2:4). (See BREAD
in the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in
a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews,
from various causes, the difference between a wife and a
concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The
concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws
recorded providing for their protection (Ex. 21:7; Deut.
21:10-14), and setting limits to the relation they sustained to
the household to which they belonged (Gen. 21:14; 25:6). They
had no authority in the family, nor could they share in the
The immediate cause of concubinage might be gathered from the
conjugal histories of Abraham and Jacob (Gen. 16;30). But in
process of time the custom of concubinage degenerated, and laws
were made to restrain and regulate it (Ex. 21:7-9).
Christianity has restored the sacred institution of marriage
to its original character, and concubinage is ranked with the
sins of fornication and adultery (Matt. 19:5-9; 1 Cor. 7:2).
(Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17), Heb. shalak, "plunging," or "darting
down," (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean"
birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a
"plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas
of Israel. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered
"gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is
the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of
Israel as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley
during several months of the year. But there is no reason to
depart from the ordinary rendering.
In Isa. 34:11, Zeph. 2:14 (but in R.V., "pelican") the Hebrew
word rendered by this name is _ka'ath_. It is translated
"pelican" (q.v.) in Ps. 102:6. The word literally means the
"vomiter," and the pelican is so called from its vomiting the
shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See
(Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion,
only in Num. 11:5). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in
the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in
earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family
of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most
refreshing. "We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites,
wearily marching through the arid solitudes of the Sinaitic
peninsula, thought more of the cucumbers and watermelons of
which they had had no lack in Egypt, rather than of the cruel
bondage which was the price of these luxuries." Groser's
Scripture Natural History.
Isaiah speaks of a "lodge" (1:8; Heb. sukkah), i.e., a shed or
edifice more solid than a booth, for the protection throughout
the season from spring to autumn of the watchers in a "garden of
whose God is he. (1.) "The son of Barachel, a Buzite" (Job
32:2), one of Job's friends. When the debate between Job and his
friends is brought to a close, Elihu for the first time makes
his appearance, and delivers his opinion on the points at issue
(2.) The son of Tohu, and grandfather of Elkanah (1 Sam. 1:1).
He is called also Eliel (1 Chr. 6:34) and Eliab (6:27).
(3.) One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who joined
David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20).
(4.) One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed
porters of the temple under David (1 Chr. 26:7).
Among the ancient Hebrews graves were outside of cities in the
open field (Luke 7:12; John 11:30). Kings (1 Kings 2:10) and
prophets (1 Sam. 25:1) were generally buried within cities.
Graves were generally grottoes or caves, natural or hewn out in
rocks (Isa. 22:16; Matt. 27:60). There were family cemeteries
(Gen. 47:29; 50:5; 2 Sam. 19:37). Public burial-places were
assigned to the poor (Jer. 26:23; 2 Kings 23:6). Graves were
usually closed with stones, which were whitewashed, to warn
strangers against contact with them (Matt. 23:27), which caused
ceremonial pollution (Num. 19:16).
There were no graves in Jerusalem except those of the kings,
and according to tradition that of the prophetess Huldah.
Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah, who was one of
David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).
(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of
the throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the
daughter of king Jehoram (2 Chr. 22:11), and took an active part
along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash
when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah.
The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his
ancestors are described in 2 Kings 11:2; 12:2; 2 Chr. 22:11;
23:24. He was among the foremost of the benefactors of the
kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of David among
the kings of Judah (2 Chr. 24:15, 16). He is said to have been
one hundred and thirty years old.
befriended. (1.) One of the chief Gadites in Bashan in the time
of Jotham (1 Chr. 5:13).
(2.) Grandfather of Shaphan, "the scribe," in the reign of
Josiah (2 Kings 22:3).
(3.) A priest, father of Hilkiah (1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 11:11), in
the reign of Ammon; called Shallum in 1 Chr. 6:12.
(4.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (2 Chr. 34:12), in the
reign of Josiah.
(5.) 1 Chr. 8:17.
(6.) 1 Chr. 3:19.
(7.) Neh. 12:13.
(8.) A chief priest (Neh. 12:16).
(9.) One of the leading Levites in the time of Ezra (8:16).
(10.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
(11.) One of the principal Israelites who supported Ezra when
expounding the law to the people (Neh. 8:4).
a shortened form of Micaiah, who is like Jehovah? (1.) A man of
Mount Ephraim, whose history so far is introduced in Judg. 17,
apparently for the purpose of leading to an account of the
settlement of the tribe of Dan in Northern Israel, and for
the purpose also of illustrating the lawlessness of the times in
which he lived (Judg. 18; 19:1-29; 21:25).
(2.) The son of Merib-baal (Mephibosheth), 1 Chr. 8:34, 35.
(3.) The first in rank of the priests of the family of
Kohathites (1 Chr. 23:20).
(4.) A descendant of Joel the Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:5).
(5.) "The Morasthite," so called to distinguish him from
Micaiah, the son of Imlah (1 Kings 22:8). He was a prophet of
Judah, a contemporary of Isaiah (Micah 1:1), a native of
Moresheth of Gath (1:14, 15). Very little is known of the
circumstances of his life (comp. Jer. 26:18, 19).
given of God. (1.) The son of Zuar, chief of the tribe of
Issachar at the Exodus (Num. 1:8; 2:5).
(2.) One of David's brothers (1 Chr. 2:14).
(3.) A priest who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:24).
(4.) A Levite (1 Chr. 24:6).
(5.) A temple porter, of the family of the Korhites (1 Chr.
(6.) One of the "princes" appointed by Jehoshaphat to teach
the law through the cities of Judah (2 Chr. 17:7).
(7.) A chief Levite in the time of Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9).
(8.) Ezra 10:22.
(9.) Neh. 12:21.
(10.) A priest's son who bore a trumpet at the dedication of
the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:36).
a fawn. 1 Chr. 4:14. (1.) A city of Benjamin (Josh. 18:23);
probably identical with Ephron (2 Chr. 13:19) and Ephraim (John
(2.) "Of the Abi-ezrites." A city of Manasseh, 6 miles
south-west of Shechem, the residence of Gideon (Judg. 6:11;
8:27, 32). After his great victory over the Midianites, he slew
at this place the captive kings (8:18-21). He then assumed the
function of high priest, and sought to make Ophrah what Shiloh
should have been. This thing "became a snare" to Gideon and his
house. After Gideon's death his family resided here till they
were put to death by Abimelech (Judg. 9:5). It is identified
princess, the wife and at the same time the half-sister of
Abraham (Gen. 11:29; 20:12). This name was given to her at the
time that it was announced to Abraham that she should be the
mother of the promised child. Her story is from her marriage
identified with that of the patriarch till the time of her
death. Her death, at the age of one hundred and twenty-seven
years (the only instance in Scripture where the age of a woman
is recorded), was the occasion of Abraham's purchasing the cave
of Machpelah as a family burying-place.
In the allegory of Gal. 4:22-31 she is the type of the
"Jerusalem which is above." She is also mentioned as Sara in
Heb. 11:11 among the Old Testament worthies, who "all died in
faith." (See ABRAHAM ¯T0000054.)
(Heb. nerd), a much-valued perfume (Cant. 1:12; 4:13, 14). It
was "very precious", i.e., very costly (Mark 14:3; John 12:3,5).
It is the root of an Indian plant, the Nardostachys jatamansi,
of the family of Valeriance, growing on the Himalaya mountains.
It is distinguished by its having many hairy spikes shooting out
from one root. It is called by the Arabs sunbul Hindi, "the
Indian spike." In the New Testament this word is the rendering
of the Greek nardos pistike. The margin of the Revised Version
in these passages has "pistic nard," pistic being perhaps a
local name. Some take it to mean genuine, and others liquid. The
most probable opinion is that the word pistike designates the
nard as genuine or faithfully prepared.
This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land
residing in Israel. Such persons enjoyed many privileges in
common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The
relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws
(Deut. 23:3; 24:14-21; 25:5; 26:10-13). A special signification
is also sometimes attached to this word. In Gen. 23:4 it denotes
one resident in a foreign land; Ex. 23:9, one who is not a Jew;
Num. 3:10, one who is not of the family of Aaron; Ps. 69:8, an
alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase
strangers as slaves (Lev. 25:44, 45), and to take usury from
them (Deut. 23:20).
the wanderer; loiterer, for some unknown reason emigrated with
his family from his native mountains in the north to the plains
of Mesopotamia. He had three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abraham,
and one daughter, Sarah. He settled in "Ur of the Chaldees,"
where his son Haran died, leaving behind him his son Lot. Nahor
settled at Haran, a place on the way to Ur. Terah afterwards
migrated with Abraham (probably his youngest son) and Lot (his
grandson), together with their families, from Ur, intending to
go with them to Canaan; but he tarried at Haran, where he spent
the remainder of his days, and died at the age of two hundred
and five years (Gen. 11:24-32; Josh. 24:2). What a wonderful
part the descendants of this Chaldean shepherd have played in
the history of the world!
Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office
(Ex. 29:7; 30:23; Lev. 8:12). He wore a peculiar dress, which on
his death passed to his successor in office (Ex. 29:29, 30).
Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests,
there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest:
(1.) The "robe" of the ephod, all of blue, of "woven work,"
worn immediately under the ephod. It was without seam or
sleeves. The hem or skirt was ornamented with pomegranates and
golden bells, seventy-two of each in alternate order. The
sounding of the bells intimated to the people in the outer court
the time when the high priest entered into the holy place to
burn incense before the Lord (Ex. 28).
(2.) The "ephod" consisted of two parts, one of which covered
the back and the other the breast, which were united by the
"curious girdle." It was made of fine twined linen, and
ornamented with gold and purple. Each of the shoulder-straps was
adorned with a precious stone, on which the names of the twelve
tribes were engraved. This was the high priest's distinctive
vestment (1 Sam. 2:28; 14:3; 21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7).
(3.) The "breastplate of judgment" (Ex. 28:6-12, 25-28;
39:2-7) of "cunning work." It was a piece of cloth doubled, of
one span square. It bore twelve precious stones, set in four
rows of three in a row, which constituted the Urim and Thummim
(q.v.). These stones had the names of the twelve tribes engraved
on them. When the high priest, clothed with the ephod and the
breastplate, inquired of the Lord, answers were given in some
mysterious way by the Urim and Thummim (1 Sam. 14:3, 18, 19;
23:2, 4, 9, 11,12; 28:6; 2 Sam. 5:23).
(4.) The "mitre," or upper turban, a twisted band of eight
yards of fine linen coiled into a cap, with a gold plate in
front, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a
ribbon of blue.
To the high priest alone it was permitted to enter the holy of
holies, which he did only once a year, on the great Day of
Atonement, for "the way into the holiest of all was not yet made
manifest" (Heb. 9; 10). Wearing his gorgeous priestly vestments,
he entered the temple before all the people, and then, laying
them aside and assuming only his linen garments in secret, he
entered the holy of holies alone, and made expiation, sprinkling
the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and offering up
incense. Then resuming his splendid robes, he reappeared before
the people (Lev. 16). Thus the wearing of these robes came to be
identified with the Day of Atonement.
The office, dress, and ministration of the high priest were
typical of the priesthood of our Lord (Heb. 4:14; 7:25; 9:12,
It is supposed that there were in all eighty-three high
priests, beginning with Aaron (B.C. 1657) and ending with
Phannias (A.D. 70). At its first institution the office of high
priest was held for life (but comp. 1 Kings 2:27), and was
hereditary in the family of Aaron (Num. 3:10). The office
continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron's eldest son, for two
hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first
of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron. In this
line it continued to Abiathar, whom Solomon deposed, and
appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (1 Kings
2:35), in which it remained till the time of the Captivity.
After the Return, Joshua, the son of Josedek, of the family of
Eleazar, was appointed to this office. After him the succession
was changed from time to time under priestly or political
the giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son
who is not a son by birth.
(1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Ex.
2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7).
(2.) National. God adopted Israel (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos.
11:1; Rom. 9:4).
(3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men
into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers
of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption
represents the new relations into which the believer is
introduced by justification, and the privileges connected
therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (John 17:23;
Rom. 5:5-8), a spiritual nature (2 Pet. 1:4; John 1:13), the
possession of a spirit becoming children of God (1 Pet. 1:14; 2
John 4; Rom. 8:15-21; Gal. 5:1; Heb. 2:15), present protection,
consolation, supplies (Luke 12:27-32; John 14:18; 1 Cor.
3:21-23; 2 Cor. 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb. 12:5-11), and
a future glorious inheritance (Rom. 8:17,23; James 2:5; Phil.
whom Jehovah helps. (1.) Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1
(2.) Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as
high priest (1 Chr. 6:9; 1 Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He
officiated at the consecration of the temple (1 Chr. 6:10).
(3.) The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah
and Asa (2 Chr. 6:10, 11).
(4.) High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah (2
Kings 14:21; 2 Chr. 26:17-20). He was contemporary with the
prophets Isaiah, Amos, and Joel.
(5.) High priest in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:10-13). Of
the house of Zadok.
(6.) Several other priests and Levites of this name are
mentioned (1 Chr. 6:36; Ezra 7:1; 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 3:23, etc.).
(7.) The original name of Abed-nego (Dan. 1:6, 7, 11, 16). He
was of the royal family of Judah, and with his other two
companions remarkable for his personal beauty and his
intelligence as well as piety.
(8.) The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa
(2 Chr. 15:1). He stirred up the king and the people to a great
(1.) This word denotes the special privileges and advantages
belonging to the first-born son among the Jews. He became the
priest of the family. Thus Reuben was the first-born of the
patriarchs, and so the priesthood of the tribes belonged to him.
That honour was, however, transferred by God from Reuben to Levi
(Num. 3:12, 13; 8:18).
(2.) The first-born son had allotted to him also a double
portion of the paternal inheritance (Deut. 21:15-17). Reuben
was, because of his undutiful conduct, deprived of his
birth-right (Gen. 49:4; 1 Chr. 5:1). Esau transferred his
birth-right to Jacob (Gen. 25:33).
(3.) The first-born inherited the judicial authority of his
father, whatever it might be (2 Chr. 21:3). By divine
appointment, however, David excluded Adonijah in favour of
(4.) The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of
"first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah
(Rom. 8:29; Col. 1:18; Heb. 1:4-6). As first-born he has an
inheritance superior to his brethren, and is the alone true
God his help. (1.) "Of Damascus," the "steward" (R.V.,
"possessor") of Abraham's house (Gen. 15:2, 3). It was probably
he who headed the embassy sent by Abraham to the old home of his
family in Padan-aram to seek a wife for his son Isaac. The
account of this embassy is given at length in Gen. 24.
(2.) The son of Becher, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:8).
(3.) One of the two sons of Moses, born during his sojourn in
Midian (Ex. 18:4; 1 Chr. 23:15, 17). He remained with his mother
and brother Gershom with Jethro when Moses returned to Egypt.
(Ex. 18:4). They were restored to Moses when Jethro heard of his
departure out of Egypt.
(4.) One of the priests who blew the trumpet before the ark
when it was brought to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:24).
(5.) Son of Zichri, and chief of the Reubenites under David (1
(6.) A prophet in the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:37).
Others of this name are mentioned Luke 3:29; Ezra 8:16; 10:18,
First-born, Redemption of
From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family
belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of
sacrificial worship was introduced, requiring a company of men
to be exclusively devoted to this ministry, the primitive office
of the first-born was superseded by that of the Levites (Num.
3:11-13), and it was ordained that the first-born of man and of
unclean animals should henceforth be redeemed (18:15).
The laws concerning this redemption of the first-born of man
are recorded in Ex. 13:12-15; 22:29; 34:20; Num. 3:45; 8:17;
18:16; Lev. 12:2, 4.
The first-born male of every clean animal was to be given up
to the priest for sacrifice (Deut. 12:6; Ex. 13:12; 34:20; Num.
But the first-born of unclean animals was either to be
redeemed or sold and the price given to the priest (Lev.
27:11-13, 27). The first-born of an ass, if not redeemed, was to
be put to death (Ex. 13:13; 34:20).
made great by Jehovah. (1.) the son of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3,
9). (2.) The grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah, and the
father of Cushi (Zeph. 1:1). (3.) One of the Jewish nobles who
conspired against Jeremiah (Jer. 38:1). (4.) The son of Ahikam,
and grandson of Shaphan, secretary of king Josiah (Jer. 26:24).
After the destruction of Jerusalem (see ZEDEKIAH ¯T0003894),
Nebuchadnezzar left him to govern the country as tributary to
him (2 Kings 25:22; Jer. 40:5; 52:16). Ishmael, however, at the
head of a party of the royal family, "Jewish irreconcilables",
rose against him, and slew him and "all the Jews that were with
him" (Jer. 41:2, 3) at Mizpah about three months after the
destruction of Jerusalem. He and his band also plundered the
town of Mizpah, and carried off many captives. He was, however,
overtaken by Johanan and routed. He fled with such of his
followers as escaped to the Ammonites (41:15). The little
remnant of the Jews now fled to Egypt.