abundance; princess, the daughter of Asher and grand-daughter of
Jacob (Gen. 46:17); called also Sarah (Num. 26:46; R.V.,
wealth. (1.) A Canaanite whose daughter was married to Judah (1
(2.) A daughter of Heber the Asherite (1 Chr. 7:32).
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron
spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen.
cassia, the name of Job's second daughter (42:14), born after
prosperity had returned to him.
copper, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, and the wife of
Jehoiakin (2 Kings 24:8), king of Judah.
a priest of On, whose daughter Asenath became Joseph's wife
having obtained mercy, a symbolical name given to the daughter
of Hosea (2:1).
Herod Philip I.
(Mark 6:17), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the
daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from
another Philip called "the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a
private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.
a lute; lyre. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, and third wife of
Esau (Gen. 28:9); called also Bashemath (Gen. 36:3).
(2.) The daughter of Jerimoth, who was one of David's sons.
She was one of Rehoboam's wives (2 Chr. 11:18).
daughter of many, the name of one of the gates of the city of
Heshbon, near which were pools (Cant.7:4).
son of my kindred; i.e., "born of incest", the son of Lot by his
youngest daughter (Gen. 19:38).
the queen, the daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead (1 Chr.
7:17, 18). Abiezer was one of her three children.
Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's
wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (36:2-14).
not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a
type of Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people (Hos. 1:6;
a town probably near Beth-horon. It derived its name from the
daughter of Ephraim (1 Chr. 7:24).
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen.
41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;
deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18, 19).
(2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1
kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of
king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31), also
of king Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:18).
a woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts
16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of Felix, and
daughter of Herod Agrippa I.
horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job's third
daughter (Job. 42:14), born after prosperity had returned to
oppression, a small Syrian kingdom near Geshur, east of the
Hauran, the district of Batanea (Josh. 13:13; 2 Sam. 10:6,8; 1
(2.) A daughter of Talmai, king of the old native population
of Geshur. She became one of David's wives, and was the mother
of Absalom (2 Sam. 3:3).
(3.) The father of Hanan, who was one of David's body-guard (1
(4.) The daughter of Abishalom (called Absalom, 2 Chr.
11:20-22), the third wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijam (1
Kings 15:2). She is called "Michaiah the daughter of Uriel," who
was the husband of Absalom's daughter Tamar (2 Chr. 13:2). Her
son Abijah or Abijam was heir to the throne.
(5.) The father of Achish, the king of Gath (1 Kings 2:39),
called also Maoch (1 Sam. 27:2).
(Matt. 14:3-11; Mark 6:17-28; Luke 3:19), the daughter of
Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband
Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her
during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave
her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John
the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful.
For this he was "cast into prison," in the castle probably of
Machaerus (q.v.), and was there subsequently beheaded.
weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel (Gen.
29:16). Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father
(Gen. 29:23). She was "tender-eyed" (17). She bore to Jacob six
sons (32-35), also one daughter, Dinah (30:21). She accompanied
Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going
down into Egypt (Gen. 31), and was buried in the cave of
the beautiful. (1.) The daughter of Lamech and Zillah (Gen. 4:
(2.) The daughter of the king of Ammon, one of the wives of
Solomon, the only one who appears to have borne him a son, viz.,
Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:21, 31).
(3.) A city in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:41), supposed by
some to be identified with Na'aneh, some 5 miles south-east of
anklet, Caleb's only daughter (1 Chr. 2:49). She was offered in
marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of
Debir, or Kirjath-sepher. This was done by Othniel (q.v.), who
accordingly obtained her as his wife (Josh. 15:16-19; Judg.
ornament. (1.) The first of Lamech's two wives, and the mother
of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:19, 20, 23).
(2.) The first of Esau's three wives, the daughter of Elon the
Hittite (Gen. 36:2,4), called also Bashemath (26:34).
a female Christian mentioned in 2 Tim. 4:21. It is a conjecture
having some probability that she was a British maiden, the
daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed
the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that
she was the wife of Pudens.
Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel.
She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11. She was the only
princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest,
Jehoiada (2 Chr. 22:11).
sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's
three wives (Gen. 36:3, 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes
of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Gen. 28:9).
It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names
in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those
given to them in the history (Gen. 26:34; 28:9).
(2.) A daughter of Solomon, and wife of Ahimaaz, one of his
officers (1 Kings 4:15).
(Judg. 11:30, 31). After a crushing defeat of the Ammonites,
Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to welcome him
was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor,
and in his despair he cried out, "Alas, my daughter! thou hast
brought me very low...I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and
cannot go back." With singular nobleness of spirit she answered,
"Do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy
mouth." She only asked two months to bewail her maidenhood with
her companions upon the mountains. She utters no reproach
against her father's rashness, and is content to yield her life
since her father has returned a conqueror. But was it so? Did
Jephthah offer up his daughter as a "burnt-offering"? This
question has been much debated, and there are many able
commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was actually
offered. We are constrained, however, by a consideration of
Jephthah's known piety as a true worshipper of Jehovah, his
evident acquaintance with the law of Moses, to which such
sacrifices were abhorrent (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; Deut. 12:31), and
the place he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith in the
Epistle to the Hebrews (11:32), to conclude that she was only
doomed to a life of perpetual celibacy.
palm. (1.) A place mentioned by Ezekiel (47:19; 48:28), on the
southeastern border of Israel. Some suppose this was "Tadmor"
(2.) The daughter-in-law of Judah, to whose eldest son, Er,
she was married (Gen. 38:6). After her husband's death, she was
married to Onan, his brother (8), and on his death, Judah
promised to her that his third son, Shelah, would become her
husband. This promise was not fulfilled, and hence Tamar's
revenge and Judah's great guilt (38:12-30).
(3.) A daughter of David (2 Sam. 13:1-32; 1 Chr. 3:9), whom
Amnon shamefully outraged and afterwards "hated exceedingly,"
thereby illustrating the law of human nature noticed even by the
heathen, "Proprium humani ingenii est odisse quem laeseris",
i.e., "It is the property of human nature to hate one whom you
(4.) A daughter of Absalom (2 Sam. 14:27).
whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and
the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Kings 8:18), who "walked
in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2 Chr. 21:6), called
"daughter" of Omri (2 Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband
and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the
vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the
youngest (2 Kings 11:1,2). After a reign of six years she was
put to death in an insurrection (2 Kings 11:20; 2 Chr. 21:6;
22:10-12; 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with
Josiah's being crowned as king.
(2.) Ezra 8:7. (3.) 1 Chr. 8:26.
daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1
Chr. 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2 Sam. 11:3) or Ammiel (1
Chr. 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed
adultery with her (2 Sam. 11:4, 5; Ps. 51:1). The child born in
adultery died (2 Sam. 12:15-19). After her husband was slain
(11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother
of Solomon (12:24; 1 Kings 1:11; 2:13). She took a prominent
part in securing the succession of Solomon to the throne (1
Kings 1:11, 16-21).
This word, besides its natural and proper sense, is used to
designate, (1.) A niece or any female descendant (Gen. 20:12;
24:48; 28:6). (2.) Women as natives of a place, or as professing
the religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isa.
3:16), "daughters of the Philistines" (2 Sam. 1:20). (3.) Small
towns and villages lying around a city are its "daughters," as
related to the metropolis or mother city. Tyre is in this sense
called the daughter of Sidon (Isa. 23:12). (4.) The people of
Jerusalem are spoken of as "the daughters of Zion" (Isa. 37:22).
(5.) The daughters of a tree are its boughs (Gen. 49:22). (6.)
The "daughters of music" (Eccl. 12:4) are singing women.
snorting. (1.) The father of Terah, who was the father of
Abraham (Gen. 11:22-25; Luke 3:34).
(2.) A son of Terah, and elder brother of Abraham (Gen. 11:26,
27; Josh. 24:2, R.V.). He married Milcah, the daughter of his
brother Haran, and remained in the land of his nativity on the
east of the river Euphrates at Haran (Gen. 11:27-32). A
correspondence was maintained between the family of Abraham in
Canaan and the relatives in the old ancestral home at Haran till
the time of Jacob. When Jacob fled from Haran all intercourse
between the two branches of the family came to an end (Gen.
31:55). His grand-daughter Rebekah became Isaac's wife (24:67).
Three princesses are thus mentioned in Scripture: (1.) The
princess who adopted the infant Moses (q.v.), Ex. 2:10. She is
twice mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 7:21: Heb. 11:24). It
would seem that she was alive and in some position of influence
about the court when Moses was compelled to flee from Egypt, and
thus for forty years he had in some way been under her
influence. She was in all probability the sister of Rameses, and
the daughter of Seti I. Josephus calls her Thermuthis. It is
supposed by some that she was Nefert-ari, the wife as well as
sister of Rameses. The mummy of this queen was among the
treasures found at Deir-el-Bahari.
(2.) "Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, which Mered took (1
(3.) The wife of Solomon (1 Kings 3:1). This is the first
reference since the Exodus to any connection of Israel with
flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom
Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1 Sam. 18:19). The
five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the
Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:8, 9. Here it is said that Michal "brought
up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them
as if she had been their own mother, or that for "Michal" we
should read "Merab," as in 1 Sam. 18:19).
brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of
Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
(2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1 Sam. 25:43;
27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2 Sam. 3:2). (See 1 Sam.
30:5, 18; 2 Sam. 2:2.)
tent of the height, the name given to Judith, the daughter of
Beeri = Anah (Gen. 26:34; 36:2), when she became the wife of
Esau. A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near
Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she
received her name from the district. From her descended three
tribes of Edomites, founded by her three sons.
kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief
of the tribe of Judah (Num. 1:7; 2:3; 7:12, 17; 10:14). His
daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Ex. 6:23).
(2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1 Chr. 6:22),
called also Izhar (2, 18).
(3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1 Chr.
of iron. (1.) A Meholathite, the father of Adriel (2 Sam. 21:8).
(2.) A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his
loyalty to David. He liberally provided for the king's followers
(2 Sam. 17:27). David on his death-bed, remembering his
kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon
(1 Kings 2:7).
(3.) A priest who married a daughter of the preceding (Ezra
bearer of victory, the eldest daughter of Agrippa I., the Herod
Agrippa of Acts 12:20. After the early death of her first
husband she was married to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis.
After his death (A.D. 40) she lived in incestuous connection
with her brother Agrippa II. (Acts 25:13, 23; 26:30). They
joined the Romans at the outbreak of the final war between them
and the Jews, and lived afterwards at Rome.
(Heb. teashshur), mentioned in Isa. 60:13; 41:19, was, according
to some, a species of cedar growing in Lebanon. The words of
Ezek. 27:6 literally translated are, "Thy benches they have made
of ivory, the daughter of the ashur tree," i.e., inlaid with
ashur wood. The ashur is the box-tree, and accordingly the
Revised Version rightly reads "inlaid in box wood." This is the
Buxus sempervirens of botanists. It is remarkable for the beauty
of its evergreen foliage and for the utility of its hard and
judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of
Simeon and Levi (Gen. 30:21). She was seduced by Shechem, the
son of Hamor, the Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the
neighbourhood of Shechem. This led to the terrible revenge of
Simeon and Levi in putting the Shechemites to death (Gen. 34).
Jacob makes frequent reference to this deed of blood with
abhorrence and regret (Gen. 34:30; 49:5-7). She is mentioned
among the rest of Jacob's family that went down into Egypt (Gen.
third and youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:1-4,
20-23). Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea, induced her to
leave her husband, Azizus, the king of Emesa, and become his
wife. She was present with Felix when Paul reasoned of
"righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come" (Acts 24:24).
She and her son perished in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D.
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the
Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the
days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with
his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of
Moab. There he and his sons died (Ruth 1:2,3; 2:1,3; 4:3,9).
Naomi afterwards returned to Israel with her daughter Ruth.
bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near
Gilead, between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias (2 Sam.
15:8; 1 Chr. 2:23). The Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky
fastness of Argob, the modern Lejah, in the north-east corner of
Bashan. In the time of David it was ruled by Talmai, whose
daughter he married, and who was the mother of Absalom, who fled
to Geshur after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
he-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob purchased the plot of ground in
which Joseph was afterwards buried (Gen. 33:19). He is called
"Emmor" in Acts 7:16. His son Shechem founded the city of that
name which Simeon and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the
matter of Dinah, Jacob's daughter (Gen. 34:20). Hamor and
Shechem were also slain (ver. 26).
Herod Philip II.
the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was
"tetrarch" of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He
rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own
name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which
was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the
daughter of Herodias (Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27; Luke 3:1).
Jezebel "painted her face" (2 Kings 9:30); and the practice of
painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common (Jer.
4:30; Ezek. 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found in the
name of Job's daughter (42:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in
the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.
held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to
Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to
hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, 19; 4:1-12; 6). His daughter became
the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest,
much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28).
abounding in furrows. (1.) One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were
slain by the men of Judah under Caleb (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14;
(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put
Amnon to death (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah, was
one of David's wives, and the mother of Absalom (1 Chr. 3:2).
In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin
[R.V. marg., 'the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son"
(comp. Luke 1:31-35). The people of the land of Zidon are thus
referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin,
daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah
(18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible
a female bird. Reuel's daughter, who became the wife of Moses
(Ex. 2:21). In consequence of the event recorded in Ex. 4:24-26,
she and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the
way with Moses toward Egypt, were sent back by him to her own
kinsfolk, the Midianites, with whom they sojourned till Moses
afterwards joined them (18:2-6).
father (i.e., "possessor or worshipper") of Jehovah. (1.) 1 Chr.
7:8. (2.) 1 Chr. 2:24.
(3.) The second son of Samuel (1 Sam. 8:2; 1 Chr. 6:28). His
conduct, along with that of his brother, as a judge in
Beer-sheba, to which office his father had appointed him, led to
popular discontent, and ultimately provoked the people to demand
a royal form of government.
(4.) A descendant of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, a chief of one
of the twenty-four orders into which the priesthood was divided
by David (1 Chr. 24:10). The order of Abijah was one of those
which did not return from the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh.
(5.) The son of Rehoboam, whom he succeeded on the throne of
Judah (1 Chr. 3:10). He is also called Abijam (1 Kings 14:31;
15:1-8). He began his three years' reign (2 Chr. 12:16; 13:1,2)
with a strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten
tribes to their allegiance. His address to "Jeroboam and all
Israel," before encountering them in battle, is worthy of being
specially noticed (2 Chr. 13:5-12). It was a very bloody battle,
no fewer than 500,000 of the army of Israel having perished on
the field. He is described as having walked "in all the sins of
his father" (1 Kings 15:3; 2 Chr. 11:20-22). It is said in 1
Kings 15:2 that "his mother's name was Maachah, the daughter of
Abishalom;" but in 2 Chr. 13:2 we read, "his mother's name was
Michaiah, the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah." The explanation is
that Maachah is just a variation of the name Michaiah, and that
Abishalom is probably the same as Absalom, the son of David. It
is probable that "Uriel of Gibeah" married Tamar, the daughter
of Absalom (2 Sam. 14:27), and by her had Maachah. The word
"daughter" in 1 Kings 15:2 will thus, as it frequently elsewhere
does, mean grand-daughter.
(6.) A son of Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. On account
of his severe illness when a youth, his father sent his wife to
consult the prophet Ahijah regarding his recovery. The prophet,
though blind with old age, knew the wife of Jeroboam as soon as
she approached, and under a divine impulse he announced to her
that inasmuch as in Abijah alone of all the house of Jeroboam
there was found "some good thing toward the Lord," he only would
come to his grave in peace. As his mother crossed the threshold
of the door on her return, the youth died, and "all Israel
mourned for him" (1 Kings 14:1-18).
(7.) The daughter of Zechariah (2 Chr. 29:1; comp. Isa. 8:2),
and afterwards the wife of Ahaz. She is also called Abi (2 Kings
(8.) One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr.
7:8). "Abiah," A.V.
ewe, "the daughter", "the somewhat petulant, peevish, and
self-willed though beautiful younger daughter" of Laban, and one
of Jacob's wives (Gen. 29:6, 28). He served Laban fourteen years
for her, so deep was Jacob's affection for her. She was the
mother of Joseph (Gen. 30:22-24). Afterwards, on Jacob's
departure from Mesopotamia, she took with her her father's
teraphim (31:34, 35). As they journeyed on from Bethel, Rachel
died in giving birth to Benjamin (35:18, 19), and was buried "in
the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. And Jacob set a pillar
upon her grave". Her sepulchre is still regarded with great
veneration by the Jews. Its traditional site is about half a
mile from Jerusalem.
This name is used poetically by Jeremiah (31:15-17) to denote
God's people mourning under their calamities. This passage is
also quoted by Matthew as fulfilled in the lamentation at
Bethlehem on account of the slaughter of the infants there at
the command of Herod (Matt. 2:17, 18).
coal; hot stone, the daughter of Aiah, and one of Saul's
concubines. She was the mother of Armoni and Mephibosheth (2
Sam. 3:7; 21:8, 10, 11).
It happened that a grievous famine, which lasted for three
years, fell upon the land during the earlier half of David's
reign at Jerusalem. This calamity was sent "for Saul and for his
bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites." David inquired of
the Gibeonites what satisfaction they demanded, and was answered
that nothing would compensate for the wrong Saul had done to
them but the death of seven of Saul's sons. David accordingly
delivered up to them the two sons of Rizpah and five of the sons
of Merab (q.v.), Saul's eldest daughter, whom she bore to
Adriel. These the Gibeonites put to death, and hung up their
bodies before the Lord at the sanctuary at Gibeah. Rizpah
thereupon took her place on the rock of Gibeah (q.v.), and for
five months watched the suspended bodies of her children, to
prevent them from being devoured by the beasts and birds of
prey, till they were at length taken down and buried by David.
Her marriage to Abner was the occasion of a quarrel between
him and Ishbosheth, which led to Abner's going over to the side
of David (2 Sam. 3:17-21).
grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a
"prophetess," like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah (2 Chr. 34:22).
After seven years of married life her husband died, and during
her long widowhood she daily attended the temple services. When
she was eighty-four years old, she entered the temple at the
moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of
praise and thanks to God that he had fulfilled his ancient
promise in sending his Son into the world (Luke 2:36, 37).
the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea.
His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's
entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of
Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, 20; Mark 6:17; Matt.
14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas.
Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking
advantage of the complications of the times on account of the
death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of
Damascus (2 Cor. 11:32; comp. Acts 9:25). At this time Paul
returned to Damascus from Arabia.
a ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus
restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering into the
chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and
the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed
whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid,
arise," and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her
again, and she arose straightway; and "at once to strengthen
that life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was
indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal
existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" (Mark
lion of God, the first of the judges. His wife Achsah was the
daughter of Caleb (Josh. 15:16, 17; Judg. 1:13). He gained her
hand as a reward for his bravery in leading a successful
expedition against Debir (q.v.). Some thirty years after the
death of Joshua, the Israelites fell under the subjection of
Chushan-rishathaim (q.v.), the king of Mesopotamia. He oppressed
them for full eight years, when they "cried" unto Jehovah, and
Othniel was raised up to be their deliverer. He was the younger
brother of Caleb (Judg. 3:8, 9-11). He is the only judge
mentioned connected with the tribe of Judah. Under him the land
had rest forty years.
"a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation" (Mark 7:26), i.e., a
Gentile born in the Phoenician part of Syria. (See PHENICIA
When our Lord retired into the borderland of Tyre and Sidon
(Matt. 15:21), a Syro-phoenician woman came to him, and
earnestly besought him, in behalf of her daughter, who was
grievously afflicted with a demon. Her faith in him was severely
tested by his silence (Matt. 15:23), refusal (24), and seeming
reproach that it was not meet to cast the children's bread to
dogs (26). But it stood the test, and her petition was
graciously granted, because of the greatness of her faith (28).
hairy, Rebekah's first-born twin son (Gen. 25:25). The name of
Edom, "red", was also given to him from his conduct in
connection with the red lentil "pottage" for which he sold his
birthright (30, 31). The circumstances connected with his birth
foreshadowed the enmity which afterwards subsisted between the
twin brothers and the nations they founded (25:22, 23, 26). In
process of time Jacob, following his natural bent, became a
shepherd; while Esau, a "son of the desert," devoted himself to
the perilous and toilsome life of a huntsman. On a certain
occasion, on returning from the chase, urged by the cravings of
hunger, Esau sold his birthright to his brother, Jacob, who
thereby obtained the covenant blessing (Gen. 27:28, 29, 36; Heb.
12:16, 17). He afterwards tried to regain what he had so
recklessly parted with, but was defeated in his attempts through
the stealth of his brother (Gen. 27:4, 34, 38).
At the age of forty years, to the great grief of his parents,
he married (Gen. 26:34, 35) two Canaanitish maidens, Judith, the
daughter of Beeri, and Bashemath, the daughter of Elon. When
Jacob was sent away to Padan-aram, Esau tried to conciliate his
parents (Gen. 28:8, 9) by marrying his cousin Mahalath, the
daughter of Ishmael. This led him to cast in his lot with the
Ishmaelite tribes; and driving the Horites out of Mount Seir, he
settled in that region. After some thirty years' sojourn in
Padan-aram Jacob returned to Canaan, and was reconciled to Esau,
who went forth to meet him (33:4). Twenty years after this,
Isaac their father died, when the two brothers met, probably for
the last time, beside his grave (35:29). Esau now permanently
left Canaan, and established himself as a powerful and wealthy
chief in the land of Edom (q.v.).
Long after this, when the descendants of Jacob came out of
Egypt, the Edomites remembered the old quarrel between the
brothers, and with fierce hatred they warred against Israel.
house of fish. (1.) A town in Galilee, on the west side of the
sea of Tiberias, in the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native
place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted
to by Jesus (Mark 6:45; John 1:44; 12:21). It is supposed to
have been at the modern 'Ain Tabighah, a bay to the north of
(2.) A city near which Christ fed 5,000 (Luke 9:10; comp. John
6:17; Matt. 14:15-21), and where the blind man had his sight
restored (Mark 8:22), on the east side of the lake, two miles up
the Jordan. It stood within the region of Gaulonitis, and was
enlarged by Philip the tetrarch, who called it "Julias," after
the emperor's daughter. Or, as some have supposed, there may
have been but one Bethsaida built on both sides of the lake,
near where the Jordan enters it. Now the ruins et-Tel.
As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt
(Ezek. 16:4), and then swathed with bandages (Job 38:9; Luke
2:7, 12). A Hebrew mother remained forty days in seclusion after
the birth of a son, and after the birth of a daughter double
that number of days. At the close of that period she entered
into the tabernacle or temple and offered up a sacrifice of
purification (Lev. 12:1-8; Luke 2:22). A son was circumcised on
the eighth day after his birth, being thereby consecrated to God
(Gen. 17:10-12; comp. Rom. 4:11). Seasons of misfortune are
likened to the pains of a woman in travail, and seasons of
prosperity to the joy that succeeds child-birth (Isa. 13:8; Jer.
4:31; John 16:21, 22). The natural birth is referred to as the
emblem of the new birth (John 3:3-8; Gal. 6:15; Titus 3:5,
happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned"
(Acts 24:25). He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and
therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds"
referred to in 24:2 was his clearing the country of banditti and
At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed
in the room of Felix (A.D. 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was
there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews
of Caesarea. The accusation was rendered nugatory by the
influence of his brother Pallas with Nero. (See Josephus, Ant.
xx. 8, 9.)
Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced
by Felix to desert her husband, the king of Emesa, became his
adulterous companion. She was seated beside him when Paul
"reasoned" before the judge. When Felix gave place to Festus,
being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound.
complete; vanishing. (1.) The daughter of Diblaim, who (probably
in vision only) became the wife of Hosea (1:3).
(2.) The eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz,
Riphath, and Togarmah (Gen. 10:2, 3), whose descendants formed
the principal branch of the population of South-eastern Europe.
He is generally regarded as the ancestor of the Celtae and the
Cimmerii, who in early times settled to the north of the Black
Sea, and gave their name to the Crimea, the ancient Chersonesus
Taurica. Traces of their presence are found in the names
Cimmerian Bosphorus, Cimmerian Isthmus, etc. In the seventh
century B.C. they were driven out of their original seat by the
Scythians, and overran western Asia Minor, whence they were
afterwards expelled. They subsequently reappear in the times of
the Romans as the Cimbri of the north and west of Europe, whence
they crossed to the British Isles, where their descendants are
still found in the Gaels and Cymry. Thus the whole Celtic race
may be regarded as descended from Gomer.
Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah, who was one of
David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).
(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of
the throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the
daughter of king Jehoram (2 Chr. 22:11), and took an active part
along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash
when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah.
The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his
ancestors are described in 2 Kings 11:2; 12:2; 2 Chr. 22:11;
23:24. He was among the foremost of the benefactors of the
kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of David among
the kings of Judah (2 Chr. 24:15, 16). He is said to have been
one hundred and thirty years old.
the Black Fortress, was built by Herod the Great in the gorge of
Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, as a
frontier rampart against Arab marauders. John the Baptist was
probably cast into the prison connected with this castle by
Herod Antipas, whom he had reproved for his adulterous marriage
with Herodias. Here Herod "made a supper" on his birthday. He
was at this time marching against Aretas, king of Perea, to
whose daughter he had been married. During the revelry of the
banquet held in the border fortress, to please Salome, who
danced before him, he sent an executioner, who beheaded John,
and "brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel"
(Mark 6:14-29). This castle stood "starkly bold and clear" 3,860
feet above the Dead Sea, and 2,546 above the Mediterranean. Its
ruins, now called M'khaur, are still visible on the northern end
of Jebel Attarus.
a noose, the daughter of Bethuel, and the wife of Isaac (Gen.
22:23; 24:67). The circumstances under which Abraham's "steward"
found her at the "city of Nahor," in Padan-aram, are narrated in
Gen. 24-27. "She can hardly be regarded as an amiable woman.
When we first see her she is ready to leave her father's house
for ever at an hour's notice; and her future life showed not
only a full share of her brother Laban's duplicity, but the
grave fault of partiality in her relations to her children, and
a strong will, which soon controlled the gentler nature of her
husband." The time and circumstances of her death are not
recorded, but it is said that she was buried in the cave of
Machpelah (Gen. 49:31).
Ruth The Book of
was originally a part of the Book of Judges, but it now forms
one of the twenty-four separate books of the Hebrew Bible.
The history it contains refers to a period perhaps about one
hundred and twenty-six years before the birth of David. It gives
(1) an account of Naomi's going to Moab with her husband,
Elimelech, and of her subsequent return to Bethlehem with her
daughter-in-law; (2) the marriage of Boaz and Ruth; and (3) the
birth of Obed, of whom David sprang.
The author of this book was probably Samuel, according to
"Brief as this book is, and simple as is its story, it is
remarkably rich in examples of faith, patience, industry, and
kindness, nor less so in indications of the care which God takes
of those who put their trust in him."
the wanderer; loiterer, for some unknown reason emigrated with
his family from his native mountains in the north to the plains
of Mesopotamia. He had three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abraham,
and one daughter, Sarah. He settled in "Ur of the Chaldees,"
where his son Haran died, leaving behind him his son Lot. Nahor
settled at Haran, a place on the way to Ur. Terah afterwards
migrated with Abraham (probably his youngest son) and Lot (his
grandson), together with their families, from Ur, intending to
go with them to Canaan; but he tarried at Haran, where he spent
the remainder of his days, and died at the age of two hundred
and five years (Gen. 11:24-32; Josh. 24:2). What a wonderful
part the descendants of this Chaldean shepherd have played in
the history of the world!
the queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her
name. She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when
she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she
henceforth became known (Esther 2:7). It is a Syro-Arabian
modification of the Persian word satarah, which means a star.
She was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite. Her family did not
avail themselves of the permission granted by Cyrus to the
exiles to return to Jerusalem; and she resided with her cousin
Mordecai, who held some office in the household of the Persian
king at "Shushan in the palace." Ahasuerus having divorced
Vashti, chose Esther to be his wife. Soon after this he gave
Haman the Agagite, his prime minister, power and authority to
kill and extirpate all the Jews throughout the Persian empire.
By the interposition of Esther this terrible catastrophe was
averted. Haman was hanged on the gallows he had intended for
Mordecai (Esther 7); and the Jews established an annual feast,
the feast of Purim (q.v.), in memory of their wonderful
deliverance. This took place about fifty-two years after the
Return, the year of the great battles of Plataea and Mycale
Esther appears in the Bible as a "woman of deep piety, faith,
courage, patriotism, and caution, combined with resolution; a
dutiful daughter to her adopted father, docile and obedient to
his counsels, and anxious to share the king's favour with him
for the good of the Jewish people. There must have been a
singular grace and charm in her aspect and manners, since 'she
obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her'
(Esther 2:15). That she was raised up as an instrument in the
hand of God to avert the destruction of the Jewish people, and
to afford them protection and forward their wealth and peace in
their captivity, is also manifest from the Scripture account."
Nergal, protect the king! (1.) One of the "princes of the king
of Babylon who accompanied him in his last expedition against
Jerusalem" (Jer. 39:3, 13).
(2.) Another of the "princes," who bore the title of "Rabmag."
He was one of those who were sent to release Jeremiah from
prison (Jer. 39:13) by "the captain of the guard." He was a
Babylonian grandee of high rank. From profane history and the
inscriptions, we are led to conclude that he was the Neriglissar
who murdered Evil-merodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar, and
succeeded him on the throne of Babylon (B.C. 559-556). He was
married to a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar. The ruins of a palace,
the only one on the right bank of the Euphrates, bear
inscriptions denoting that it was built by this king. He was
succeeded by his son, a mere boy, who was murdered after a reign
of some nine months by a conspiracy of the nobles, one of whom,
Nabonadius, ascended the vacant throne, and reigned for a period
of seventeen years (B.C. 555-538), at the close of which period
Babylon was taken by Cyrus. Belshazzar, who comes into notice in
connection with the taking of Babylon, was by some supposed to
have been the same as Nabonadius, who was called
Nebuchadnezzar's son (Dan. 5:11, 18, 22), because he had married
his daughter. But it is known from the inscriptions that
Nabonadius had a son called Belshazzar, who may have been his
father's associate on the throne at the time of the fall of
Babylon, and who therefore would be the grandson of
Nebuchadnezzar. The Jews had only one word, usually rendered
"father," to represent also such a relationship as that of
"grandfather" or "great-grandfather."
perfect. (1.) The wife of Zebedee and mother of James and John
(Mat. 27:56), and probably the sister of Mary, the mother of our
Lord (John 19:25). She sought for her sons places of honour in
Christ's kingdom (Matt. 20:20, 21; comp. 19:28). She witnessed
the crucifixion (Mark 15:40), and was present with the other
women at the sepulchre (Matt. 27:56).
(2.) "The daughter of Herodias," not named in the New
Testament. On the occasion of the birthday festival held by
Herod Antipas, who had married her mother Herodias, in the
fortress of Machaerus, she "came in and danced, and pleased
Herod" (Mark 6:14-29). John the Baptist, at that time a prisoner
in the dungeons underneath the castle, was at her request
beheaded by order of Herod, and his head given to the damsel in
a charger, "and the damsel gave it to her mother," whose
revengeful spirit was thus gratified. "A luxurious feast of the
period" (says Farrar, Life of Christ) "was not regarded as
complete unless it closed with some gross pantomimic
representation; and doubtless Herod had adopted the evil fashion
of his day. But he had not anticipated for his guests the rare
luxury of seeing a princess, his own niece, a grand-daughter of
Herod the Great and of Mariamne, a descendant, therefore, of
Simon the high priest and the great line of Maccabean princes, a
princess who afterwards became the wife of a tetrarch [Philip,
tetrarch of Trachonitis] and the mother of a king, honouring
them by degrading herself into a scenic dancer."
the giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son
who is not a son by birth.
(1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Ex.
2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7).
(2.) National. God adopted Israel (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos.
11:1; Rom. 9:4).
(3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men
into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers
of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption
represents the new relations into which the believer is
introduced by justification, and the privileges connected
therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (John 17:23;
Rom. 5:5-8), a spiritual nature (2 Pet. 1:4; John 1:13), the
possession of a spirit becoming children of God (1 Pet. 1:14; 2
John 4; Rom. 8:15-21; Gal. 5:1; Heb. 2:15), present protection,
consolation, supplies (Luke 12:27-32; John 14:18; 1 Cor.
3:21-23; 2 Cor. 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb. 12:5-11), and
a future glorious inheritance (Rom. 8:17,23; James 2:5; Phil.
was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married
the daughter of Annas (John 18:13), was raised to that office,
and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or
deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called
high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law
the high-priesthood was held for life (Num. 3:10); and although
Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may
still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was
first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him
(John 18:19-23) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the
Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place
(Matt. 26:57-68). This examination of our Lord before Annas is
recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim
before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6).
the Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our
Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and
also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt.
26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13, 14). He held this office during the
whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of
Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the
vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of
the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), and was a member of the council when
he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death "for the
people, and that the whole nation perish not" (John 11:50). In
these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like Saul, he
was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to
inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to
Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the
sentence against him (Matt. 27:2; John 18:28). At a later period
his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See
light; the sun, (Gen. 41:45, 50), the great seat of sun-worship,
called also Bethshemesh (Jer. 43:13) and Aven (Ezek. 30:17),
stood on the east bank of the Nile, a few miles north of
Memphis, and near Cairo, in the north-east. The Vulgate and the
LXX. Versions have "Heliopolis" ("city of the sun") instead of
On in Genesis and of Aven in Ezekiel. The "city of destruction"
Isaiah speaks of (19:18, marg. "of Heres;" Heb. 'Ir-ha-heres,
which some MSS. read Ir-ha-heres, i.e., "city of the sun") may
be the name given to On, the prophecy being that the time will
come when that city which was known as the "city of the sun-god"
shall become the "city of destruction" of the sun-god, i.e.,
when idolatry shall cease, and the worship of the true God be
In ancient times this city was full of obelisks dedicated to
the sun. Of these only one now remains standing. "Cleopatra's
Needle" was one of those which stood in this city in front of
the Temple of Tum, i.e., "the sun." It is now erected on the
Thames Embankment, London.
"It was at On that Joseph wooed and won the dark-skinned
Asenath, the daughter of the high priest of its great temple."
This was a noted university town, and here Moses gained his
acquaintance with "all the wisdom of the Egyptians."
a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father,
Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab. On the death of
Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law,
who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which
Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to
whom Ruth was eventually married. She became the mother of Obed,
the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the
maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5). The story of "the
gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good
Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of
transferring property from one person to another, the working of
the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families;
but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love,
the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen
race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38:29; Matt. 1:3)
and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the
ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'"
Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his
father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over
Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 26:25).
(3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people
in Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).
(4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother
Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C.
896-884 (2 Kings 1:17; 3:1). His first work was to reduce to
subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their independence in
the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted
Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the
king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated army (2
Kings 3:1-19), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged
the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory.
The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and
their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final
stand. The Israelites refrained from pressing their victory
further, and returned to their own land.
Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke
out between the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way
brought that war to a bloodless close (2 Kings 6:23). But
Jehoram, becoming confident in his own power, sank into
idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another Syrian
invasion, which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria
(2 Kings 6:24-33). By a remarkable providential interposition
the city was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were
put to flight (2 Kings 7:6-15).
Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and
obliged to return to Jezreel (2 Kings 8:29; 9:14, 15), and soon
after the army proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and
revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram (2 Kings 9). Jehoram
was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the piece of ground
at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died
(2 Kings 9:21-29).
(5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of
Judah. He reigned eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of
Judah, having been previously for some years associated with his
father (2 Chr. 21:5, 20; 2 Kings 8:16). His wife was Athaliah,
the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was
married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross
idolatry, and brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger of
Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the
Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and
carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his
children, except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful
malady, and was refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings (2
Kings 8:16-24; 2 Chr. 21).
Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Dan.
5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the
daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer.
When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his
lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his
"father" (Dan. 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried
away from the temple in Jerusalem, and he and his princes drank
out of them. In the midst of their mad revelry a hand was seen
by the king tracing on the wall the announcement of God's
judgment, which that night fell upon him. At the instance of the
queen (i.e., his mother) Daniel was brought in, and he
interpreted the writing. That night the kingdom of the Chaldeans
came to an end, and the king was slain (Dan. 5:30). (See
The absence of the name of Belshazzar on the monuments was
long regarded as an argument against the genuineness of the Book
of Daniel. In 1854 Sir Henry Rawlinson found an inscription of
Nabonidus which referred to his eldest son. Quite recently,
however, the side of a ravine undermined by heavy rains fell at
Hillah, a suburb of Babylon. A number of huge, coarse
earthenware vases were laid bare. These were filled with
tablets, the receipts and contracts of a firm of Babylonian
bankers, which showed that Belshazzar had a household, with
secretaries and stewards. One was dated in the third year of the
king Marduk-sar-uzur. As Marduk-sar-uzar was another name for
Baal, this Marduk-sar-uzur was found to be the Belshazzar of
Scripture. In one of these contract tablets, dated in the July
after the defeat of the army of Nabonidus, we find him paying
tithes for his sister to the temple of the sun-god at Sippara.
found in Judg. 21:21, 23; Ps. 30:11; 149:3; 150:4; Jer. 31:4,
13, etc., as the translation of _hul_, which points to the
whirling motion of Oriental sacred dances. It is the rendering
of a word (rakad') which means to skip or leap for joy, in Eccl.
3:4; Job 21:11; Isa. 13:21, etc.
In the New Testament it is in like manner the translation of
different Greek words, circular motion (Luke 15:25); leaping up
and down in concert (Matt. 11:17), and by a single person (Matt.
It is spoken of as symbolical of rejoicing (Eccl. 3:4. Comp.
Ps. 30:11; Matt. 11: 17). The Hebrews had their sacred dances
expressive of joy and thanksgiving, when the performers were
usually females (Ex. 15:20; 1 Sam. 18:6).
The ancient dance was very different from that common among
Western nations. It was usually the part of the women only (Ex.
15:20; Judg. 11:34; comp. 5:1). Hence the peculiarity of David's
conduct in dancing before the ark of the Lord (2 Sam. 6:14). The
women took part in it with their timbrels. Michal should, in
accordance with the example of Miriam and others, have herself
led the female choir, instead of keeping aloof on the occasion
and "looking through the window." David led the choir
"uncovered", i.e., wearing only the ephod or linen tunic. He
thought only of the honour of God, and forgot himself.
From being reserved for occasions of religious worship and
festivity, it came gradually to be practised in common life on
occasions of rejoicing (Jer. 31:4). The sexes among the Jews
always danced separately. The daughter of Herodias danced alone
oracle town; sanctuary. (1.) One of the eleven cities to the
west of Hebron, in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:49; Judg.
1:11-15). It was originally one of the towns of the Anakim
(Josh. 15:15), and was also called Kirjath-sepher (q.v.) and
Kirjath-sannah (49). Caleb, who had conquered and taken
possession of the town and district of Hebron (Josh. 14:6-15),
offered the hand of his daughter to any one who would
successfully lead a party against Debir. Othniel, his younger
brother (Judg. 1:13; 3:9), achieved the conquest, and gained
Achsah as his wife. She was not satisfied with the portion her
father gave her, and as she was proceeding toward her new home,
she "lighted from off her ass" and said to him, "Give me a
blessing [i.e., a dowry]: for thou hast given me a south land"
(Josh. 15:19, A.V.); or, as in the Revised Version, "Thou hast
set me in the land of the south", i.e., in the Negeb, outside
the rich valley of Hebron, in the dry and barren land. "Give me
also springs of water. And he gave her the upper springs, and
the nether springs."
Debir has been identified with the modern Edh-Dhaheriyeh,
i.e., "the well on the ridge", to the south of Hebron.
(2.) A place near the "valley of Achor" (Josh. 15:7), on the
north boundary of Judah, between Jerusalem and Jericho.
(3.) The king of Eglon, one of the five Canaanitish kings who
were hanged by Joshua (Josh. 10:3, 23) after the victory at
Gibeon. These kings fled and took refuge in a cave at Makkedah.
Here they were kept confined till Joshua returned from the
pursuit of their discomfited armies, when he caused them to be
brought forth, and "Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged
them on five trees" (26).
(1.) The son of Zebedee and Salome; an elder brother of John the
apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman,
in partnership with Peter (Matt. 20:20; 27:56). With John and
Peter he was present at the transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark
9:2), at the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37-43), and in
the garden with our Lord (14:33). Because, probably, of their
boldness and energy, he and John were called Boanerges, i.e.,
"sons of thunder." He was the first martyr among the apostles,
having been beheaded by King Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:1, 2), A.D.
44. (Comp. Matt. 4:21; 20:20-23).
(2.) The son of Alphaeus, or Cleopas, "the brother" or near
kinsman or cousin of our Lord (Gal. 1:18, 19), called James "the
Less," or "the Little," probably because he was of low stature.
He is mentioned along with the other apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark
3:18; Luke 6:15). He had a separate interview with our Lord
after his resurrection (1 Cor. 15:7), and is mentioned as one of
the apostles of the circumcision (Acts 1:13). He appears to have
occupied the position of head of the Church at Jerusalem, where
he presided at the council held to consider the case of the
Gentiles (Acts 12:17; 15:13-29: 21:18-24). This James was the
author of the epistle which bears his name.
chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and
the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This was
the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by
marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this
case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her
name on history as the representative of all that is designing,
crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great
instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by
no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man,
passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared
no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour.
Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to
Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V.,
'prophets of the Asherah'], which ate at her table (1 Kings
18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual
kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the
kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came
to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she
looked out at the window of the palace, and said, "Had Zimri
peace, who slew his master?" He looked up and called to her
chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that
she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her
under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of
the street (2 Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the
Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).
Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a
wicked woman (Rev. 2: 20).
It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt
of Dido, the founder of Carthage.
exterminator of shame; i.e., of idols. (1.) The name of Saul's
son by the concubine Rizpah (q.v.), the daughter of Aiah. He and
his brother Armoni were with five others "hanged on a hill
before the Lord" by the Gibeonites, and their bodies exposed in
the sun for five months (2 Sam. 21:8-10). (2.) The son of
Jonathan, and grandson of Saul (2 Sam. 4:4). He was but five
years old when his father and grandfather fell on Mount Gilboa.
The child's nurse hearing of this calamity, fled with him from
Gibeah, the royal residence, and stumbling in her haste, the
child was thrown to the ground and maimed in both his feet, and
ever after was unable to walk (19:26). He was carried to the
land of Gilead, where he found a refuge in the house of Machir,
the son of Ammiel, at Lo-debar, by whom he was brought up.
Some years after this, when David had subdued all the
adversaries of Israel, he began to think of the family of
Jonathan, and discovered that Mephibosheth was residing in the
house of Machir. Thither he sent royal messengers, and brought
him and his infant son to Jerusalem, where he ever afterwards
resided (2 Sam. 9).
When David was a fugitive, according to the story of Ziba (2
Sam. 16:1-4) Mephibosheth proved unfaithful to him, and was
consequently deprived of half of his estates; but according to
his own story, however (19:24-30), he had remained loyal to his
friend. After this incident he is only mentioned as having been
protected by David against the vengeance the Gibeonites were
permitted to execute on the house of Saul (21:7). He is also
called Merib-baal (1 Chr. 8:34; 9:40). (See ZIBA ¯T0003919.)
the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. It has been alleged
that he was carried into captivity with Jeconiah, and hence that
he must have been at least one hundred and twenty-nine years old
in the twelfth year of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). But the words of
Esther do not necessarily lead to this conclusion. It was
probably Kish of whom it is said (ver. 6) that he "had been
carried away with the captivity."
He resided at Susa, the metropolis of Persia. He adopted his
cousin Hadassah (Esther), an orphan child, whom he tenderly
brought up as his own daughter. When she was brought into the
king's harem and made queen in the room of the deposed queen
Vashti, he was promoted to some office in the court of
Ahasuerus, and was one of those who "sat in the king's gate"
(Esther 2:21). While holding this office, he discovered a plot
of the eunuchs to put the king to death, which, by his
vigilance, was defeated. His services to the king in this matter
were duly recorded in the royal chronicles.
Haman (q.v.) the Agagite had been raised to the highest
position at court. Mordecai refused to bow down before him; and
Haman, being stung to the quick by the conduct of Mordecai,
resolved to accomplish his death in a wholesale destruction of
the Jewish exiles throughout the Persian empire (Esther 3:8-15).
Tidings of this cruel scheme soon reached the ears of Mordecai,
who communicated with Queen Esther regarding it, and by her wise
and bold intervention the scheme was frustrated. The Jews were
delivered from destruction, Mordecai was raised to a high rank,
and Haman was executed on the gallows he had by anticipation
erected for Mordecai (6:2-7:10). In memory of the signal
deliverance thus wrought for them, the Jews to this day
celebrate the feast (9:26-32) of Purim (q.v.).
givers of prosperity, idols in human shape, large or small,
analogous to the images of ancestors which were revered by the
Romans. In order to deceive the guards sent by Saul to seize
David, Michal his wife prepared one of the household teraphim,
putting on it the goat's-hair cap worn by sleepers and invalids,
and laid it in a bed, covering it with a mantle. She pointed it
out to the soldiers, and alleged that David was confined to his
bed by a sudden illness (1 Sam. 19:13-16). Thus she gained time
for David's escape. It seems strange to read of teraphim, images
of ancestors, preserved for superstitious purposes, being in the
house of David. Probably they had been stealthily brought by
Michal from her father's house. "Perhaps," says Bishop
Wordsworth, "Saul, forsaken by God and possessed by the evil
spirit, had resorted to teraphim (as he afterwards resorted to
witchcraft); and God overruled evil for good, and made his very
teraphim (by the hand of his own daughter) to be an instrument
for David's escape.", Deane's David, p. 32. Josiah attempted to
suppress this form of idolatry (2 Kings 23:24). The ephod and
teraphim are mentioned together in Hos. 3:4. It has been
supposed by some (Cheyne's Hosea) that the "ephod" here
mentioned, and also in Judg. 8:24-27, was not the part of the
sacerdotal dress so called (Ex. 28:6-14), but an image of
Jehovah overlaid with gold or silver (comp. Judg. 17, 18; 1 Sam.
21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7, 8), and is thus associated with the
teraphim. (See THUMMIM ¯T0003648.)
a fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles
north of Tyre. It received its name from the "first-born" of
Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:15, 19). It was the first
home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Israel, and from its
extensive commercial relations became a "great" city (Josh.
11:8; 19:28). It was the mother city of Tyre. It lay within the
lot of the tribe of Asher, but was never subdued (Judg. 1:31).
The Zidonians long oppressed Israel (Judg. 10:12). From the time
of David its glory began to wane, and Tyre, its "virgin
daughter" (Isa. 23:12), rose to its place of pre-eminence.
Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with the Zidonians,
and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the
land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). This city was famous for its
manufactures and arts, as well as for its commerce (1 Kings 5:6;
1 Chr. 22:4; Ezek. 27:8). It is frequently referred to by the
prophets (Isa. 23:2, 4, 12; Jer. 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezek. 27:8;
28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). Our Lord visited the "coasts" of
Tyre and Zidon = Sidon (q.v.), Matt. 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke
4:26; and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching
(Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). From Sidon, at which the ship put in
after leaving Caesarea, Paul finally sailed for Rome (Acts 27:3,
This city is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants, with remains of
walls built in the twelfth century A.D. In 1855, the sarcophagus
of Eshmanezer was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on
its lid, it appears that he was a "king of the Sidonians,"
probably in the third century B.C., and that his mother was a
priestess of Ashtoreth, "the goddess of the Sidonians." In this
inscription Baal is mentioned as the chief god of the Sidonians.
God has helped. (1.) The third son of Aaron (Ex. 6:23). His
wife, a daughter of Putiel, bore him Phinehas (Ex. 6:25). After
the death of Nadab and Abihu (Lev. 10:12; Num. 3:4) he was
appointed to the charge of the sanctuary (Num. 3:32). On Mount
Hor he was clothed with the sacred vestments, which Moses took
from off his brother Aaron and put upon him as successor to his
father in the high priest's office, which he held for more than
twenty years (Num. 20:25-29). He took part with Moses in
numbering the people (26:3, 4), and assisted at the inauguration
of Joshua. He assisted in the distribution of the land after the
conquest (Josh. 14:1). The high-priesthood remained in his
family till the time of Eli, into whose family it passed, till
it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok
(1 Sam. 2:35; comp. 1 Kings 2:27). "And Eleazar the son of Aaron
died; and they buried him in a hill that pertained to Phinehas
his son" (Josh. 24:33). The word here rendered "hill" is Gibeah,
the name of several towns in Israel which were generally on
or near a hill. The words may be more suitably rendered, "They
buried him in Gibeah of Phinehas", i.e., in the city of
Phinehas, which has been identified, in accordance with Jewish
and Samaritan traditions, with Kefr Ghuweirah='Awertah, about 7
miles north of Shiloh, and a few miles south-east of Nablus.
"His tomb is still shown there, overshadowed by venerable
terebinths." Others, however, have identified it with the
village of Gaba or Gebena of Eusebius, the modern Khurbet Jibia,
5 miles north of Guphna towards Nablus.
(2.) An inhabitant of Kirjath-jearim who was "sanctified" to
take charge of the ark, although not allowed to touch it, while
it remained in the house of his father Abinadab (1 Sam. 7:1, 2;
comp. Num. 3:31; 4:15).
(3.) The son of Dodo the Ahohite, of the tribe of Benjamin,
one of the three most eminent of David's thirty-seven heroes (1
Chr. 11:12) who broke through the Philistine host and brought
him water from the well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:9, 16).
(4.) A son of Phinehas associated with the priests in taking
charge of the sacred vessels brought back to Jerusalem after the
Exile (Ezra 8:33).
(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21, 22).
or Miz'peh, watch-tower; the look-out. (1.) A place in Gilead,
so named by Laban, who overtook Jacob at this spot (Gen. 31:49)
on his return to Israel from Padan-aram. Here Jacob and Laban
set up their memorial cairn of stones. It is the same as
Ramath-mizpeh (Josh. 13:26).
(2.) A town in Gilead, where Jephthah resided, and where he
assumed the command of the Israelites in a time of national
danger. Here he made his rash vow; and here his daughter
submitted to her mysterious fate (Judg. 10:17; 11:11, 34). It
may be the same as Ramoth-Gilead (Josh. 20:8), but it is more
likely that it is identical with the foregoing, the Mizpeh of
Gen. 31:23, 25, 48, 49.
(3.) Another place in Gilead, at the foot of Mount Hermon,
inhabited by Hivites (Josh. 11:3, 8). The name in Hebrew here
has the article before it, "the Mizpeh," "the watch-tower." The
modern village of Metullah, meaning also "the look-out,"
probably occupies the site so called.
(4.) A town of Moab to which David removed his parents for
safety during his persecution by Saul (1 Sam. 22:3). This was
probably the citadel known as Kir-Moab, now Kerak. While David
resided here he was visited by the prophet Gad, here mentioned
for the first time, who was probably sent by Samuel to bid him
leave the land of Moab and betake himself to the land of Judah.
He accordingly removed to the forest of Hareth (q.v.), on the
edge of the mountain chain of Hebron.
(5.) A city of Benjamin, "the watch-tower", where the people
were accustomed to meet in great national emergencies (Josh.
18:26; Judg. 20:1, 3; 21:1, 5; 1 Sam. 7:5-16). It has been
supposed to be the same as Nob (1 Sam. 21:1; 22:9-19). It was
some 4 miles north-west of Jerusalem, and was situated on the
loftiest hill in the neighbourhood, some 600 feet above the
plain of Gibeon. This village has the modern name of Neby
Samwil, i.e., the prophet Samuel, from a tradition that Samuel's
tomb is here. (See NOB ¯T0002742.)
Samuel inaugurated the reformation that characterized his time
by convening a great assembly of all Israel at Mizpeh, now the
politico-religious centre of the nation. There, in deep
humiliation on account of their sins, they renewed their vows
and entered again into covenant with the God of their fathers.
It was a period of great religious awakening and of revived
national life. The Philistines heard of this assembly, and came
up against Israel. The Hebrews charged the Philistine host with
great fury, and they were totally routed. Samuel commemorated
this signal victory by erecting a memorial-stone, which he
called "Ebenezer" (q.v.), saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped
us" (1 Sam. 7:7-12).
(1.) Heb. bath-haya'anah, "daughter of greediness" or of
"shouting." In the list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:16; Deut.
14:15); also mentioned in Job 30:29; Isa. 13:21; 34:13; 43:20;
Jer. 50:39; Micah 1:8. In all these passages the Revised Version
translates "ostrich" (q.v.), which is the correct rendering.
(2.) Heb. yanshuph, rendered "great owl" in Lev. 11:17; Deut.
14:16, and "owl" in Isa. 34:11. This is supposed to be the
Egyptian eagle-owl (Bubo ascalaphus), which takes the place of
the eagle-owl (Bubo maximus) found in Southern Europe. It is
found frequenting the ruins of Egypt and also of the Holy Land.
"Its cry is a loud, prolonged, and very powerful hoot. I know
nothing which more vividly brought to my mind the sense of
desolation and loneliness than the re-echoing hoot of two or
three of these great owls as I stood at midnight among the
ruined temples of Baalbek" (Tristram).
The LXX. and Vulgate render this word by "ibis", i.e., the
(3.) Heb. kos, rendered "little owl" in Lev. 11:17; Deut.
14:16, and "owl" in Ps. 102:6. The Arabs call this bird "the
mother of ruins." It is by far the most common of all the owls
of Israel. It is the Athene persica, the bird of Minerva, the
symbol of ancient Athens.
(4.) Heb. kippoz, the "great owl" (Isa. 34:15); Revised
Version, "arrow-snake;" LXX. and Vulgate, "hedgehog," reading in
the text, kippod, instead of kippoz. There is no reason to doubt
the correctness of the rendering of the Authorized Version.
Tristram says: "The word [i.e., kippoz] is very possibly an
imitation of the cry of the scops owl (Scops giu), which is very
common among ruins, caves, and old walls of towns...It is a
migrant, returning to Israel in spring."
(5.) Heb. lilith, "screech owl" (Isa. 34:14, marg. and R.V.,
"night monster"). The Hebrew word is from a root signifying
"night." Some species of the owl is obviously intended by this
word. It may be the hooting or tawny owl (Syrnium aluco), which
is common in Egypt and in many parts of Israel. This verse in
Isaiah is "descriptive of utter and perpetual desolation, of a
land that should be full of ruins, and inhabited by the animals
that usually make such ruins their abode."
righteousness of Jehovah. (1.) The last king of Judah. He was
the third son of Josiah, and his mother's name was Hamutal, the
daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, and hence he was the brother of
Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31; 24:17, 18). His original name was
Mattaniah; but when Nebuchadnezzar placed him on the throne as
the successor to Jehoiachin he changed his name to Zedekiah. The
prophet Jeremiah was his counsellor, yet "he did evil in the
sight of the Lord" (2 Kings 24:19, 20; Jer. 52:2, 3). He
ascended the throne at the age of twenty-one years. The kingdom
was at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar; but, despite the
strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, as well as the
example of Jehoiachin, he threw off the yoke of Babylon, and
entered into an alliance with Hophra, king of Egypt. This
brought up Nebuchadnezzar, "with all his host" (2 King 25:1),
against Jerusalem. During this siege, which lasted about
eighteen months, "every worst woe befell the devoted city, which
drank the cup of God's fury to the dregs" (2 Kings 25:3; Lam.
4:4, 5, 10). The city was plundered and laid in ruins. Zedekiah
and his followers, attempting to escape, were made captive and
taken to Riblah. There, after seeing his own children put to
death, his own eyes were put out, and, being loaded with chains,
he was carried captive (B.C. 588) to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7; 2
Chr. 36:12; Jer. 32:4,5; 34:2, 3; 39:1-7; 52:4-11; Ezek. 12:12),
where he remained a prisoner, how long is unknown, to the day of
After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaraddan was sent to carry
out its complete destruction. The city was razed to the ground.
Only a small number of vinedressers and husbandmen were
permitted to remain in the land (Jer. 52:16). Gedaliah, with a
Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah, ruled over Judah (2 Kings
25:22, 24; jer. 40:1, 2, 5, 6).
(2.) The son of Chenaanah, a false prophet in the days of Ahab
(1 Kings 22:11, 24; 2 Chr. 18:10, 23).
(3.) The son of Hananiah, a prince of Judah in the days of
Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:12).
drawn (or Egypt. mesu, "son;" hence Rameses, royal son). On the
invitation of Pharaoh (Gen. 45:17-25), Jacob and his sons went
down into Egypt. This immigration took place probably about 350
years before the birth of Moses. Some centuries before Joseph,
Egypt had been conquered by a pastoral Semitic race from Asia,
the Hyksos, who brought into cruel subjection the native
Egyptians, who were an African race. Jacob and his retinue were
accustomed to a shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt
were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the
"best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos
or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his
family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis).
Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly"
(Gen. 47:27), and extended to the west and south. At length the
supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end. The descendants of Jacob
were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed,
but after the death of Joseph their position was not so
favourable. The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period
of their "affliction" (Gen. 15:13) commenced. They were sorely
oppressed. They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and
"the land was filled with them" (Ex. 1:7). The native Egyptians
regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship
of a struggle for existence.
In process of time "a king [probably Seti I.] arose who knew
not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8). (See PHARAOH ¯T0002923.) The
circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it
necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them,
and by degrees reducing their number. They were accordingly made
public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous
buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples,
and palaces. The children of Israel were made to serve with
rigour. Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all
their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour"
(Ex. 1:13, 14). But this cruel oppression had not the result
expected of reducing their number. On the contrary, "the more
the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew"
The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the
guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the
Hebrew male children that might be born. But the king's wish was
not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the
midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever. Thus
baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the
people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting
them into the river (Ex. 1:22). But neither by this edict was
the king's purpose effected.
One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of
the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of
the Kohathites (Ex. 6:16-20), who with his wife Jochebed and two
children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and
Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the
capital city of that time. In this quiet home a male child was
born (B.C. 1571). His mother concealed him in the house for
three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities. But
when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed
contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of
the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she
laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the
spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe. Her
plan was successful. The king's daughter "saw the child; and
behold the child wept." The princess (see PHARAOH'S DAUGHTER
¯T0002924 ) sent Miriam, who was standing by, to fetch a
nurse. She went and brought the mother of the child, to whom the
princess said, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I
will give thee thy wages." Thus Jochebed's child, whom the
princess called "Moses", i.e., "Saved from the water" (Ex.
2:10), was ultimately restored to her.
As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he
was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal
palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the
princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still
for him. He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the
Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant
fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance
as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren."
His education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he
would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body
and his mind. He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of
the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22). Egypt had then two chief seats of
learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of
Heliopolis, his education was completed. Moses, being now about
twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into
prominence in Bible history. These twenty years were probably
spent in military service. There is a tradition recorded by
Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged
between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a
skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" (Acts 7:22).
After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned
to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected
to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth. But "beneath
the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate
luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in
the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from
childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret
discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his
Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to
forget, that he was a Hebrew." He now resolved to make himself
acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out
unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" (Ex. 2:11).
This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and
bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail
to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding
them. The time had arrived for his making common cause with
them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage.
He made his choice accordingly (Heb. 11:25-27), assured that God
would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people. He now
left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in
his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for
forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the
He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around
him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was
roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew. He
rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his
body in the sand. Next day he went out again and found two
Hebrews striving together. He speedily found that the deed of
the previous day was known. It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the
"great Rameses," Rameses II.), who "sought to slay Moses" (Ex.
2:15). Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself
to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of
Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty
years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai. He was
providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel,
where he remained for forty years (Acts 7:30), under training
unconsciously for his great life's work.
Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning
bush (Ex. 3), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and
"bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage. He was at
first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the
heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian (4:18-26). On the
way he was met by Aaron (q.v.) and the elders of Israel (27-31).
He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with
them (ch. 7-12), and the ransomed host went forth in triumph.
(See EXODUS ¯T0001283.) After an eventful journey to and fro in
the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of
Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land.
There Moses addressed the assembled elders (Deut. 1:1-4;
5:1-26:19; 27:11-30:20), and gives the people his last counsels,
and then rehearses the great song (Deut. 32), clothing in
fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and
in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had
acted so conspicious a part. Then, after blessing the tribes
(33), he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo (q.v.), to the top of
Pisgah, that is over against Jericho" (34:1), and from thence he
surveys the land. "Jehovah shewed him all the land of Gilead,
unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and
Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and
the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of
palm trees, unto Zoar" (Deut. 34:2-3), the magnificient
inheritance of the tribes of whom he had been so long the
leader; and there he died, being one hundred and twenty years
old, according to the word of the Lord, and was buried by the
Lord "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor"
(34:6). The people mourned for him during thirty days.
Thus died "Moses the man of God" (Deut. 33:1; Josh. 14:6). He
was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness,
and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible." "There arose
not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord
knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the
Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all
his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand,
and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of
all Israel" (Deut. 34:10-12).
The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets
as the chief of the prophets.
In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative
of the law and as a type of Christ (John 1:17; 2 Cor. 3:13-18;
Heb. 3:5, 6). Moses is the only character in the Old Testament
to whom Christ likens himself (John 5:46; comp. Deut. 18:15, 18,
19; Acts 7:37). In Heb. 3:1-19 this likeness to Moses is set
forth in various particulars.
In Jude 1:9 mention is made of a contention between Michael
and the devil about the body of Moses. This dispute is supposed
to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so
as to prevent idolatry.
father of peace; i.e., "peaceful" David's son by Maacah (2 Sam.
3:3; comp. 1 Kings 1:6). He was noted for his personal beauty
and for the extra-ordinary profusion of the hair of his head (2
Sam. 14:25,26). The first public act of his life was the
blood-revenge he executed against Amnon, David's eldest son, who
had basely wronged Absalom's sister Tamar. This revenge was
executed at the time of the festivities connected with a great
sheep-shearing at Baal-hazor. David's other sons fled from the
place in horror, and brought the tidings of the death of Amnon
to Jerusalem. Alarmed for the consequences of the act, Absalom
fled to his grandfather at Geshur, and there abode for three
years (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:23-38).
David mourned his absent son, now branded with the guilt of
fratricide. As the result of a stratagem carried out by a woman
of Tekoah, Joab received David's sanction to invite Absalom back
to Jerusalem. He returned accordingly, but two years elapsed
before his father admitted him into his presence (2 Sam. 14:28).
Absalom was now probably the oldest surviving son of David, and
as he was of royal descent by his mother as well as by his
father, he began to aspire to the throne. His pretensions were
favoured by the people. By many arts he gained their affection;
and after his return from Geshur (2 Sam. 15:7; marg., R.V.) he
went up to Hebron, the old capital of Judah, along with a great
body of the people, and there proclaimed himself king. The
revolt was so successful that David found it necessary to quit
Jerusalem and flee to Mahanaim, beyond Jordan; where upon
Absalom returned to Jerusalem and took possession of the throne
without opposition. Ahithophel, who had been David's chief
counsellor, deserted him and joined Absalom, whose chief
counsellor he now became. Hushai also joined Absalom, but only
for the purpose of trying to counteract the counsels of
Ahithophel, and so to advantage David's cause. He was so far
successful that by his advice, which was preferred to that of
Ahithophel, Absalom delayed to march an army against his father,
who thus gained time to prepare for the defence.
Absalom at length marched out against his father, whose army,
under the command of Joab, he encountered on the borders of the
forest of Ephraim. Twenty thousand of Absalom's army were slain
in that fatal battle, and the rest fled. Absalom fled on a swift
mule; but his long flowing hair, or more probably his head, was
caught in the bough of an oak, and there he was left suspended
till Joab came up and pierced him through with three darts. His
body was then taken down and cast into a pit dug in the forest,
and a heap of stones was raised over his grave. When the tidings
of the result of that battle were brought to David, as he sat
impatiently at the gate of Mahanaim, and he was told that
Absalom had been slain, he gave way to the bitter lamentation:
"O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died
for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" (2 Sam. 18:33. Comp. Ex.
32:32; Rom. 9:3).
Absalom's three sons (2 Sam. 14:27; comp. 18:18) had all died
before him, so that he left only a daughter, Tamar, who became
the grandmother of Abijah.
abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them
the inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves (Deut. 8:13; 12:21; 1
Sam. 11:5; 12:3; Ps. 144:14; Jer. 3:24). They may be classified
(1.) Neat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed
in sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in
Bashan, beyond Jordan (Num. 32:4). Large herds also pastured on
the wide fertile plains of Sharon. They were yoked to the plough
(1 Kings 19:19), and were employed for carrying burdens (1 Chr.
12:40). They were driven with a pointed rod (Judg. 3:31) or goad
According to the Mosaic law, the mouths of cattle employed for
the threshing-floor were not to be muzzled, so as to prevent
them from eating of the provender over which they trampled
(Deut. 25:4). Whosoever stole and sold or slaughtered an ox must
give five in satisfaction (Ex. 22:1); but if it was found alive
in the possession of him who stole it, he was required to make
double restitution only (22:4). If an ox went astray, whoever
found it was required to bring it back to its owner (23:4; Deut.
22:1, 4). An ox and an ass could not be yoked together in the
plough (Deut. 22:10).
(2.) Small cattle. Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed
the most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of
Israel (Gen. 12:16; 13:5; 26:14; 21:27; 29:2, 3). They are
frequently mentioned among the booty taken in war (Num. 31:32;
Josh. 6:21; 1 Sam. 14:32; 15:3). There were many who were owners
of large flocks (1 Sam. 25:2; 2 Sam. 12:2, comp. Job 1:3). Kings
also had shepherds "over their flocks" (1 Chr. 27:31), from
which they derived a large portion of their revenue (2 Sam.
17:29; 1 Chr. 12:40). The districts most famous for their flocks
of sheep were the plain of Sharon (Isa. 65: 10), Mount Carmel
(Micah 7:14), Bashan and Gilead (Micah 7:14). In patriarchal
times the flocks of sheep were sometimes tended by the daughters
of the owners. Thus Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept her
father's sheep (Gen. 29:9); as also Zipporah and her six sisters
had charge of their father Jethro's flocks (Ex. 2:16). Sometimes
they were kept by hired shepherds (John 10:12), and sometimes by
the sons of the family (1 Sam. 16:11; 17:15). The keepers so
familiarized their sheep with their voices that they knew them,
and followed them at their call. Sheep, but more especially rams
and lambs, were frequently offered in sacrifice. The shearing of
sheep was a great festive occasion (1 Sam. 25:4; 2 Sam. 13:23).
They were folded at night, and guarded by their keepers against
the attacks of the lion (Micah 5:8), the bear (1 Sam. 17:34),
and the wolf (Matt. 10:16; John 10:12). They were liable to
wander over the wide pastures and go astray (Ps. 119:176; Isa.
53:6; Hos. 4:16; Matt. 18:12).
Goats also formed a part of the pastoral wealth of Israel
(Gen. 15:9; 32:14; 37:31). They were used both for sacrifice and
for food (Deut. 14:4), especially the young males (Gen. 27:9,
14, 17; Judg. 6:19; 13:15; 1 Sam. 16:20). Goat's hair was used
for making tent cloth (Ex. 26:7; 36:14), and for mattresses and
bedding (1 Sam. 19:13, 16). (See GOAT ¯T0001509.)
the eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, a daughter of Levi (Ex.
6:20). Some explain the name as meaning mountaineer, others
mountain of strength, illuminator. He was born in Egypt three
years before his brother Moses, and a number of years after his
sister Miriam (2:1,4; 7:7). He married Elisheba, the daughter of
Amminadab of the house of Judah (6:23; 1 Chr. 2:10), by whom he
had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. When the
time for the deliverance of Isarael out of Egypt drew nigh, he
was sent by God (Ex. 4:14,27-30) to meet his long-absent
brother, that he might co-operate with him in all that they were
required to do in bringing about the Exodus. He was to be the
"mouth" or "prophet" of Moses, i.e., was to speak for him,
because he was a man of a ready utterance (7:1,2,9,10,19). He
was faithful to his trust, and stood by Moses in all his
interviews with Pharaoh.
When the ransomed tribes fought their first battle with Amalek
in Rephidim, Moses stood on a hill overlooking the scene of the
conflict with the rod of God in his outstretched hand. On this
occasion he was attended by Aaron and Hur, his sister's husband,
who held up his wearied hands till Joshua and the chosen
warriors of Israel gained the victory (17:8-13).
Afterwards, when encamped before Sinai, and when Moses at the
command of God ascended the mount to receive the tables of the
law, Aaron and his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, along with seventy
of the elders of Israel, were permitted to accompany him part of
the way, and to behold afar off the manifestation of the glory
of Israel's God (Ex. 19:24; 24:9-11). While Moses remained on
the mountain with God, Aaron returned unto the people; and
yielding through fear, or ignorance, or instability of
character, to their clamour, made unto them a golden calf, and
set it up as an object of worship (Ex. 32:4; Ps. 106:19). On the
return of Moses to the camp, Aaron was sternly rebuked by him
for the part he had acted in this matter; but he interceded for
him before God, who forgave his sin (Deut. 9:20).
On the mount, Moses received instructions regarding the system
of worship which was to be set up among the people; and in
accordance therewith Aaron and his sons were consecrated to the
priest's office (Lev. 8; 9). Aaron, as high priest, held
henceforth the prominent place appertaining to that office.
When Israel had reached Hazeroth, in "the wilderness of
Paran," Aaron joined with his sister Miriam in murmuring against
Moses, "because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married,"
probably after the death of Zipporah. But the Lord vindicated
his servant Moses, and punished Miriam with leprosy (Num. 12).
Aaron acknowledged his own and his sister's guilt, and at the
intercession of Moses they were forgiven.
Twenty years after this, when the children of Israel were
encamped in the wilderness of Paran, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram
conspired against Aaron and his sons; but a fearful judgment
from God fell upon them, and they were destroyed, and the next
day thousands of the people also perished by a fierce
pestilence, the ravages of which were only stayed by the
interposition of Aaron (Num. 16). That there might be further
evidence of the divine appointment of Aaron to the priestly
office, the chiefs of the tribes were each required to bring to
Moses a rod bearing on it the name of his tribe. And these,
along with the rod of Aaron for the tribe of Levi, were laid up
overnight in the tabernacle, and in the morning it was found
that while the other rods remained unchanged, that of Aaron "for
the house of Levi" budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds (Num.
17:1-10). This rod was afterwards preserved in the tabernacle
(Heb. 9:4) as a memorial of the divine attestation of his
appointment to the priesthood.
Aaron was implicated in the sin of his brother at Meribah
(Num. 20:8-13), and on that account was not permitted to enter
the Promised Land. When the tribes arrived at Mount Hor, "in the
edge of the land of Edom," at the command of God Moses led Aaron
and his son Eleazar to the top of that mountain, in the sight of
all the people. There he stripped Aaron of his priestly
vestments, and put them upon Eleazar; and there Aaron died on
the top of the mount, being 123 years old (Num. 20:23-29. Comp.
Deut. 10:6; 32:50), and was "gathered unto his people." The
people, "even all the house of Israel," mourned for him thirty
days. Of Aaron's sons two survived him, Eleazar, whose family
held the high-priesthood till the time of Eli; and Ithamar, in
whose family, beginning with Eli, the high-priesthood was held
till the time of Solomon. Aaron's other two sons had been struck
dead (Lev. 10:1,2) for the daring impiety of offering "strange
fire" on the alter of incense.
The Arabs still show with veneration the traditionary site of
Aaron's grave on one of the two summits of Mount Hor, which is
marked by a Mohammedan chapel. His name is mentioned in the
Koran, and there are found in the writings of the rabbins many
fabulous stories regarding him.
He was the first anointed priest. His descendants, "the house
of Aaron," constituted the priesthood in general. In the time of
David they were very numerous (1 Chr. 12:27). The other branches
of the tribe of Levi held subordinate positions in connection
with the sacred office. Aaron was a type of Christ in his
official character as the high priest. His priesthood was a
"shadow of heavenly things," and was intended to lead the people
of Israel to look forward to the time when "another priest"
would arise "after the order of Melchizedek" (Heb. 6:20). (See
one who follows on another's heels; supplanter, (Gen. 25:26;
27:36; Hos. 12:2-4), the second born of the twin sons of Isaac
by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father
was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old.
Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and
when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his
brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with
Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen.
When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother
conspired to deceive the aged patriarch (Gen. 27), with the view
of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The
birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in
his family (Gen. 49:3); (2) a double portion of the paternal
inheritance (Deut. 21:17); (3) the priestly office in the family
(Num. 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which all
nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gen. 22:18).
Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Gen. 27),
Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of
Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah Isaac sent him away to Haran,
400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family
of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban
would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he
had served seven years; but to Jacob these years "seemed but a
few days, for the love he had to her." But when the seven years
were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his
daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed
probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long
sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of
God, followed as a consequence of this double union."
At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired
to return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he
tarried yet six years with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He
then set out with his family and property "to go to Isaac his
father in the land of Canaan" (Gen. 31). Laban was angry when he
heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after
him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful
kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against
Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate
farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And
now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an
Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of
angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to
the Land of Promise (32:1, 2). He called the name of the place
Mahanaim, i.e., "the double camp," probably his own camp and
that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of
that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before,
the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the
angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top
reached to heaven (28:12).
He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau
with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he
prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on
God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends
on before him a munificent present to Esau, "a present to my
lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family were then
transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind,
spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged,
there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him.
In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of
it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the
place where this occured he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I
have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved"
After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting,
mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the
assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but
his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as
friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained
friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob
moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18;
but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel,
where he made an altar unto God (35:6,7), and where God appeared
to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from
Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel
died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin (35:16-20),
fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then
reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying
bed of his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between
Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the
Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his
beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33).
Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings
down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of
the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all
his household, numbering about seventy souls (Ex. 1:5; Deut.
10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob,
"after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found
at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his
nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" (Gen. 48). At
length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he
summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among
his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death, although
forty years had passed away since that event took place, as
tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had
made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into
the bed, and yielded up the ghost" (49:33). His body was
embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan,
and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah,
according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed
body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See HEBRON ¯T0001712.)
The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea
(12:3, 4, 12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a
poetic synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There
are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the
other patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in
Paul's epistles (Rom. 9:11-13; Heb. 12:16; 11:21). See
references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at
Shechem in John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the
occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See LUZ
¯T0002335; BETHEL ¯T0000554.)