the Greek name of the Book of Revelation (q.v.).
(Rom. 9:29; R.V., "Sodom"), the Greek form for Sodom.
(Rev. 1:8), the last letter in the Greek alphabet. (See A
the Greek form of the name of Timothy (Acts 16:1, etc.; the R.V.
destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented
by the locusts (Rev. 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the
Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).
the Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized
Version of the New Testament (Matt. 3:3; 4:14), but in the
Revised Version always "Isaiah."
Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed
between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The former is (1) a Greek
by race (Acts 16:1-3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14), or (2) a Gentile as
opposed to a Jew (Rom. 2:9, 10). The latter, meaning properly
"one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew
who dwelt in Israel.
The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting
the heathen Greeks of that city, as rendered in the Revised
Version according to the reading of the best manuscripts
a salutation expressive of a wish for the welfare of the person
addressed; the translation of the Greek _Chaire_, "Rejoice"
(Luke 1:8). Used in mockery in Matt. 27:29.
(Acts 6:1) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from
those who spoke Greek. (See GREEKS ¯T0001552.)
the Greek form of Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, but in
R.V. "Edom"). (See EDOM ¯T0001129).
a sect of Greek philosophers at Athens, so called from the Greek
word stoa i.e., a "porch" or "portico," where they have been
called "the Pharisees of Greek paganism." The founder of the
Stoics was Zeno, who flourished about B.C. 300. He taught his
disciples that a man's happiness consisted in bringing himself
into harmony with the course of the universe. They were trained
to bear evils with indifference, and so to be independent of
externals. Materialism, pantheism, fatalism, and pride were the
leading features of this philosophy.
the Greek form (Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah =
Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms
(106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).
(Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta,
the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar).
Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers
belonging to Caesarea.
the Greek form of Elijah (Matt. 11:14; 16:14, etc.), which the
Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament. (See
in Heb. 13:7, is the rendering of the unusual Greek word
_ekbasin_, meaning "outcome", i.e., death. It occurs only
elsewhere in 1 Cor. 10:13, where it is rendered "escape."
a stadium, a Greek measure of distance equal to 606 feet and 9
inches (Luke 24:13; John 6:19; 11:18; Rev. 14:20; 21:16).
Only once in Authorized Version (Acts 19:12). The Greek word
(sudarion) so rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth." It is
rendered "napkin" in John 11:44; 20:7; Luke 19:20.
(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head (1 Sam. 17:5,
38). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Eph.
6:17; 1 Thess. 5:8). (See ARMS ¯T0000315.)
i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian
Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah,
king of Judah (Jer. 37:5 44:30; Ezek. 29:6, 7).
or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used
metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing (Matt.
5:18); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew
given by Mithra, or dedicated to Mithra, i.e., the sun, the
Hebrew form of the Greek name Mithridates. (1.) The "treasurer"
of King Cyrus (Ezra 1:8).
(2.) Ezra 4:7, a Persian officer in Samaria.
Lat. pietas, properly honour and respect toward parents (1 Tim.
5:4). In Acts 17:23 the Greek verb is rendered "ye worship," as
applicable to God.
a rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek
name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the
five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It
was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.
a Greek word used in the New Testament (Rom. 1:14) to denote one
of another nation. In Col. 3:11, the word more definitely
designates those nations of the Roman empire that did not speak
Greek. In 1 Cor. 14:11, it simply refers to one speaking a
different language. The inhabitants of Malta are so called (Acts
28:1,2, 4). They were originally a Carthaginian colony. This
word nowhere in Scripture bears the meaning it does in modern
The Authorized Version understood the word 'adarkonim (1 Chr.
29:7; Ezra 8:27), and the similar word darkomnim (Ezra 2:69;
Neh. 7:70), as equivalent to the Greek silver coin the drachma.
But the Revised Version rightly regards it as the Greek
dareikos, a Persian gold coin (the daric) of the value of about
1 pound, 2s., which was first struck by Darius, the son of
Hystaspes, and was current in Western Asia long after the fall
of the Persian empire. (See DARIC ¯T0000974.)
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations
except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and
more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it
acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of
In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning
literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1, 3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14),
generally denotes any non-Jewish nation.
occurs only Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16. The verb to "sing an hymn"
occurs Matt. 26:30 and Mark 14:26. The same Greek word is
rendered to "sing praises" Acts 16:25 (R.V., "sing hymns") and
Heb. 2:12. The "hymn" which our Lord sang with his disciples at
the last Supper is generally supposed to have been the latter
part of the Hallel, comprehending Ps. 113-118. It was thus a
name given to a number of psalms taken together and forming a
The noun hymn is used only with reference to the services of
the Greeks, and was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek
tunes required Greek hymns. Our information regarding the
hymnology of the early Christians is very limited.
my father is the Lord, the Greek form of Abijah, or Abijam
(Matt. 1:7), instead of Abiah (1 Chr. 7:8). In Luke 1:5, the
name refers to the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses
into which David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:10).
(Heb. shamir), Ezek. 3:9. The Greek word adamas means diamond.
This stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard
steel. It is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of
the truth (Zech. 7:12), and of hard-heartedness against the
truth (Jer. 17:1).
(Heb. kelub', Jer. 5:27, marg. "coop;" rendered "basket" in Amos
8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after
being caught. In Rev. 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek
_phulake_, properly a prison or place of confinement.
Castor and Pollux
the "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their
figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the
ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as
the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens
as the constellation Gemini.
in Isa. 32:5 (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In 1 Sam.
25:3, the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and
ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, "hard." The same
Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Matt. 25:24, and
there is rendered "hard."
Consolation of Israel
a name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably
suggested by Isa. 12:1; 49:13. The Greek word thus rendered
(Luke 2:25, paraklesis) is kindred to that translated
"Comforter" in John 14:16, etc., parakletos.
not found in Scripture except indirectly in the original Greek
word (elephantinos) translated "of ivory" in Rev. 18:12, and in
the Hebrew word (shenhabim, meaning "elephant's tooth") rendered
"ivory" in 1 Kings 10:22 and 2 Chr. 9:21.
Heb. nophek (Ex. 28:18; 39:11); i.e., the "glowing stone",
probably the carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of
the high priest. It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the
foundations of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone
in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live
happily conquering, the mother of Timothy, a believing Jewess,
but married to a Greek (Acts 16:1). She trained her son from his
childhood in the knowledge of the Scriptures (2 Tim. 3:15). She
was distinguished by her "unfeigned faith."
Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus
did not speak Hebrew (Acts 6:1; 9:29), nor join in the Hebrew
services of the Jews in Israel, but had synagogues of their
own in Jerusalem. Joel 3:6 =Greeks.
(1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt. 12:39, 40, 41, etc.).
(2.) The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15-17) and
Andrew; but the reading should be (also in 1:42), as in the
Revised Version, "John," instead of Jonas.
contraction of minute, from the Latin minutum, the translation
of the Greek word lepton, the very smallest bronze of copper
coin (Luke 12:59; 21:2). Two mites made one quadrans, i.e., the
fourth part of a Roman as, which was in value nearly a
halfpenny. (See FARTHING ¯T0001311.)
(Lam. 5:3), i.e., desolate and without protectors. The word
occurs only here. In John 14:18 the word there rendered
"comfortless" (R.V., "desolate;" marg., "orphans") properly
means "orphans." The same Greek word is rendered "fatherless" in
found only in Acts 27:17, the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On
the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to
sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of
these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca,
and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.
(Heb. hodah). The oldest and, strictly speaking, the only
example of a riddle was that propounded by Samson (Judg.
14:12-18). The parabolic prophecy in Ezek. 17:2-18 is there
called a "riddle." It was rather, however, an allegory. The word
"darkly" in 1 Cor. 13:12 is the rendering of the Greek enigma;
marg., "in a riddle."
elevated. (1.) Denotes Mount Hermon in Deut. 4:48; called Sirion
by the Sidonians, and by the Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9). (See
(2.) The Greek form of Zion (q.v.) in Matt. 21:5; John 12:15.
Greek word rendered "piece of money" (Matt. 17:27, A.V.; and
"shekel" in R.V.). It was equal to two didrachmas ("tribute
money," 17:24), or four drachmas, and to about 2s. 6d. of our
money. (See SHEKEL ¯T0003336.)
prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul
disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to
him (Acts 19:9). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that
his "school" was a private synagogue.
(Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps
another by defending or comforting him. It is a name given by
Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7,
where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," q.v.). It is
applied to Christ in 1 John 2:1, where the same Greek word is
rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all
the places where it occurs. Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1)
was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul
Jer. 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev.
18:13 the word "slaves" is the rendering of a Greek word meaning
"bodies." The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually
rendered simply "servant," "bondman," or "bondservant." Slavery
as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That
law did not originate but only regulated the already existing
custom of slavery (Ex. 21:20, 21, 26, 27; Lev. 25:44-46; Josh.
9:6-27). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to
slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually
disappearing from among men.
Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.)
Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isa. 5:14, elsewhere
"statute." (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jer. 13:25, elsewhere "garment."
(c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Ex. 26:2,
8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Lev. 19:35; 1 Chr. 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jer.
30:11, elsewhere "judgment." (f) Mithkoneth and token, Ezek.
45:11. (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus
rendered (Matt. 7:2; 23:32; Mark 4:24).
(2.) Those which are definite. (a) 'Eyphah, Deut. 25:14, 15,
usually "ephah." (b) Ammah, Jer. 51:13, usually "cubit." (c)
Kor, 1 Kings 4:22, elsewhere "cor;" Greek koros, Luke 16:7. (d)
Seah, Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam. 25:18, a seah; Greek saton, Matt. 13:33;
Luke 13:21. (e) Shalish, "a great measure," Isa. 40:12;
literally a third, i.e., of an ephah. (f) In New Testament
batos, Luke 16:6, the Hebrew "bath;" and choinix, Rev. 6:6, the
choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius.
one who serves, as distinguished from the master. (1.) Heb.
meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as
to Joshua, the servant of Moses (Ex. 33:11), and to the servant
of Elisha (2 Kings 4:43). This name is also given to attendants
at court (2 Chr. 22:8), and to the priests and Levites (Jer.
33:21; Ezek. 44:11).
(2.) Heb. pelah (Ezra 7:24), a "minister" of religion. Here
used of that class of sanctuary servants called "Solomon's
servants" in Ezra 2:55-58 and Neh. 7:57-60.
(3.) Greek leitourgos, a subordinate public administrator, and
in this sense applied to magistrates (Rom. 13:6). It is applied
also to our Lord (Heb. 8:2), and to Paul in relation to Christ
(4.) Greek hyperetes (literally, "under-rower"), a personal
attendant on a superior, thus of the person who waited on the
officiating priest in the synagogue (Luke 4:20). It is applied
also to John Mark, the attendant on Paul and Barnabas (Acts
(5.) Greek diaconos, usually a subordinate officer or
assistant employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel, as
to Paul and Apollos (1 Cor. 3:5), Tychicus (Eph. 6:21), Epaphras
(Col. 1:7), Timothy (1 Thess. 3:2), and also to Christ (Rom.
that by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it
becomes consistent with his character and government to pardon
and bless the sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love
or make him loving; it only renders it consistent for him to
execise his love towards sinners.
In Rom. 3:25 and Heb. 9:5 (A.V., "mercy-seat") the Greek word
_hilasterion_ is used. It is the word employed by the LXX.
translators in Ex. 25:17 and elsewhere as the equivalent for the
Hebrew _kapporeth_, which means "covering," and is used of the
lid of the ark of the covenant (Ex. 25:21; 30:6). This Greek
word (hilasterion) came to denote not only the mercy-seat or lid
of the ark, but also propitation or reconciliation by blood. On
the great day of atonement the high priest carried the blood of
the sacrifice he offered for all the people within the veil and
sprinkled with it the "mercy-seat," and so made propitiation.
In 1 John 2:2; 4:10, Christ is called the "propitiation for
our sins." Here a different Greek word is used (hilasmos).
Christ is "the propitiation," because by his becoming our
substitute and assuming our obligations he expiated our guilt,
covered it, by the vicarious punishment which he endured. (Comp.
Heb. 2:17, where the expression "make reconciliation" of the
A.V. is more correctly in the R.V. "make propitiation.")
(1) of silver. In Ps. 68:30 denotes "fragments," and not
properly money. In 1 Sam. 2:36 (Heb. agorah), properly a "small
sum" as wages, weighed rather than coined. Josh. 24:32 (Heb.
kesitah, q.v.), supposed by some to have been a piece of money
bearing the figure of a lamb, but rather simply a certain
amount. (Comp. Gen. 33:19).
(2.) The word pieces is omitted in many passages, as Gen.
20:16; 37:28; 45:22, etc. The passage in Zech. 11:12, 13 is
quoted in the Gospel (Matt. 26:15), and from this we know that
the word to be supplied is "shekels." In all these omissions we
may thus warrantably supply this word.
(3.) The "piece of money" mentioned in Matt. 17:27 is a
stater=a Hebrew shekel, or four Greek drachmae; and that in Luke
15:8, 9, Act 19:19, a Greek drachma=a denarius. (See PENNY
destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon,
i.e., destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Rev.
9:11). It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22; 31:12; 26:6;
Prov. 15:11; 27:20. In the last three of these passages the
Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon." We may regard this
word as a personification of the idea of destruction, or as
sheol, the realm of the dead.
This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New
Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6), and in each case is
followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father."
It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It
has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into
European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."
the Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it
denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the
open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the
Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the
council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted
of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office,
and the ex-archons of blameless life.
On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable
address to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22-31).
the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The
king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He
was probably the Smerdis of profane history.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C.
458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years
(B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years
later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.
in Num. 8:4, means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek
Version, however, renders the word "solid gold;" the Revised
Version, "beaten work of gold." In 1 Kings 10:16, 17, it
probably means "mixed" gold, as the word ought to be rendered,
i.e., not pure gold. Others render the word in these places
"thin plates of gold."
the curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The
Hebrew word (metheg) so rendered in Ps. 32:9 is elsewhere
translated "bridle" (2 Kings 19:28; Prov. 26:3; Isa. 37:29).
Bits were generally made of bronze or iron, but sometimes also
of gold or silver. In James 3:3 the Authorized Version
translates the Greek word by "bits," but the Revised Version by
only in Luke 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a
translation of the Greek word _Kranion_, by which the Hebrew
word _Gulgoleth_ was interpreted, "the place of a skull." It
probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low,
rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull.
It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of
our Lord took place outside the city walls (Heb. 13:11-13) and
near the public thoroughfare. "This thing was not done in a
corner." (See GOLGOTHA ¯T0001522.)
(in the spelling of this word _h_ is inserted by mistake from
Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the
word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In John 19:25 the
Authorized Version reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word
"wife" is conjecturally inserted here. If "wife" is rightly
inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas
is the same as Alphaeus (Matt. 10:3; 27:56).
generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Eph. 2:3;
4:22; R.V., "manner of life"); one's deportment or course of
life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of
verbal communication from one to another (Ps. 50:23; Heb. 13:5).
In Phil. 1:27 and 3:20, a different Greek word is used. It there
means one's relations to a community as a citizen, i.e.,
Heb. gad, (Ex. 16:31; Num. 11:7), seed to which the manna is
likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of
botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk,
about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern
countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds,
which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a
peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a spice. The Greek
name of this plant is korion or koriannon, whence the name
(Ezek. 1:22, with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the
spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Rev. 4:6;
21:11; 22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined
kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally
"ice." The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water
congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time.
(Heb. sumphoniah), a musical instrument mentioned in Dan. 3:5,
15, along with other instruments there named, as sounded before
the golden image. It was not a Jewish instrument. In the margin
of the Revised Version it is styled the "bag-pipe." Luther
translated it "lute," and Grotius the "crooked trumpet." It is
probable that it was introduced into Babylon by some Greek or
Western-Asiatic musician. Some Rabbinical commentators render it
by "organ," the well-known instrument composed of a series of
pipes, others by "lyre." The most probable interpretation is
that it was a bag-pipe similar to the zampagna of Southern
originally a Saxon word (Eostre), denoting a goddess of the
Saxons, in honour of whom sacrifices were offered about the time
of the Passover. Hence the name came to be given to the festival
of the Resurrection of Christ, which occured at the time of the
Passover. In the early English versions this word was frequently
used as the translation of the Greek pascha (the Passover). When
the Authorized Version (1611) was formed, the word "passover"
was used in all passages in which this word pascha occurred,
except in Act 12:4. In the Revised Version the proper word,
"passover," is always used.
the Greek form of a Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic word, meaning "Be
opened," uttered by Christ when healing the man who was deaf and
dumb (Mark 7:34). It is one of the characteristics of Mark that
he uses the very Aramaic words which fell from our Lord's lips.
(See 3:17; 5:41; 7:11; 14:36; 15:34.)
followers of Epicurus (who died at Athens B.C. 270), or
adherents of the Epicurean philosophy (Acts 17:18). This
philosophy was a system of atheism, and taught men to seek as
their highest aim a pleasant and smooth life. They have been
called the "Sadducees" of Greek paganism. They, with the Stoics,
ridiculed the teaching of Paul (Acts 17:18). They appear to have
been greatly esteemed at Athens.
(Mark 6:27). Instead of the Greek word, Mark here uses a Latin
word, speculator, which literally means "a scout," "a spy," and
at length came to denote one of the armed bodyguard of the
emperor. Herod Antipas, in imitation of the emperor, had in
attendance on him a company of speculatores. They were sometimes
employed as executioners, but this was a mere accident of their
office. (See MARK, GOSPEL OF ¯T0002421.)
(1.) Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6. Greek assarion, i.e., a small _as_,
which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or
drachma, nearly equal to a halfpenny of our money.
(2.) Matt. 5:26; Mark 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the
fourth of an _as_, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite)
was the very smallest copper coin.
an old Saxon word equivalent to soul or spirit. It is the
translation of the Hebrew _nephesh_ and the Greek _pneuma_, both
meaning "breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" (Job
11:20; Jer. 15:9; Matt. 27:50; John 19:30). The expression "to
give up the ghost" means to die (Lam. 1:19; Gen. 25:17; 35:29;
49:33; Job 3:11). (See HOLY GHOST ¯T0001805.)
(Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out,"
"to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his
means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, the word means debauchees
or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, the word (pl.) is
rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version,
"gluttonous." Matt. 11:19, Luke 7:34, Greek phagos, given to
praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD,"
stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135,
146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent
occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of
the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6.
(1.) The fourth "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants
settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in
Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan"
(rendered "Grecia," Dan. 8:21; 10:20; comp. 11:2; Zech. 9:13).
This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the
generic name of the Greek race.
(2.) A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the
Syrians obtained iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezek. 27:19).
extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of
Judah (Josh. 15:55; 21:16). Its modern name is Yutta, a place
about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been
the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of
John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by
thousands of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church (Luke 1:39).
(See MARY ¯T0002428.)
an inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and
the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief
towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia"
(Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or
perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with
Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it
(Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).
the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in
Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at
Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior
officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military
correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by
purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS
sorcerer, the son of Aminadab, and prince of the children of
Judah at the time of the first numbering of the tribes in the
wilderness (Ex. 6:23). His sister Elisheba was the wife of
Aaron. He died in the wilderness (Num. 26:64, 65). His name
occurs in the Greek form Naasson in the genealogy of Christ
(Matt, 1:4; Luke 3:32).
the Hebrew name of an Egyptian city (Isa. 19:13; Jer.2:16; 44:1;
46:14, 19; Ezek. 30:13, 16). In Hos. 9:6 the Hebrew name is
Moph, and is translated "Memphis," which is its Greek and Latin
form. It was one of the most ancient and important cities of
Egypt, and stood a little to the south of the modern Cairo, on
the western bank of the Nile. It was the capital of Lower Egypt.
Among the ruins found at this place is a colossal statue of
Rameses the Great. (See MEMPHIS ¯T0002478.)
(1.) An injury or wrong done to one (1 Sam. 25:31; Rom. 5:15).
(2.) A stumbling-block or cause of temptation (Isa. 8:14;
Matt. 16:23; 18:7). Greek skandalon, properly that at which one
stumbles or takes offence. The "offence of the cross" (Gal.
5:11) is the offence the Jews took at the teaching that
salvation was by the crucified One, and by him alone. Salvation
by the cross was a stumbling-block to their national pride.
a colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a
tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing
after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Comp. 1
Kings 7:6.) The word "porch" is in the New Testament the
rendering of three different Greek words:
(1.) Stoa, meaning a portico or veranda (John 5:2; 10:23; Acts
(2.) Pulon, a gateway (Matt. 26:71).
(3.) Proaulion, the entrance to the inner court (Mark 14:68).
a musical instrument, supposed to have been a kind of lyre, or a
harp with twelve strings. The Hebrew word nebhel, so rendered,
is translated "viol" in Isa. 5:12 (R.V., "lute"); 14:11. In Dan.
3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word thus rendered is Chaldaic, pesanterin,
which is supposed to be a word of Greek origin denoting an
instrument of the harp kind.
(Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1) is rendered "chief" in the Authorized
Version. It is left untranslated as a proper name in the Revised
Version. Some have supposed that the Russians are here meant, as
one of the three Scythian tribes of whom Magog was the prince.
They invaded the land of Judah in the days of Josiah. Herodotus,
the Greek historian, says: "For twenty-eight years the Scythians
ruled over Asia, and things were turned upside down by their
violence and contempt." (See BETHSHEAN ¯T0000568.)
hairy one. Mentioned in Greek mythology as a creature composed
of a man and a goat, supposed to inhabit wild and desolate
regions. The Hebrew word is rendered also "goat" (Lev. 4:24) and
"devil", i.e., an idol in the form of a goat (17:7; 2 Chr.
11:15). When it is said (Isa. 13:21; comp. 34:14) "the satyrs
shall dance there," the meaning is that the place referred to
shall become a desolate waste. Some render the Hebrew word
"baboon," a species of which is found in Babylonia.
a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep
gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1 Chr. 17:7; Ps. 50:9; 78:70).
In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two
distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which
properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised
Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Cor. 9:7.) (See FOLD
Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two
sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for
two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is
_tsippor_, which properly denotes the whole family of small
birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The
Greek word of the New Testament is _strouthion_ (Matt.
10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.
(in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle, a disciple at Joppa. She was
distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works. Peter, who was
sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over
the dead body, and said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her
eyes and sat up; and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her
up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive"
of silver contained 3,000 shekels (Ex. 38:25, 26), and was equal
to 94 3/7 lbs. avoirdupois. The Greek talent, however, as in the
LXX., was only 82 1/4 lbs. It was in the form of a circular
mass, as the Hebrew name _kikkar_ denotes. A talent of gold was
double the weight of a talent of silver (2 Sam. 12:30). Parable
of the talents (Matt. 18:24; 25:15).
(Gr. ekstasis, from which the word "ecstasy" is derived) denotes
the state of one who is "out of himself." Such were the trances
of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10; 11:5; 22:17, ecstasies, "a
preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the
reception of the vision", (comp. 2 Cor. 12:1-4). In Mark 5:42
and Luke 5:26 the Greek word is rendered "astonishment,"
"amazement" (comp. Mark 16:8; Acts 3:10).
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs
only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough
or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the
juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here
used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage
in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly
denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS
The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an
early time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by
the ancient Hebrews into 54 _parshioth_ or sections, one of
which was read in the synagogue every Sabbath day (Acts. 13:15).
These sections were afterwards divided into 669 _sidrim_ or
orders of unequal length. The Prophets were divided in somewhat
the same manner into _haphtaroth_ or passages.
In the early Latin and Greek versions of the Bible, similar
divisions of the several books were made. The New Testament
books were also divided into portions of various lengths under
different names, such as titles and heads or chapters.
In modern times this ancient example was imitated, and many
attempts of the kind were made before the existing division into
chapters was fixed. The Latin Bible published by Cardinal Hugo
of St. Cher in A.D. 1240 is generally regarded as the first
Bible that was divided into our present chapters, although it
appears that some of the chapters were fixed as early as A.D.
1059. This division into chapters came gradually to be adopted
in the published editions of the Hebrew, with some few
variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other
the name given by the Greek fathers to the ten commandments;
"the ten words," as the original is more literally rendered (Ex.
20:3-17). These commandments were at first written on two stone
slabs (31:18), which were broken by Moses throwing them down on
the ground (32:19). They were written by God a second time
(34:1). The decalogue is alluded to in the New Testament five
times (Matt. 5:17, 18, 19; Mark 10:19; Luke 18:20; Rom. 7:7, 8;
13:9; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10).
These commandments have been divided since the days of Origen
the Greek father, as they stand in the Confession of all the
Reformed Churches except the Lutheran. The division adopted by
Luther, and which has ever since been received in the Lutheran
Church, makes the first two commandments one, and the third the
second, and so on to the last, which is divided into two. "Thou
shalt not covet thy neighbour's house" being ranked as ninth,
and "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife," etc., the
tenth. (See COMMANDMENTS ¯T0000871.)
country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush
is rendered (Gen. 2:13; 2 Kings 19:9; Esther 1:1; Job 28:19; Ps.
68:31; 87:4), a country which lay to the south of Egypt,
beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezek. 29:10; 30:6),
and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue
Nile. It corresponds generally with what is now known as the
Soudan (i.e., the land of the blacks). This country was known to
the Hebrews, and is described in Isa. 18:1; Zeph. 3:10. They
carried on some commercial intercourse with it (Isa. 45:14).
Its inhabitants were descendants of Ham (Gen. 10:6; Jer.
13:23; Isa. 18:2, "scattered and peeled," A.V.; but in R.V.,
"tall and smooth"). Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes
them as "the tallest and handsomest of men." They are frequently
represented on Egyptian monuments, and they are all of the type
of the true negro. As might be expected, the history of this
country is interwoven with that of Egypt.
Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy (Ps. 68:31; 87:4; Isa.
45:14; Ezek. 30:4-9; Dan. 11:43; Nah. 3:8-10; Hab. 3:7; Zeph.
that which is out of sight, a Greek word used to denote the
state or place of the dead. All the dead alike go into this
place. To be buried, to go down to the grave, to descend into
hades, are equivalent expressions. In the LXX. this word is the
usual rendering of the Hebrew sheol, the common receptacle of
the departed (Gen. 42:38; Ps. 139:8; Hos. 13:14; Isa. 14:9).
This term is of comparatively rare occurrence in the Greek New
Testament. Our Lord speaks of Capernaum as being "brought down
to hell" (hades), i.e., simply to the lowest debasement, (Matt.
11:23). It is contemplated as a kind of kingdom which could
never overturn the foundation of Christ's kingdom (16:18), i.e.,
Christ's church can never die.
In Luke 16:23 it is most distinctly associated with the doom
and misery of the lost.
In Acts 2:27-31 Peter quotes the LXX. version of Ps. 16:8-11,
plainly for the purpose of proving our Lord's resurrection from
the dead. David was left in the place of the dead, and his body
saw corruption. Not so with Christ. According to ancient
prophecy (Ps. 30:3) he was recalled to life.
a public civil officer invested with authority. The Hebrew
shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having authority in the
land (Deut. 1:16, 17). In Judg. 18:7 the word "magistrate"
(A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version "possessing
authority", i.e., having power to do them harm by invasion. In
the time of Ezra (9:2) and Nehemiah (2:16; 4:14; 13:11) the
Jewish magistrates were called _seganim_, properly meaning
"nobles." In the New Testament the Greek word _archon_, rendered
"magistrate" (Luke 12:58; Titus 3:1), means one first in power,
and hence a prince, as in Matt. 20:25, 1 Cor. 2:6, 8. This term
is used of the Messiah, "Prince of the kings of the earth" (Rev.
1:5). In Acts 16:20, 22, 35, 36, 38, the Greek term _strategos_,
rendered "magistrate," properly signifies the leader of an army,
a general, one having military authority. The _strategoi_ were
the duumviri, the two praetors appointed to preside over the
administration of justice in the colonies of the Romans. They
were attended by the sergeants (properly lictors or "rod
Satan is styled the "accuser of the brethren" (Rev. 12:10. Comp.
Job 1:6; Zech. 3:1), as seeking to uphold his influence among
men by bringing false charges against Christians, with the view
of weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which
they are identified. He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser
of men before God, laying to their charge the violations of the
law of which they were guilty, and demanding their punishment.
The same Greek word, rendered "accuser," is found in John 8:10
(but omitted in the Revised Version); Acts 23:30, 35; 24:8;
25:16, 18, in all of which places it is used of one who brings a
charge against another.
(Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high
priest (Ex. 28:19; 39:12), the second in the third row. This may
be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized
quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isa.
54:12 and Ezek. 27:16, this word is the rendering of the Hebrew
cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely
crystalline silica more or less in bands of different tints.
This word is from the Greek name of a stone found in the river
Achates in Sicily.
one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest
(Ex. 28:19; 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
(Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power
of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and
hence its Greek name formed from _a_, "privative," and _methuo_,
"to get drunk." Its Jewish name, _ahlamah'_, was derived by the
rabbins from the Hebrew word _halam_, "to dream," from its
supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.
It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark
purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different
parts of Europe.
the son of Shem (Gen. 10:22); according to Gen. 22:21, a
grandson of Nahor. In Matt. 1:3, 4, and Luke 3:33, this word is
the Greek form of Ram, the father of Amminadab (1 Chr. 2:10).
The word means high, or highlands, and as the name of a
country denotes that elevated region extending from the
northeast of Israel to the Euphrates. It corresponded
generally with the Syria and Mesopotamia of the Greeks and
Romans. In Gen. 25:20; 31:20, 24; Deut. 26:5, the word "Syrian"
is properly "Aramean" (R.V., marg.). Damascus became at length
the capital of the several smaller kingdoms comprehended under
the designation "Aram" or "Syria."
In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman
division of the night into four watches, each consisting of
three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening
(Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division,
known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained.
The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this
is the first crowing), and again at the dawn of day (and this is
the second crowing). Mark mentions (14:30) the two
cock-crowings. Matthew (26:34) alludes to that only which was
emphatically the cock-crowing, viz, the second.
the designation of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7;
R.V. marg., "or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos"). The same
Greek word thus rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1 John 2:1
as applicable to Christ. It means properly "one who is summoned
to the side of another" to help him in a court of justice by
defending him, "one who is summoned to plead a cause."
"Advocate" is the proper rendering of the word in every case
where it occurs.
It is worthy of notice that although Paul nowhere uses the
word paracletos, he yet presents the idea it embodies when he
speaks of the "intercession" both of Christ and the Spirit (Rom.
a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and
left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a
gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this
word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the
temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the
year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16-24). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees
for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they
had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour
their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from
helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over
their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.