citizens, a town in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:24);
probably the same as Baalath-beer (19:8). In 1 Kings 4:16, the
Authorized Version has "in Aloth," the Revised Version
The city of Philippi was a Roman colony (Acts 16:12), i.e., a
military settlement of Roman soldiers and citizens, planted
there to keep in subjection a newly-conquered district. A colony
was Rome in miniature, under Roman municipal law, but governed
by military officers (praetors and lictors), not by proconsuls.
It had an independent internal government, the jus Italicum;
i.e., the privileges of Italian citizens.
an inhabitant of Colosse, and apparently a person of some note
among the citizens (Col. 4:9; Philemon 1:2). He was brought to a
knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of Paul
(19), and held a prominent place in the Christian community for
his piety and beneficence (4-7). He is called in the epistle a
"fellow-labourer," and therefore probably held some office in
the church at Colosse; at all events, the title denotes that he
took part in the work of spreading a knowledge of the gospel.
is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which
embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus
was the capital, in Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22; 20:4, 16, 18,
etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, 27; 21:27; 24:18;
27:2. Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of the
Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11). The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31) were
certain wealthy citizens who were annually elected to preside
over the games and religious festivals of the several cities to
which they belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were Paul's
the title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In
the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as
sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive
proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to
Caesar (Matt. 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of
appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New
Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22),
Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Phil. 4:22).
a foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore
not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where
he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens.
(1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no
(2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being
naturalized (Lev. 22:10; Ps. 39:12).
Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions,
the same rights as other citizens (Lev. 19:33, 34; Deut. 10:19).
They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the
congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and
abandoning idolatry (Deut. 23:3-8).
This term is used (Eph. 2:12) to denote persons who have no
interest in Christ.
the rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a
foreigner (Luke 15:15; 19:14; Acts 21:39). Under the Mosaic law
non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the
Ammonites and others mentioned in Deut. 23:1-3, were admitted to
the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Ex. 12:19;
Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15; 35:15; Deut. 10:18; 14:29; 16:10, 14).
The right of citizenship under the Roman government was
granted by the emperor to individuals, and sometimes to
provinces, as a favour or as a recompense for services rendered
to the state, or for a sum of money (Acts 22:28). This "freedom"
secured privileges equal to those enjoyed by natives of Rome.
Among the most notable of these was the provision that a man
could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial (Acts
22:25, 26), or scourged (16:37). All Roman citizens had the
right of appeal to Caesar (25:11).
the name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one
belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of
Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in
contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten
tribes, who were called Israelites.
During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name,
however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without
distinction (Esther 3:6, 10; Dan. 3:8, 12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5).
Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen. 39:14; 40:15;
Ex. 2:7; 3:18; 5:3; 1 Sam. 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile
this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Cor.
11:22; Phil. 3:5).
The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the
history of Israel and with the narratives of the lives of
their rulers and chief men. They are now  dispersed over
all lands, and to this day remain a separate people, "without a
king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without
an image [R.V. 'pillar,' marg. 'obelisk'], and without an ephod,
and without teraphim" (Hos. 3:4). Till about the beginning of
the present century  they were everywhere greatly
oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now their condition
is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European
countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the
"Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted to a
seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated
at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe.
There are three names used in the New Testament to designate
this people, (1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to
distinguish them from Gentiles. (2.) Hebrews, with regard to
their language and education, to distinguish them from
Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language. (3.)
Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen
people of God. "To other races we owe the splendid inheritance
of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious
education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."
Jehovah is perfect. (1.) The youngest of Gideon's seventy sons.
He escaped when the rest were put to death by the order of
Abimelech (Judg. 9:5). When "the citizens of Shechem and the
whole house of Millo" were gathered together "by the plain of
the pillar" (i.e., the stone set up by Joshua, 24:26; comp. Gen.
35:4) "that was in Shechem, to make Abimelech king," from one of
the heights of Mount Gerizim he protested against their doing so
in the earliest parable, that of the bramble-king. His words
then spoken were prophetic. There came a recoil in the feelings
of the people toward Abimelech, and then a terrible revenge, in
which many were slain and the city of Shechem was destroyed by
Abimelech (Judg. 9:45). Having delivered his warning, Jotham
fled to Beer from the vengeance of Abimelech (9:7-21).
(2.) The son and successor of Uzziah on the throne of Judah.
As during his last years Uzziah was excluded from public life on
account of his leprosy, his son, then twenty-five years of age,
administered for seven years the affairs of the kingdom in his
father's stead (2 Chr. 26:21, 23; 27:1). After his father's
death he became sole monarch, and reigned for sixteen years
(B.C. 759-743). He ruled in the fear of God, and his reign was
prosperous. He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea,
and Micah, by whose ministrations he profited. He was buried in
the sepulchre of the kings, greatly lamented by the people (2
Kings 15:38; 2 Chr. 27:7-9).
This word has a comprehensive meaning in Scripture. In the Old
Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word _sepher_, which
properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" (Ex. 17:14;
Deut. 28:58; 29:20; Job 19:23) or "roll of a book" (Jer. 36:2,
Books were originally written on skins, on linen or cotton
cloth, and on Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The
leaves of the book were generally written in columns, designated
by a Hebrew word properly meaning "doors" and "valves" (Jer.
36:23, R.V., marg. "columns").
Among the Hebrews books were generally rolled up like our
maps, or if very long they were rolled from both ends, forming
two rolls (Luke 4:17-20). Thus they were arranged when the
writing was on flexible materials; but if the writing was on
tablets of wood or brass or lead, then the several tablets were
bound together by rings through which a rod was passed.
A sealed book is one whose contents are secret (Isa. 29:11;
Rev. 5:1-3). To "eat" a book (Jer. 15:16; Ezek. 2:8-10; 3:1-3;
Rev. 10:9) is to study its contents carefully.
The book of judgment (Dan. 7:10) refers to the method of human
courts of justice as illustrating the proceedings which will
take place at the day of God's final judgment.
The book of the wars of the Lord (Num. 21:14), the book of
Jasher (Josh. 10:13), and the book of the chronicles of the
kings of Judah and Israel (2 Chr. 25:26), were probably ancient
documents known to the Hebrews, but not forming a part of the
The book of life (Ps. 69:28) suggests the idea that as the
redeemed form a community or citizenship (Phil. 3:20; 4:3), a
catalogue of the citizens' names is preserved (Luke 10:20; Rev.
20:15). Their names are registered in heaven (Luke 10:20; Rev.
The book of the covenant (Ex. 24:7), containing Ex.
20:22-23:33, is the first book actually mentioned as a part of
the written word. It contains a series of laws, civil, social,
and religious, given to Moses at Sinai immediately after the
delivery of the decalogue. These were written in this "book."
The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which
was built by Cain (Gen. 4:17). After the confusion of tongues,
the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (10:10-12).
Next, we have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon,
Gaza, Sodom, etc. (10:12, 19; 11:3, 9; 36:31-39). The earliest
description of a city is that of Sodom (19:1-22). Damascus is
said to be the oldest existing city in the world. Before the
time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt (Num. 13:22). The
Israelites in Egypt were employed in building the "treasure
cities" of Pithom and Raamses (Ex. 1:11); but it does not seem
that they had any cities of their own in Goshen (Gen. 46:34;
47:1-11). In the kingdom of Og in Bashan there were sixty "great
cities with walls," and twenty-three cities in Gilead partly
rebuilt by the tribes on the east of Jordan (Num. 21:21, 32, 33,
35; 32:1-3, 34-42; Deut. 3:4, 5, 14; 1 Kings 4:13). On the west
of Jordan were thirty-one "royal cities" (Josh. 12), besides
many others spoken of in the history of Israel.
A fenced city was a city surrounded by fortifications and high
walls, with watch-towers upon them (2 Chr. 11:11; Deut. 3:5).
There was also within the city generally a tower to which the
citizens might flee when danger threatened them (Judg. 9:46-52).
A city with suburbs was a city surrounded with open
pasture-grounds, such as the forty-eight cities which were given
to the Levites (Num. 35:2-7). There were six cities of refuge,
three on each side of Jordan, namely, Kadesh, Shechem, Hebron,
on the west of Jordan; and on the east, Bezer, Ramoth-gilead,
and Golan. The cities on each side of the river were nearly
opposite each other. The regulations concerning these cities are
given in Num. 35:9-34; Deut. 19:1-13; Ex. 21:12-14.
When David reduced the fortress of the Jebusites which stood
on Mount Zion, he built on the site of it a palace and a city,
which he called by his own name (1 Chr. 11:5), the city of
David. Bethlehem is also so called as being David's native town
Jerusalem is called the Holy City, the holiness of the temple
being regarded as extending in some measure over the whole city
Pithom and Raamses, built by the Israelites as "treasure
cities," were not places where royal treasures were kept, but
were fortified towns where merchants might store their goods and
transact their business in safety, or cities in which munitions
of war were stored. (See PITHOM ¯T0002968.)