vine-dresser. (1.) The last named of the four sons of Reuben
(2.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:1). He is elsewhere
(2:18) called Caleb (q.v.).
(3.) The son of Zimri, and the father of Achan (Josh. 7:1),
"the troubler of Israel."
a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2; 24:14; Deut. 13:10; 17:5;
22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25),
Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2
called also Achar, i.e., one who troubles (1 Chr. 2:7), in
commemoration of his crime, which brought upon him an awful
destruction (Josh. 7:1). On the occasion of the fall of Jericho,
he seized, contrary to the divine command, an ingot of gold, a
quantity of silver, and a costly Babylonish garment, which he
hid in his tent. Joshua was convinced that the defeat which the
Israelites afterwards sustained before Ai was a proof of the
divine displeasure on account of some crime, and he at once
adopted means by the use of the lot for discovering the
criminal. It was then found that Achan was guilty, and he was
stoned to death in the valley of Achor. He and all that belonged
to him were then consumed by fire, and a heap of stones was
raised over the ashes.
gift of Jehovah. (1.) An ancestor of Achan (Josh. 7:1, 17, 18).
He is probably the "Zimri" of 1 Chr. 2:6.
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:19).
(3.) Called "the Shiphmite," one of David's officers, who had
charge of his vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27).
(4.) A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph (Neh. 11:17); probably
the same as Zichri (1 Chr. 9:15), and Zaccur (Neh. 12:35).
trouble, a valley near Jericho, so called in consequence of the
trouble which the sin of Achan caused Israel (Josh. 7:24,26).
The expression "valley of Achor" probably became proverbial for
that which caused trouble, and when Isaiah (Isa. 65:10) refers
to it he uses it in this sense: "The valley of Achor, a place
for herds to lie down in;" i.e., that which had been a source of
calamity would become a source of blessing. Hosea also (Hos.
2:15) uses the expression in the same sense: "The valley of
Achor for a door of hope;" i.e., trouble would be turned into
joy, despair into hope. This valley has been identified with the
moved on pivots of wood fastened in sockets above and below
(Prov. 26:14). They were fastened by a lock (Judg. 3:23, 25;
Cant. 5:5) or by a bar (Judg. 16:3; Job 38:10). In the interior
of Oriental houses, curtains were frequently used instead of
The entrances of the tabernacle had curtains (Ex. 26:31-33,
36). The "valley of Achor" is called a "door of hope," because
immediately after the execution of Achan the Lord said to
Joshua, "Fear not," and from that time Joshua went forward in a
career of uninterrupted conquest. Paul speaks of a "door opened"
for the spread of the gospel (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 2:12; Col.
4:3). Our Lord says of himself, "I am the door" (John 10:9).
John (Rev. 4:1) speaks of a "door opened in heaven."
(1.) Heb. 'addereth, a large over-garment. This word is used of
Elijah's mantle (1 Kings 19:13, 19; 2 Kings 2:8, 13, etc.),
which was probably a sheepskin. It appears to have been his only
garment, a strip of skin or leather binding it to his loins.
_'Addereth_ twice occurs with the epithet "hairy" (Gen. 25:25;
Zech. 13:4, R.V.). It is the word denoting the "goodly
Babylonish garment" which Achan coveted (Josh. 7:21).
(2.) Heb. me'il, frequently applied to the "robe of the ephod"
(Ex. 28:4, 31; Lev. 8:7), which was a splendid under tunic
wholly of blue, reaching to below the knees. It was woven
without seam, and was put on by being drawn over the head. It
was worn not only by priests but by kings (1 Sam. 24:4),
prophets (15:27), and rich men (Job 1:20; 2:12). This was the
"little coat" which Samuel's mother brought to him from year to
year to Shiloh (1 Sam. 2:19), a miniature of the official
(3.) Semikah, "a rug," the garment which Jael threw as a
covering over Sisera (Judg. 4:18). The Hebrew word occurs
nowhere else in Scripture.
(4.) Maataphoth, plural, only in Isa. 3:22, denoting a large
exterior tunic worn by females. (See DRESS ¯T0001076.)
(Heb. goral, a "pebble"), a small stone used in casting lots
(Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the
Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God,
and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33),
and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was
used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral
tribes (Num. 26:55; 34:13), at the detection of Achan (Josh.
7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam. 10:20, 21),
the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service
(1 Chr. 24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the
feast of Atonement (Lev. 16:8). Matthias, who was "numbered with
the eleven" (Acts 1:24-26), was chosen by lot.
This word also denotes a portion or an inheritance (Josh.
15:1; Ps. 125:3; Isa. 17:4), and a destiny, as assigned by God
(Ps. 16:5; Dan. 12:13).
Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and
nephew of Abraham (Gen. 11:27). On the death of his father, he
was left in charge of his grandfather Terah (31), after whose
death he accompanied his uncle Abraham into Canaan (12:5),
thence into Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan (13:1). After
this he separated from him and settled in Sodom (13:5-13). There
his righteous soul was "vexed" from day to day (2 Pet. 2:7), and
he had great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the
separation he was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued
by Abraham (Gen. 14). At length, when the judgment of God
descended on the guilty cities of the plain (Gen. 19:1-20), Lot
was miraculously delivered. When fleeing from the doomed city
his wife "looked back from behind him, and became a pillar of
salt." There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of
the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot,
i.e., Lot's wife. It is "a tall, isolated needle of rock, which
really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a
child upon her shoulder." From the words of warning in Luke
17:32, "Remember Lot's wife," it would seem as if she had gone
back, or tarried so long behind in the desire to save some of
her goods, that she became involved in the destruction which
fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a
time in the saline incrustations. She became "a pillar of salt",
i.e., as some think, of asphalt. (See SALT ¯T0003196.)
Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then,
fearing to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the
neighbouring mountains (Gen. 19:30). Lot has recently been
connected with the people called on the Egyptian monuments
Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been the hero of the
Edomite tribe Lotan.