Related Topics and Bible Verses
The "bow of steel" in (A.V.) 2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34
is in the Revised Version "bow of brass" (Heb.
kesheth-nehushah). In Jer. 15:12 the same word is used, and is
also rendered in the Revised Version "brass." But more correctly
it is copper (q.v.), as brass in the ordinary sense of the word
(an alloy of copper and zinc) was not known to the ancients.
(Heb. shamir), Ezek. 3:9. The Greek word adamas means diamond.
This stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard
steel. It is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of
the truth (Zech. 7:12), and of hard-heartedness against the
truth (Jer. 17:1).
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of
Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers
from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with
lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1-3). Although it was
the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there
fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and
projecting rocks; there were there caverns and grottos, into
which a fugitive might retreat; finally, there were probably a
garden-house and tower, into whose gloom it might be necessary
for a searcher to throw light around." Lange's Commentary.
(Nahum 2:3, "torches," Revised Version, "steel," probably should
be "scythes" for war-chariots.)
derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called
"Cyprian brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra
8:27. Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly
rendered "brass," and sometimes "steel" (2 Sam. 22:35; Jer.
15:12). The "bow of steel" (Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34) should have
been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the R.V.). The vessels
of "fine copper" of Ezra 8:27 were probably similar to those of
"bright brass" mentioned in 1 Kings 7:45; Dan. 10:6.
Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron (Gen.
4:22). Hiram was noted as a worker in brass (1 Kings 7:14).
Copper abounded in Israel (Deut. 8:9; Isa. 60:17; 1 Chr.
22:3, 14). All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle and the temple
were made of it (Lev. 6:28; Num. 16:39; 2 Chr. 4:16; Ezra 8:27);
also weapons of war (1 Sam. 17:5, 6, 38; 2 Sam. 21:16). Iron is
mentioned only four times (Gen. 4:22; Lev. 26:19; Num. 31:22;
35:16) in the first four books of Moses, while copper (rendered
"brass") is mentioned forty times. (See BRASS ¯T0000641.)
We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a "coppersmith" of
Ephesus (2 Tim. 4:14).
The bow was in use in early times both in war and in the chase
(Gen. 21:20; 27:3; 48:22). The tribe of Benjamin were famous for
the use of the bow (1 Chr. 8:40; 12:2; 2 Chr. 14:8; 17:17); so
also were the Elamites (Isa. 22:6) and the Lydians (Jer. 46:9).
The Hebrew word commonly used for bow means properly to tread (1
Chr. 5:18; 8:40), and hence it is concluded that the foot was
employed in bending the bow. Bows of steel (correctly "copper")
are mentioned (2 Sam. 22:35; Ps. 18:34).
The arrows were carried in a quiver (Gen. 27:3; Isa. 22:6;
49:2; Ps. 127:5). They were apparently sometimes shot with some
burning material attached to them (Ps. 120:4).
The bow is a symbol of victory (Ps. 7:12). It denotes also
falsehood, deceit (Ps. 64:3, 4; Hos. 7:16; Jer. 9:3).
"The use of the bow" in 2 Sam. 1:18 (A.V.) ought to be "the
song of the bow," as in the Revised Version.