(Matt. 9:23), a flute-player. Such music was a usual
accompaniment of funerals. In 2 Kings 3:15 it denotes a player
on a stringed instrument.
in the title of Ps. 61, denotes the music of stringed
instruments (1 Sam. 16:16; Isa. 38:20). It is the singular form
Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments (Gen. 4:21). The
Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole
history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After
the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of
Laban's interview with Jacob (Gen. 31:27). After their triumphal
passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang
their song of deliverance (Ex. 15).
But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden
age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now
for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an
essential part of training in the schools of the prophets (1
Sam. 10:5; 19:19-24; 2 Kings 3:15; 1 Chr. 25:6). There now arose
also a class of professional singers (2 Sam. 19:35; Eccl. 2:8).
The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the
conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and
players on instruments were constantly employed (2 Sam. 6:5; 1
Chr. 15; 16; 23;5; 25:1-6).
In private life also music seems to have held an important
place among the Hebrews (Eccl. 2:8; Amos 6:4-6; Isa. 5:11, 12;
24:8, 9; Ps. 137; Jer. 48:33; Luke 15:25).
jubilee, music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of
Cain. He was the inventor of "the harp" (Heb. kinnor, properly
"lyre") and "the organ" (Heb. 'ugab, properly "mouth-organ" or
Pan's pipe), Gen. 4:21.
hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Ps. 22. It is
probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which
the psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the
name some instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the
subject of the psalm.
a stringed instrument of music. This word is found in the titles
of Ps. 8, 81, 84. In these places the LXX. render the word by
"on the wine-fats." The Targum explains by "on the harp which
David brought from Gath." It is the only stringed instrument
named in the titles of the Psalms.
from the verb shagah, "to reel about through drink," occurs in
the title of Ps. 7. The plural form, shigionoth, is found in
Hab. 3:1. The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong
mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied
with suitable music; a dithyrambic ode.
(Heb. toph), a small drum or tambourine; a tabret (q.v.). The
antiquity of this musical instrument appears from the scriptural
allusions to it (Gen. 31:27; Ex. 15:20; Judg. 11:34, etc.) (See
firm. (1.) "The Ezrahite," distinguished for his wisdom (1 Kings
4:31). He is named as the author of the 89th Psalm. He was of
the tribe of Levi.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the leaders of
the temple music (1 Chr. 6:44; 15:17, 19). He was probably the
same as Jeduthun. He is supposed by some to be the same also as
lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of
the three masters of music appointed by David (1 Chr. 16:41, 42;
25:1-6). He is called in 2 Chr. 35:15 "the king's seer." His
descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments
(Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1 Chr. 15:17,
19). In the superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words
"upon Jeduthun" probably denote a musical instrument; or they
may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun,
or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.
(1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; 30:29). The Hebrew word
halil, so rendered, means "bored through," and is the name given
to various kinds of wind instruments, as the fife, flute,
Pan-pipes, etc. In Amos 6:5 this word is rendered "instrument of
music." This instrument is mentioned also in the New Testament
(Matt. 11:17; 1 Cor. 14:7). It is still used in Israel, and
is, as in ancient times, made of different materials, as reed,
copper, bronze, etc.
convener, or collector. (1.) A Levite; one of the leaders of
David's choir (1 Chr. 6:39). Psalms 50 and 73-83 inclusive are
attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled
in music, and a "seer" (2 Chr. 29:30). The "sons of Asaph,"
mentioned in 1 Chr. 25:1, 2 Chr. 20:14, and Ezra 2:41, were his
descendants, or more probably a class of poets or singers who
recognized him as their master.
(2.) The "recorder" in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18,
(3.) The "keeper of the king's forest," to whom Nehemiah
requested from Artaxerxes a "letter" that he might give him
timber for the temple at Jerusalem (Neh. 2:8).
This word, besides its natural and proper sense, is used to
designate, (1.) A niece or any female descendant (Gen. 20:12;
24:48; 28:6). (2.) Women as natives of a place, or as professing
the religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isa.
3:16), "daughters of the Philistines" (2 Sam. 1:20). (3.) Small
towns and villages lying around a city are its "daughters," as
related to the metropolis or mother city. Tyre is in this sense
called the daughter of Sidon (Isa. 23:12). (4.) The people of
Jerusalem are spoken of as "the daughters of Zion" (Isa. 37:22).
(5.) The daughters of a tree are its boughs (Gen. 49:22). (6.)
The "daughters of music" (Eccl. 12:4) are singing women.
(Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was
invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word _kinnor_
denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as
an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise
to God (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2;
In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings
10:11, 12). In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of "harps on the
Sheminith;" Revised Version, "harps set to the Sheminith;"
better perhaps "harps of eight strings." The soothing effect of
the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16, 23; 18:10;
19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the
triumphs of the Redeemer "harping with their harps" (Rev. 14:2).
God's living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon (1 Chr. 9:35).
(2.) One of David's guard (1 Chr. 11:44).
(3.) One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to
conduct the music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to
Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the
close of his reign (1 Chr. 27:32).
(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted
Hezekiah in his work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).
(7.) A "prince" and "ruler of the house of God" who
contributed liberally to the renewal of the temple sacrifices
under Josiah (2 Chr. 35:8).
(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).
(9.) One of the "sons" of Elam (Ezra 10:26).
(10.) Ezra 10:21.
Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place
is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor,
the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered
"psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.)
The gittith, occurring in the title of Ps. 8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim
(Ps. 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Ps. 45:8, in
the form _minni_, probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened)
plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the
Revised Version "stringed instruments." (6.) Machalath, in the
titles of Ps. 53 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or
Of wind instruments mention is made of, (1.) The 'ugab (Gen.
4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or
syrinx. (2.) The qeren or "horn" (Josh. 6:5; 1 Chr. 25:5). (3.)
The shophar, rendered "trumpet" (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8). The word
means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear,
shrill sound it emitted. It was often used (Ex. 19:13; Num.
10:10; Judg. 7:16, 18; 1 Sam. 13:3). (4.) The hatsotserah, or
straight trumpet (Ps. 98:6; Num. 10:1-10). This name is supposed
by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the
pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara.
Some have identified it with the modern trombone. (5.) The
halil, i.e, "bored through," a flute or pipe (1 Sam. 10:5; 1
Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; Jer. 48:36) which is still used in
Israel. (6.) The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" (Dan. 3:5),
probably a sort of bagpipe. (7.) The maskrokith'a (Dan. 3:5),
rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown.
Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, (1.) The
toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Ex.
15:20; Job 21:12; Ps. 68:25); also "tabret" (Gen. 31:27; Isa.
24:8; 1 Sam. 10:5). (2.) The paamon, the "bells" on the robe of
the high priest (Ex. 28:33; 39:25). (3.) The tseltselim,
"cymbals" (2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 150:5), which are struck together and
produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses
and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" (1 Chr.
13:8; Ezra 3:10, etc.). These words are all derived from the
same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle." (4.) The menaan'im, used
only in 2 Sam. 6:5, rendered "cornets" (R.V., "castanets"); in
the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation. (5.) The
shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Sam. 18:6, rendered "instruments
of music" (marg. of R.V., "triangles or three-stringed
The words in Eccl. 2:8, "musical instruments, and that of all
sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version
"concubines very many."
The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a
portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other
inspired poets in successive generations added now one now
another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the
wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of
human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." But it
is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this
precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of
which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to
David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second
psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About
two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.
Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung
after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are
addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in
the worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading
part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20:19), were intrusted
with the arranging and singing of Ps. 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and
In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i.e.,
the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews
divided the Old Testament. (See BIBLE ¯T0000580.)
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date
than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection
extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New
Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter.
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch,
into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:
(1.) The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of
which are ascribed to David except 1, 2, 10, and 33, which,
though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
(2.) Book second consists of the next 31 psalms (42-72), 18 of
which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The
rest are anonymous.
(3.) The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the
86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and
the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite.
(4.) The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106), of
which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103rd to
(5.) The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in
number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to
Ps. 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud
includes also Ps. 120-135. Ps. 113-118, inclusive, constitute
the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon,
and on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at
times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the
close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the
third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth
by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days
The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song
in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the
praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the
tabernacle music and song.
Divers names are given to the psalms. (1.) Some bear the
Hebrew designation _shir_ (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this
title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight
line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well
as sacred song.
(2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) _mitsmor_
(Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a
sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
(3.) Ps. 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.)
_tehillah_ (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a
song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
(4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) _michtam_
(5.) Ps. 7 and Hab. 3 bear the title (Heb.) _shiggaion_