Intercession of the Spirit
(Rom. 8:26, 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech.
6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to
all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for
them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They
both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as
his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate
in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting
covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts,
enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires
'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The
work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and
together they form a complete whole.", Hodge's Outlines of
Word of God
(Heb. 4:12, etc.). The Bible so called because the writers of
its several books were God's organs in communicating his will to
men. It is his "word," because he speaks to us in its sacred
pages. Whatever the inspired writers here declare to be true and
binding upon us, God declares to be true and binding. This word
is infallible, because written under the guidance of the Holy
Spirit, and therefore free from all error of fact or doctrine or
precept. (See INSPIRATION T0001884; BIBLE T0000580.) All
saving knowledge is obtained from the word of God. In the case
of adults it is an indispensable means of salvation, and is
efficacious thereunto by the gracious influence of the Holy
Spirit (John 17:17; 2 Tim. 3:15, 16; 1 Pet. 1:23).
Witness of the Spirit
(Rom. 8:16), the consciousness of the gracious operation of the
Spirit on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and
work continually asserted within us", manifested "in his
comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our
sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before
the world," etc.
See HOLY GHOST T0001805.
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine
of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons.
This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by
Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used
by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The
propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is
one, and that there is but one God (Deut. 6:4; 1 Kings 8:60;
Isa. 44:6; Mark 12:29, 32; John 10:30). 2. That the Father is a
distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona,
suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy
Spirit. 3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person
distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit. 4. That the Holy
Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.
Sea of glass
a figurative expression used in Rev. 4:6 and 15:2. According to
the interpretation of some, "this calm, glass-like sea, which is
never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the
counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which
are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though
sometimes glowing with holy anger." (Compare Ps. 36:6; 77:19; Rom.
involves more than a mere moral reformation of character,
brought about by the power of the truth: it is the work of the
Holy Spirit bringing the whole nature more and more under the
influences of the new gracious principles implanted in the soul
in regeneration. In other words, sanctification is the carrying
on to perfection the work begun in regeneration, and it extends
to the whole man (Rom. 6:13; 2 Cor. 4:6; Col. 3:10; 1 John 4:7;
1 Cor. 6:19). It is the special office of the Holy Spirit in the
plan of redemption to carry on this work (1 Cor. 6:11; 2 Thess.
2:13). Faith is instrumental in securing sanctification,
inasmuch as it (1) secures union to Christ (Gal. 2:20), and (2)
brings the believer into living contact with the truth, whereby
he is led to yield obedience "to the commands, trembling at the
threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life
and that which is to come."
Perfect sanctification is not attainable in this life (1 Kings
8:46; Prov. 20:9; Eccl. 7:20; James 3:2; 1 John 1:8). See Paul's
account of himself in Rom. 7:14-25; Phil. 3:12-14; and 1 Tim.
1:15; also the confessions of David (Ps. 19:12, 13; 51), of
Moses (90:8), of Job (42:5, 6), and of Daniel (9:3-20). "The
more holy a man is, the more humble, self-renouncing,
self-abhorring, and the more sensitive to every sin he becomes,
and the more closely he clings to Christ. The moral
imperfections which cling to him he feels to be sins, which he
laments and strives to overcome. Believers find that their life
is a constant warfare, and they need to take the kingdom of
heaven by storm, and watch while they pray. They are always
subject to the constant chastisement of their Father's loving
hand, which can only be designed to correct their imperfections
and to confirm their graces. And it has been notoriously the
fact that the best Christians have been those who have been the
least prone to claim the attainment of perfection for
themselves.", Hodge's Outlines.
an old Saxon word equivalent to soul or spirit. It is the
translation of the Hebrew "nephesh" and the Greek "pneuma", both
meaning "breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" (Job
11:20; Jer. 15:9; Matt. 27:50; John 19:30). The expression "to
give up the ghost" means to die (Lam. 1:19; Gen. 25:17; 35:29;
49:33; Job 3:11). (See HOLY GHOST T0001805.)
the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his
disciples (Matt. 6:9-13). The closing doxology of the prayer is
omitted by Luke (11:2-4), also in the R.V. of Matt. 6:13. This
prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to
the offices of the Holy Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based
on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of
His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The
Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most
Tents were in primitive times the common dwellings of men.
Houses were afterwards built, the walls of which were frequently
of mud (Job 24:16; Matt. 6:19, 20) or of sun-dried bricks.
God "dwells in light" (1 Tim. 6:16; 1 John 1:7), in heaven
(Ps. 123:1), in his church (Ps. 9:11; 1 John 4:12). Christ dwelt
on earth in the days of his humiliation (John 1:14). He now
dwells in the hearts of his people (Eph. 3:17-19). The Holy
Spirit dwells in believers (1 Cor. 3:16; 2 Tim. 1:14). We are
exhorted to "let the word of God dwell in us richly" (Col. 3:16;
Dwell deep occurs only in Jer. 49:8, and refers to the custom
of seeking refuge from impending danger, in retiring to the
recesses of rocks and caverns, or to remote places in the
the purchase back of something that had been lost, by the
payment of a ransom. The Greek word so rendered is
"apolutrosis", a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and
always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, i.e., redemption
by a lutron (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45). There are instances
in the LXX. Version of the Old Testament of the use of "lutron"
in man's relation to man (Lev. 19:20; 25:51; Ex. 21:30; Num.
35:31, 32; Isa. 45:13; Prov. 6:35), and in the same sense of
man's relation to God (Num. 3:49; 18:15).
There are many passages in the New Testament which represent
Christ's sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the
result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (compare Acts
20:28; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal. 3:13; 4:4, 5; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14;
1 Tim. 2:5, 6; Titus 2:14; Heb. 9:12; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev.
5:9). The idea running through all these texts, however various
their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption. The
debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully
paid. Christ's blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is
the "ransom" by which the deliverance of his people from the
servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured. It
is the plain doctrine of Scripture that "Christ saves us neither
by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his
example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any
subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical,
but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for
sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law,
thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his
perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners" (Hodge's Systematic
one who saves from any form or degree of evil. In its highest
sense the word indicates the relation sustained by our Lord to
his redeemed ones, he is their Saviour. The great message of the
gospel is about salvation and the Saviour. It is the "gospel of
salvation." Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ secures to the sinner
a personal interest in the work of redemption. Salvation is
redemption made effectual to the individual by the power of the
Tongues, Gift of
granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4), in fulfilment of a
promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17). What this
gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some
have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence
of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold
gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all
nations. But the words of Luke (Acts 2:9) clearly show that the
various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really
hear themselves addressed in their own special language with
which they were naturally acquainted (compare Joel 2:28, 29).
Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in 1 Cor.
12:10-14:30, "divers kinds of tongues" and the "interpretation
of tongues." This "gift" was a different manifestation of the
Spirit from that on Pentecost, although it resembled it in many
particulars. Tongues were to be "a sign to them that believe
(Gr. charismata), gifts supernaturally bestowed on the early
Christians, each having his own proper gift or gifts for the
edification of the body of Christ. These were the result of the
extraordinary operation of the Spirit, as on the day of
Pentecost. They were the gifts of speaking with tongues, casting
out devils, healing, etc. (Mark 16:17, 18), usually communicated
by the medium of the laying on of the hands of the apostles
(Acts 8:17; 19:6; 1 Tim. 4:14). These charismata were enjoyed
only for a time. They could not continue always in the Church.
They were suited to its infancy and to the necessities of those
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matt. 25:46; Mark
3:29; Heb. 6:2; 2 Thess. 1:9; Matt. 18:8; 25:41; Jude 1:7). The
Scripture as clearly teaches the unending duration of the penal
sufferings of the lost as the "everlasting life," the "eternal
life" of the righteous. The same Greek words in the New
Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the
eternal existence of God (1 Tim. 1:17; Rom. 1:20; 16:26); (2) of
Christ (Rev. 1:18); (3) of the Holy Ghost (Heb. 9:14); and (4)
the eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost (Matt. 25:46;
Their condition after casting off the mortal body is spoken of
in these expressive words: "Fire that shall not be quenched"
(Mark 9:45, 46), "fire unquenchable" (Luke 3:17), "the worm that
never dies," the "bottomless pit" (Rev. 9:1), "the smoke of
their torment ascending up for ever and ever" (Rev. 14:10, 11).
The idea that the "second death" (Rev. 20:14) is in the case
of the wicked their absolute destruction, their annihilation,
has not the slightest support from Scripture, which always
represents their future as one of conscious suffering enduring
The supposition that God will ultimately secure the repentance
and restoration of all sinners is equally unscriptural. There is
not the slightest trace in all the Scriptures of any such
restoration. Sufferings of themselves have no tendency to purify
the soul from sin or impart spiritual life. The atoning death of
Christ and the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit are the only
means of divine appointment for bringing men to repentance. Now
in the case of them that perish these means have been rejected,
and "there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins" (Heb. 10:26,
(1 Sam. 15:23; 2 Kings 9:22; 2 Chr. 33:6; Micah 5:12; Nahum 3:4;
Gal. 5:20). In the popular sense of the word no mention is made
either of witches or of witchcraft in Scripture.
The "witch of En-dor" (1 Sam. 28) was a necromancer, i.e., one
who feigned to hold converse with the dead. The damsel with "a
spirit of divination" (Acts 16:16) was possessed by an evil
spirit, or, as the words are literally rendered, "having a
spirit, a pithon." The reference is to the heathen god Apollo,
who was regarded as the god of prophecy.
Philemon, Epistle to
was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the
Colossians and Ephesians, and was sent also by Onesimus. It was
addressed to Philemon and the members of his family.
It was written for the purpose of interceding for Onesimus
(q.v.), who had deserted his master Philemon and been
"unprofitable" to him. Paul had found Onesimus at Rome, and had
there been instrumental in his conversion, and now he sends him
back to his master with this letter.
This epistle has the character of a strictly private letter,
and is the only one of such epistles preserved to us. "It
exhibits the apostle in a new light. He throws off as far as
possible his apostolic dignity and his fatherly authority over
his converts. He speaks simply as Christian to Christian. He
speaks, therefore, with that peculiar grace of humility and
courtesy which has, under the reign of Christianity, developed
the spirit of chivalry and what is called 'the character of a
gentleman,' certainly very little known in the old Greek and
Roman civilization" (Dr. Barry). (See SLAVE T0003458.)
In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2 Sam. 16:23, to
denote the most holy place in the temple (1 Kings 6:5, 19-23;
8:6). In 2 Sam. 16:23 it means the Word of God. A man inquired
"at the oracle of God" by means of the Urim and Thummim in the
breastplate on the high priest's ephod. In the New Testament it
is used only in the plural, and always denotes the Word of God
(Rom. 3:2; Heb. 5:12, etc.). The Scriptures are called "living
oracles" (compare Heb. 4:12) because of their quickening power
cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by
divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of
his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him.
It was established as a national ordinance (Gen. 17:10, 11). In
compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine
years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who
was thirteen years old (17:24-27). Slaves, whether home-born or
purchased, were circumcised (17:12, 13); and all foreigners must
have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the
privileges of Jewish citizenship (Ex. 12:48). During the journey
through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into
disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they
entered the Promised Land (Josh. 5:2-9). It was observed always
afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is not
expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan
till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years. The Jews prided
themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction (Judg.
14:3; 15:18; 1 Sam. 14:6; 17:26; 2 Sam. 1:20; Ezek. 31:18).
As a rite of the church it ceased when the New Testament times
began (Gal. 6:15; Col. 3:11). Some Jewish Christians sought to
impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the
apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1; Gal. 6:12). Our Lord
was circumcised, for it "became him to fulfil all
righteousness," as of the seed of Abraham, according to the
flesh; and Paul "took and circumcised" Timothy (Acts 16:3), to
avoid giving offence to the Jews. It would render Timothy's
labors more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means
consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Gal.
2:3-5). The great point for which he contended was the free
admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He
contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem.
In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to
circumcision. It was the symbol of purity (Isa. 52:1). We read
of uncircumcised lips (Ex. 6:12, 30), ears (Jer. 6:10), hearts
(Lev. 26:41). The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of
as uncircumcised (Lev. 19:23).
It was a sign and seal of the covenant of grace as well as of
the national covenant between God and the Hebrews. (1.) It
sealed the promises made to Abraham, which related to the
commonwealth of Israel, national promises. (2.) But the promises
made to Abraham included the promise of redemption (Gal. 3:14),
a promise which has come upon us. The covenant with Abraham was
a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and
circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It had a
spiritual meaning. It signified purification of the heart,
inward circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deut. 10:16; 30:6;
Ezek. 44:7; Acts 7:51; Rom. 2:28; Col. 2:11). Circumcision as a
symbol shadowing forth sanctification by the Holy Spirit has now
given way to the symbol of baptism (q.v.). But the truth
embodied in both ordinances is ever the same, the removal of
sin, the sanctifying effects of grace in the heart.
Under the Jewish dispensation, church and state were
identical. No one could be a member of the one without also
being a member of the other. Circumcision was a sign and seal of
membership in both. Every circumcised person bore thereby
evidence that he was one of the chosen people, a member of the
church of God as it then existed, and consequently also a member
of the Jewish commonwealth.
the designation of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7;
R.V. marg., "or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos"). The same
Greek word thus rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1 John 2:1
as applicable to Christ. It means properly "one who is summoned
to the side of another" to help him in a court of justice by
defending him, "one who is summoned to plead a cause."
"Advocate" is the proper rendering of the word in every case
where it occurs.
It is worthy of notice that although Paul nowhere uses the
word paracletos, he yet presents the idea it embodies when he
speaks of the "intercession" both of Christ and the Spirit (Rom.
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally
means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia)
is used by classical writers with reference to the changes
produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is
equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In
Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as
a passing from death to life (1 John 3:14); becoming a new
creature in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17); being born again (John
3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom. 12:2); a resurrection from the
dead (Eph. 2:6); a being quickened (2:1, 5).
This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not
with man but with God (John 1:12, 13; 1 John 2:29; 5:1, 4).
As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting
of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation
of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses
The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in
Scripture (John 3:3; Rom. 7:18; 8:7-9; 1 Cor. 2:14; Eph. 2:1;
(Heb. always with the article, "the" Millo). (1.) Probably the
Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled
in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north
as its outermost defence. It is always rendered Akra i.e., "the
citadel", in the LXX. It was already existing when David
conquered Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:9). He extended it to the right
and left, thus completing the defence of the city. It was
rebuilt by Solomon (1 Kings 9:15, 24; 11:27) and repaired by
Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:5).
(2.) In Judg. 9:6, 20 it is the name of a rampart in Shechem,
probably the "tower of Shechem" (9:46, 49).
twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.). He was
also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek
equivalent of the Hebrew name. All we know regarding him is
recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24,
25, 26-29). From the circumstance that in the lists of the
apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the
son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always
followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been
supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were
(1.) Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper name of the first man. The
name is derived from a word meaning "to be red," and thus the
first man was called Adam because he was formed from the red
earth. It is also the generic name of the human race (Gen. 1:26,
27; 5:2; 8:21; Deut. 8:3). Its equivalents are the Latin homo
and the Greek anthropos (Matt. 5:13, 16). It denotes also man in
opposition to woman (Gen. 3:12; Matt. 19:10).
(2.) Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes
properly a man in opposition to a woman (1 Sam. 17:33; Matt.
14:21); a husband (Gen. 3:16; Hos. 2:16); man with reference to
excellent mental qualities.
(3.) Heb. 'enosh, man as mortal, transient, perishable (2 Chr.
14:11; Isa. 8:1; Job 15:14; Ps. 8:4; 9:19, 20; 103:15). It is
applied to women (Josh. 8:25).
(4.) Heb. geber, man with reference to his strength, as
distinguished from women (Deut. 22:5) and from children (Ex.
12:37); a husband (Prov. 6:34).
(5.) Heb. methim, men as mortal (Isa. 41:14), and as opposed
to women and children (Deut. 3:6; Job 11:3; Isa. 3:25).
Man was created by the immediate hand of God, and is
generically different from all other creatures (Gen. 1:26, 27;
2:7). His complex nature is composed of two elements, two
distinct substances, viz., body and soul (Gen. 2:7; Eccl. 12:7;
2 Cor. 5:1-8).
The words translated "spirit" and "soul," in 1 Thess. 5:23,
Heb. 4:12, are habitually used interchangeably (Matt. 10:28;
16:26; 1 Pet. 1:22). The "spirit" (Gr. pneuma) is the soul as
rational; the "soul" (Gr. psuche) is the same, considered as the
animating and vital principle of the body.
Man was created in the likeness of God as to the perfection of
his nature, in knowledge (Col. 3:10), righteousness, and
holiness (Eph. 4:24), and as having dominion over all the
inferior creatures (Gen. 1:28). He had in his original state
God's law written on his heart, and had power to obey it, and
yet was capable of disobeying, being left to the freedom of his
own will. He was created with holy dispositions, prompting him
to holy actions; but he was fallible, and did fall from his
integrity (3:1-6). (See FALL T0001304.)
God with us, Matt. 1:23). (See IMMANUEL T0001875.)
(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are
said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21; 7:59; 9:14;
Rom. 10:12; 1 Cor. 1:2).
(2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to
some special office (Ex. 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when
he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13; 11:28;
In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men,
to Jews and Gentiles alike (Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15; Rom. 9:24,
25). But this universal call is not inseparably connected with
salvation, although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable
if they reject it (John 3:14-19; Matt. 22:14).
An effectual call is something more than the outward message
of the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of
the enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit
(John 16:14; Acts 26: 18; John 6:44), effectually drawing men to
Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth
(John 6:45; Acts 16:14; Eph. 1:17).
Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain
statement is true (Phil. 1:27; 2 Thess. 2:13). Its primary idea
is trust. A thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust. It
admits of many degrees up to full assurance of faith, in
accordance with the evidence on which it rests.
Faith is the result of teaching (Rom. 10:14-17). Knowledge is
an essential element in all faith, and is sometimes spoken of as
an equivalent to faith (John 10:38; 1 John 2:3). Yet the two are
distinguished in this respect, that faith includes in it assent,
which is an act of the will in addition to the act of the
understanding. Assent to the truth is of the essence of faith,
and the ultimate ground on which our assent to any revealed
truth rests is the veracity of God.
Historical faith is the apprehension of and assent to certain
statements which are regarded as mere facts of history.
Temporary faith is that state of mind which is awakened in men
(e.g., Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the
influence of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled
the common operation of the Holy Spirit.
Saving faith is so called because it has eternal life
inseparably connected with it. It cannot be better defined than
in the words of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism: "Faith in
Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon
him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel."
The object of saving faith is the whole revealed Word of God.
Faith accepts and believes it as the very truth most sure. But
the special act of faith which unites to Christ has as its
object the person and the work of the Lord Jesus Christ (John
7:38; Acts 16:31). This is the specific act of faith by which a
sinner is justified before God (Rom. 3:22, 25; Gal. 2:16; Phil.
3:9; John 3:16-36; Acts 10:43; 16:31). In this act of faith the
believer appropriates and rests on Christ alone as Mediator in
all his offices.
This assent to or belief in the truth received upon the divine
testimony has always associated with it a deep sense of sin, a
distinct view of Christ, a consenting will, and a loving heart,
together with a reliance on, a trusting in, or resting in
Christ. It is that state of mind in which a poor sinner,
conscious of his sin, flees from his guilty self to Christ his
Saviour, and rolls over the burden of all his sins on him. It
consists chiefly, not in the assent given to the testimony of
God in his Word, but in embracing with fiducial reliance and
trust the one and only Saviour whom God reveals. This trust and
reliance is of the essence of faith. By faith the believer
directly and immediately appropriates Christ as his own. Faith
in its direct act makes Christ ours. It is not a work which God
graciously accepts instead of perfect obedience, but is only the
hand by which we take hold of the person and work of our
Redeemer as the only ground of our salvation.
Saving faith is a moral act, as it proceeds from a renewed
will, and a renewed will is necessary to believing assent to the
truth of God (1 Cor. 2:14; 2 Cor. 4:4). Faith, therefore, has
its seat in the moral part of our nature fully as much as in the
intellectual. The mind must first be enlightened by divine
teaching (John 6:44; Acts 13:48; 2 Cor. 4:6; Eph. 1:17, 18)
before it can discern the things of the Spirit.
Faith is necessary to our salvation (Mark 16:16), not because
there is any merit in it, but simply because it is the sinner's
taking the place assigned him by God, his falling in with what
God is doing.
The warrant or ground of faith is the divine testimony, not
the reasonableness of what God says, but the simple fact that he
says it. Faith rests immediately on, "Thus saith the Lord." But
in order to this faith the veracity, sincerity, and truth of God
must be owned and appreciated, together with his
unchangeableness. God's word encourages and emboldens the sinner
personally to transact with Christ as God's gift, to close with
him, embrace him, give himself to Christ, and take Christ as
his. That word comes with power, for it is the word of God who
has revealed himself in his works, and especially in the cross.
God is to be believed for his word's sake, but also for his
Faith in Christ secures for the believer freedom from
condemnation, or justification before God; a participation in
the life that is in Christ, the divine life (John 14:19; Rom.
6:4-10; Eph. 4:15,16, etc.); "peace with God" (Rom. 5:1); and
sanctification (Acts 26:18; Gal. 5:6; Acts 15:9).
All who thus believe in Christ will certainly be saved (John
6:37, 40; 10:27, 28; Rom. 8:1).
The faith=the gospel (Acts 6:7; Rom. 1:5; Gal. 1:23; 1 Tim.
3:9; Jude 1:3).
an ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Matt. 28:19, 20),
and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the
Supper, "till he come." The words "baptize" and "baptism" are
simply Greek words transferred into English. This was
necessarily done by the translators of the Scriptures, for no
literal translation could properly express all that is implied
The mode of baptism can in no way be determined from the Greek
word rendered "baptize." Baptists say that it means "to dip,"
and nothing else. That is an incorrect view of the meaning of
the word. It means both (1) to dip a thing into an element or
liquid, and (2) to put an element or liquid over or on it.
Nothing therefore as to the mode of baptism can be concluded
from the mere word used. The word has a wide latitude of
meaning, not only in the New Testament, but also in the LXX.
Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions
and baptisms required by the Mosaic law. These were effected by
immersion, and by affusion and sprinkling; and the same word,
"washings" (Heb. 9:10, 13, 19, 21) or "baptisms," designates
them all. In the New Testament there cannot be found a single
well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of the word where
it necessarily means immersion. Moreover, none of the instances
of baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (2:38-41;
8:26-39; 9:17, 18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34) favours the
idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, or by
immersion, while in some of them such a mode was highly
The gospel and its ordinances are designed for the whole
world, and it cannot be supposed that a form for the
administration of baptism would have been prescribed which would
in any place (as in a tropical country or in polar regions) or
under any circumstances be inapplicable or injurious or
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical
ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work
of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. As in the Supper
a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits
in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of
the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water poured or sprinkled
on the person in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
That which is essential in baptism is only "washing with water,"
no mode being specified and none being necessary or essential to
the symbolism of the ordinance.
The apostles of our Lord were baptized with the Holy Ghost
(Matt. 3:11) by his coming upon them (Acts 1:8). The fire also
with which they were baptized sat upon them. The extraordinary
event of Pentecost was explained by Peter as a fulfilment of the
ancient promise that the Spirit would be poured out in the last
days (2:17). He uses also with the same reference the expression
shed forth as descriptive of the baptism of the Spirit (33). In
the Pentecostal baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the
Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed
forth, poured out, fell on them (11:15), came upon them, sat on
them." That was a real and true baptism. We are warranted from
such language to conclude that in like manner when water is
poured out, falls, comes upon or rests upon a person when this
ordinance is administered, that person is baptized. Baptism is
therefore, in view of all these arguments "rightly administered
by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person."
The subjects of baptism. This raises questions of greater
importance than those relating to its mode.
1. The controversy here is not about "believers' baptism," for
that is common to all parties. Believers were baptized in
apostolic times, and they have been baptized in all time by all
the branches of the church. It is altogether a misrepresentation
to allege, as is sometimes done by Baptists, that their doctrine
is "believers' baptism." Every instance of adult baptism, or of
"believers' baptism," recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:41;
8:37; 9:17, 18; 10:47; 16:15; 19:5, etc.) is just such as would
be dealt with in precisely the same way by all branches of the
Protestant Church, a profession of faith or of their being
"believers" would be required from every one of them before
baptism. The point in dispute is not the baptism of believers,
but whether the infant children of believers, i.e., of members
of the church, ought to be baptized.
2. In support of the doctrine of infant baptism, i.e., of the
baptism of the infants, or rather the "children," of believing
parents, the following considerations may be adduced:
The Church of Christ exists as a divinely organized community.
It is the "kingdom of God," one historic kingdom under all
dispensations. The commonwealth of Israel was the "church" (Acts
7:38; Rom. 9:4) under the Mosaic dispensation. The New Testament
church is not a new and different church, but one with that of
the Old Testament. The terms of admission into the church have
always been the same viz., a profession of faith and a promise
of subjection to the laws of the kingdom. Now it is a fact
beyond dispute that the children of God's people under the old
dispensation were recognized as members of the church.
Circumcision was the sign and seal of their membership. It was
not because of carnal descent from Abraham, but as being the
children of God's professing people, that this rite was
administered (Rom. 4:11). If children were members of the church
under the old dispensation, which they undoubtedly were, then
they are members of the church now by the same right, unless it
can be shown that they have been expressly excluded. Under the
Old Testament parents acted for their children and represented
them. (See Gen. 9:9; 17:10; Ex. 24:7, 8; Deut. 29:9-13.) When
parents entered into covenant with God, they brought their
children with them. This was a law in the Hebrew Church. When a
proselyte was received into membership, he could not enter
without bringing his children with him. The New Testament does
not exclude the children of believers from the church. It does
not deprive them of any privilege they enjoyed under the Old
Testament. There is no command or statement of any kind, that
can be interpreted as giving any countenance to such an idea,
anywhere to be found in the New Testament. The church membership
of infants has never been set aside. The ancient practice,
orginally appointed by God himself, must remain a law of his
kingdom till repealed by the same divine authority. There are
lambs in the fold of the Good Shepherd (John 21:15; compare Luke
1:15; Matt. 19:14; 1 Cor. 7:14).
"In a company of converts applying for admission into Christ's
house there are likely to be some heads of families. How is
their case to be treated? How, for example, are Lydia and her
neighbour the keeper of the city prison to be treated? Both have
been converted. Both are heads of families. They desire to be
received into the infant church of Philippi. What is Christ's
direction to them? Shall we say that it is to this effect:
'Arise, and wash away your sins, and come into my house. But you
must come in by yourselves. These babes in your arms, you must
leave them outside. They cannot believe yet, and so they cannot
come in. Those other little ones by your side, their hearts may
perhaps have been touched with the love of God; still, they are
not old enough to make a personal profession, so they too must
be left outside...For the present you must leave them where they
are and come in by yourselves.' One may reasonably demand very
stringent proofs before accepting this as a fair representation
of the sort of welcome Christ offers to parents who come to his
door bringing their children with them. Surely it is more
consonant with all we know about him to suppose that his welcome
will be more ample in its scope, and will breathe a more
gracious tone. Surely it would be more like the Good Shepherd to
say, 'Come in, and bring your little ones along with you. The
youngest needs my salvation; and the youngest is accessible to
my salvation. You may be unable as yet to deal with them about
either sin or salvation, but my gracious power can find its way
into their hearts even now. I can impart to them pardon and a
new life. From Adam they have inherited sin and death; and I can
so unite them to myself that in me they shall be heirs of
righteousness and life. You may without misgiving bring them to
me. And the law of my house requires that the same day which
witnesses your reception into it by baptism must witness their
reception also'" (The Church, by Professor Binnie, D.D.).
There are three Greek words used in the New Testament to denote
repentance. (1.) The verb "metamelomai" is used of a change of
mind, such as to produce regret or even remorse on account of
sin, but not necessarily a change of heart. This word is used
with reference to the repentance of Judas (Matt. 27:3).
(2.) Metanoeo, meaning to change one's mind and purpose, as
the result of after knowledge. This verb, with (3) the cognate
noun "metanoia", is used of true repentance, a change of mind
and purpose and life, to which remission of sin is promised.
Evangelical repentance consists of (1) a true sense of one's
own guilt and sinfulness; (2) an apprehension of God's mercy in
Christ; (3) an actual hatred of sin (Ps. 119:128; Job 42:5, 6; 2
Cor. 7:10) and turning from it to God; and (4) a persistent
endeavour after a holy life in a walking with God in the way of
The true penitent is conscious of guilt (Ps. 51:4, 9), of
pollution (51:5, 7, 10), and of helplessness (51:11; 109:21,
22). Thus he apprehends himself to be just what God has always
seen him to be and declares him to be. But repentance
comprehends not only such a sense of sin, but also an
apprehension of mercy, without which there can be no true
repentance (Ps. 51:1; 130:4).
(1.) Heb. mitpahath (Ruth 3:15; marg., "sheet" or "apron;" R.V.,
"mantle"). In Isa. 3:22 this word is plural, rendered "wimples;"
R.V., "shawls" i.e., wraps.
(2.) Massekah (Isa. 25:7; in Isa. 28:20 rendered "covering").
The word denotes something spread out and covering or concealing
something else (compare 2 Cor. 3:13-15).
(3.) Masveh (Ex. 34:33, 35), the veil on the face of Moses.
This verse should be read, "And when Moses had done speaking
with them, he put a veil on his face," as in the Revised
Version. When Moses spoke to them he was without the veil; only
when he ceased speaking he put on the veil (compare 2 Cor. 3:13,
(4.) Paroheth (Ex. 26:31-35), the veil of the tabernacle and
the temple, which hung between the holy place and the most holy
(2 Chr. 3:14). In the temple a partition wall separated these
two places. In it were two folding-doors, which are supposed to
have been always open, the entrance being concealed by the veil
which the high priest lifted when he entered into the sanctuary
on the day of Atonement. This veil was rent when Christ died on
the cross (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45).
(5.) Tza'iph (Gen. 24:65). Rebekah "took a vail and covered
herself." (See also 38:14, 19.) Hebrew women generally appeared
in public without veils (12:14; 24:16; 29:10; 1 Sam. 1:12).
(6.) Radhidh (Cant. 5:7, R.V. "mantle;" Isa. 3:23). The word
probably denotes some kind of cloak or wrapper.
(7.) Masak, the veil which hung before the entrance to the
holy place (Ex. 26:36, 37).
denotes, (1) the Holy Land (Ex. 15:17; compare Ps. 114:2); (2) the
temple (1 Chr. 22:19; 2 Chr. 29:21); (3) the tabernacle (Ex.
25:8; Lev. 12:4; 21:12); (4) the holy place, the place of the
Presence (Gr. hieron, the temple-house; not the "naos", which is
the temple area, with its courts and porches), Lev. 4:6; Eph.
2:21, R.V., marg.; (5) God's holy habitation in heaven (Ps.
102:19). In the final state there is properly "no sanctuary"
(Rev. 21:22), for God and the Lamb "are the sanctuary" (R.V.,
"temple"). All is there hallowed by the Divine Presence; all is
torches. Deborah is called "the wife of Lapidoth" (Judg. 4:4).
Some have rendered the expression "a woman of a fiery spirit,"
under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a
woman of a torch-like spirit.
The Spirit is the earnest of the believer's destined inheritance
(2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14). The word thus rendered is the
same as that rendered "pledge" in Gen. 38:17-20; "indeed, the
Hebrew word has simply passed into the Greek and Latin
languages, probably through commercial dealings with the
Phoenicians, the great trading people of ancient days.
Originally it meant no more than a pledge; but in common usage
it came to denote that particular kind of pledge which is a part
of the full price of an article paid in advance; and as it is
joined with the figure of a seal when applied to the Spirit, it
seems to be used by Paul in this specific sense." The Spirit's
gracious presence and working in believers is a foretaste to
them of the blessedness of heaven. God is graciously pleased to
give not only pledges but foretastes of future blessedness.
Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the
feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4;
fellowship with God (Gen. 18:17-33; Ex. 33:9-11; Num. 12:7, 8),
between Christ and his people (John 14:23), by the Spirit (2
Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1), of believers with one another (Eph.
4:1-6). The Lord's Supper is so called (1 Cor. 10:16, 17),
because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his
disciples, and of the disciples with one another.
a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a
change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity.
(1.) In Col. 1:21, 22, the word there used refers to a change
wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be
an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full
confidence and love. In 2 Cor. 5:20 the apostle beseeches the
Corinthians to be "reconciled to God", i.e., to lay aside their
(2.) Rom. 5:10 refers not to any change in our disposition
toward God, but to God himself, as the party reconciled. Romans
5:11 teaches the same truth. From God we have received "the
reconciliation" (R.V.), i.e., he has conferred on us the token
of his friendship. So also 2 Cor. 5:18, 19 speaks of a
reconciliation originating with God, and consisting in the
removal of his merited wrath. In Eph. 2:16 it is clear that the
apostle does not refer to the winning back of the sinner in love
and loyalty to God, but to the restoration of God's forfeited
favour. This is effected by his justice being satisfied, so that
he can, in consistency with his own nature, be favourable toward
sinners. Justice demands the punishment of sinners. The death of
Christ satisfies justice, and so reconciles God to us. This
reconciliation makes God our friend, and enables him to pardon
and save us. (See ATONEMENT T0000362.)
Heb. goel; i.e., one charged with the duty of restoring the
rights of another and avenging his wrongs (Lev. 25:48, 49; Num.
5:8; Ruth 4:1; Job 19:25; Ps. 19:14; 78:35, etc.). This title is
peculiarly applied to Christ. He redeems us from all evil by the
payment of a ransom (q.v.). (See REDEMPTION T0003084.)
to render sacred, to consecrate (Ex. 28:38; 29:1). This word is
from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of
God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).
falsehood. (1.) A town in the Shephelah, or plain country of
Judah (Josh. 15:44); probably the same as Chezib of Gen. 38:5 =
(2.) A Phoenician city (the Gr. Ecdippa), always retained in
their possession though assigned to the tribe of Asher (Josh.
19:29; Judg. 1:31). It is identified with the modern es-Zib, on
the Mediterranean, about 8 miles north of Accho.
the attitude generally assumed in Israel by those who were
engaged in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and
hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank
he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word,
no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always
sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom (Matt. 9:9) is
the exact way to state the case.", Thomson, Land and Book.
in the Revised Version of 1 Chr. 29:7; Ezra 2:69; 8:27; Neh.
7:70-72, where the Authorized Version has "dram." It is the
rendering of the Hebrew darkemon and the Greek dareikos. It was
a gold coin, bearing the figure of a Persian King with his crown
and armed with bow and arrow. It was current among the Jews
after their return from Babylon, i.e., while under the Persian
domination. It weighed about 128 grains troy, and was of the
value of about one guinea or rather more of our money. It is the
first coin mentioned in Scripture, and is the oldest that
history makes known to us.
a meeting of a religious character as distinguished from
congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and
legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such
convocations were the Sabbaths (Lev. 23:2, 3), the Passover (Ex.
12:16; Lev. 23:7, 8; Num. 28:25), Pentecost (Lev. 23:21), the
feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), the feast of Weeks
(Num. 28:26), and the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:35, 36). The
great fast, the annual day of atonement, was "the holy
convocation" (Lev. 23:27; Num. 29:7).
one separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by
profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ (Ps. 16:3; Rom.
1:7; 8:27; Phil. 1:1; Heb. 6:10).
The "saints" spoken of in Jude 1:14 are probably not the
disciples of Christ, but the "innumerable company of angels"
(Heb. 12:22; Ps. 68:17), with reference to Deut. 33:2.
This word is also used of the holy dead (Matt. 27:52; Rev.
18:24). It was not used as a distinctive title of the apostles
and evangelists and of a "spiritual nobility" till the fourth
century. In that sense it is not a scriptural title.
Son of God
The plural, "sons of God," is used (Gen. 6:2, 4) to denote the
pious descendants of Seth. In Job 1:6; 38:7 this name is applied
to the angels. Hosea uses the phrase (1:10) to designate the
gracious relation in which men stand to God.
In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the
relation into which we are brought to God by adoption (Rom.
8:14, 19; 2 Cor. 6:18; Gal. 4:5, 6; Phil. 2:15; 1 John 3:1, 2).
It occurs thirty-seven times in the New Testament as the
distinctive title of our Saviour. He does not bear this title in
consequence of his miraculous birth, nor of his incarnation, his
resurrection, and exaltation to the Father's right hand. This is
a title of nature and not of office. The sonship of Christ
denotes his equality with the Father. To call Christ the Son of
God is to assert his true and proper divinity. The second Person
of the Trinity, because of his eternal relation to the first
Person, is the Son of God. He is the Son of God as to his divine
nature, while as to his human nature he is the Son of David
(Rom. 1:3, 4. Compare Gal. 4:4; John 1:1-14; 5:18-25; 10:30-38,
which prove that Christ was the Son of God before his
incarnation, and that his claim to this title is a claim of
equality with God).
When used with reference to creatures, whether men or angels,
this word is always in the plural. In the singular it is always
used of the second Person of the Trinity, with the single
exception of Luke 3:38, where it is used of Adam.
Lamentations, Book of
called in the Hebrew canon "'Ekhah", meaning "How," being the
formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the
first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27). The LXX. adopted
the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now
in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the
prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the
holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among
the Khethubim. (See BIBLE T0000580.)
As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in
following the LXX. and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah.
The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord
with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him.
According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of
Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus
gate, where he wrote this book. That cavern is still pointed
out. "In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the
city, the local belief has placed 'the grotto of Jeremiah.'
There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has
immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned
the fall of his country" (Stanley, Jewish Church).
The book consists of five separate poems. In chapter 1 the
prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the
city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely. In chapter 2 these
miseries are described in connection with the national sins that
had caused them. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God.
The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day
would dawn for them. Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation
that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to
the people's sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach
may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people.
The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of
the Psalms (25, 34, 37, 119), i.e., each verse begins with a
letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. The first, second,
and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the
letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The third has sixty-six verses,
in which each three successive verses begin with the same
letter. The fifth is not acrostic.
Speaking of the "Wailing-place (q.v.) of the Jews" at
Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon,
Schaff says: "There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to
bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and
watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn
Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and
Resurrection of the dead
will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust (Dan. 12:2;
John 5:28, 29; Rom. 2:6-16; 2 Thess. 1:6-10). The qualities of
the resurrection body will be different from those of the body
laid in the grave (1 Cor. 15:53, 54; Phil. 3:21); but its
identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the
same body (1 Cor. 15:42-44) which rises again.
As to the nature of the resurrection body, (1) it will be
spiritual (1 Cor. 15:44), i.e., a body adapted to the use of the
soul in its glorified state, and to all the conditions of the
heavenly state; (2) glorious, incorruptible, and powerful (54);
(3) like unto the glorified body of Christ (Phil. 3:21); and (4)
immortal (Rev. 21:4).
Christ's resurrection secures and illustrates that of his
people. "(1.) Because his resurrection seals and consummates his
redemptive power; and the redemption of our persons involves the
redemption of our bodies (Rom. 8:23). (2.) Because of our
federal and vital union with Christ (1 Cor. 15:21, 22; 1 Thess.
4:14). (3.) Because of his Spirit which dwells in us making our
bodies his members (1 Cor. 6:15; Rom. 8:11). (4.) Because Christ
by covenant is Lord both of the living and the dead (Rom. 14:9).
This same federal and vital union of the Christian with Christ
likewise causes the resurrection of the believer to be similar
to as well as consequent upon that of Christ (1 Cor. 15:49;
Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2)." Hodge's Outlines of Theology.
overlay with stones (2 Chr. 3:6), adorn (Rev. 21:19), deck with
garlands (Matt. 23:29), furnish (12:44).
In Job 26:13 (Heb. shiphrah, meaning "brightness"), "By his
spirit the heavens are brightness" i.e., are bright, splendid,
God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14
and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words
as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an
interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew
connected with a throne (2 Chr. 9:18). Jehovah symbolically
dwelt in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark of
the covenant. The ark was his footstool (1 Chr. 28:2; Ps. 99:5;
132:7). And as heaven is God's throne, so the earth is his
footstool (Ps. 110:1; Isa. 66:1; Matt. 5:35).
In their wild state doves generally build their nests in the
clefts of rocks, but when domesticated "dove-cots" are prepared
for them (Cant. 2:14; Jer. 48:28; Isa. 60:8). The dove was
placed on the standards of the Assyrians and Babylonians in
honour, it is supposed, of Semiramis (Jer. 25:38; Vulg.,
"fierceness of the dove;" compare Jer. 46:16; 50:16). Doves and
turtle-doves were the only birds that could be offered in
sacrifice, as they were clean according to the Mosaic law (Ge.
15:9; Lev. 5:7; 12:6; Luke 2:24). The dove was the harbinger of
peace to Noah (Gen. 8:8, 10). It is often mentioned as the
emblem of purity (Ps. 68:13). It is a symbol of the Holy Spirit
(Gen. 1:2; Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32); also of
tender and devoted affection (Cant. 1:15; 2:14). David in his
distress wished that he had the wings of a dove, that he might
fly away and be at rest (Ps. 55:6-8). There is a species of dove
found at Damascus "whose feathers, all except the wings, are
literally as yellow as gold" (68:13).
a prominent Christian grace (Rom. 12:3; 15:17, 18; 1 Cor. 3:5-7;
2 Cor. 3:5; Phil. 4:11-13). It is a state of mind well pleasing
to God (1 Pet. 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Ps.
69:32, 33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22).
Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil. 2:6-8). We
should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lam. 3:39),
and by the thought that it is the way to honour (Prov. 16:18),
and that the greatest promises are made to the humble (Ps.
147:6; Isa. 57:15; 66:2; 1 Pet. 5:5). It is a "great paradox in
Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory."
"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all
things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was
absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of
all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation
is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, 26); (2) to the
Father (1 Cor. 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17);
(4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30). The
fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true
God (Isa. 37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11, 12). The
one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of
the glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36).
God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him;
and between the teachings of the one and those of the other,
when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.
Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are
found among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD
T0000060.) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the
Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower
Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have been brought
to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued
from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a
remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.
(1 Cor. 13), the rendering in the Authorized Version of the word
which properly denotes love, and is frequently so rendered
(always so in the Revised Version). It is spoken of as the
greatest of the three Christian graces (1 Cor. 12:31-13:13).
one of the two portions into which the tabernacle was divided
(Ex. 26:31; 37:17-25; Heb. 9:2). It was 20 cubits long and 10 in
height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden
candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It
contained the table of showbread (Ex. 25:23-29) and the golden
altar of incense (30:1-11). It was divided from the holy of
holies by a veil of the most costly materials and the brightest
The arrangement of the temple (q.v.) was the same in this
respect. In it the walls of hewn stone were wainscotted with
cedar and overlaid with gold, and adorned with beautiful
carvings. It was entered from the porch by folding doors
overlaid with gold and richly embossed. Outside the holy place
stood the great tank or "sea" of molten brass, supported by
twelve oxen, three turned each way, capable of containing two
thousand baths of water. Besides this there were ten lavers and
the brazen altar of burnt sacrifice.
Mount of the congregation
only in Isa. 14:13, a mythic mountain of the Babylonians,
regarded by them as the seat of the gods. It was situated in the
far north, and in Babylonian inscriptions is described as a
mountain called Im-Kharasak, "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose
head reaches heaven, whose root is the holy deep." In their
geography they are said to have identified it with mount
El-wend, near Ecbatana.
Corinthians, First Epistle to the
was written from Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:8) about the time of the
Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts
19:10; 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit
Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57).
The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth
frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions
that had arisen among them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and
then from a letter they had written him on the subject, and also
from some of the "household of Chloe," and from Stephanas and
his two friends who had visited him (1 Cor. 1:11; 16:17). Paul
thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the
factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that had
sprung up among them, and remedying the many abuses and
disorderly practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose
name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter (2
Cor. 2:13; 8:6, 16-18).
The epistle may be divided into four parts:
(1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable
divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor.
(2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had
become notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought
the very first principles of morality (5; 6).
(3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of
doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain
communications they had made to him. He especially rectifies
certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord's
(4.) The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate
defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which
had been called in question by some among them, followed by some
general instructions, intimations, and greetings.
This epistle "shows the powerful self-control of the apostle
in spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances,
his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature. It was
written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction
and pressure of heart...and with streaming eyes' (2 Cor. 2:4);
yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with
a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win
back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early
church...It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic
church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or
purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and
applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages
in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they
This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has
never been called in question by critics of any school, so many
and so conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin.
The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the
Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi. This error
arose from a mistranslation of 1 Cor. 16:5, "For I do pass
through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am
passing through Macedonia." In 16:8 he declares his intention of
remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After that, his purpose
is to "pass through Macedonia."
Sorcerers or necormancers, who professed to call up the dead to
answer questions, were said to have a "familiar spirit" (Deut.
18:11; 2 Kings 21:6; 2 Chr. 33:6; Lev. 19:31; 20:6; Isa. 8:19;
29:4). Such a person was called by the Hebrews an "'ob", which
properly means a leathern bottle; for sorcerers were regarded as
vessels containing the inspiring demon. This Hebrew word was
equivalent to the pytho of the Greeks, and was used to denote
both the person and the spirit which possessed him (Lev. 20:27;
1 Sam. 28:8; compare Acts 16:16). The word "familiar" is from the
Latin familiaris, meaning a "household servant," and was
intended to express the idea that sorcerers had spirits as their
servants ready to obey their commands.
(1.) The orient (mizrah); the rising of the sun. Thus "the east
country" is the country lying to the east of Syria, the Elymais
(2). Properly what is in front of one, or a country that is
before or in front of another; the rendering of the word
"kedem". In pointing out the quarters, a Hebrew always looked
with his face toward the east. The word "kedem" is used when the
four quarters of the world are described (Gen. 13:14; 28:14);
and "mizrah" when the east only is distinguished from the west
(Josh. 11:3; Ps. 50:1; 103:12, etc.). In Gen. 25:6 "eastward" is
literally "unto the land of kedem;" i.e., the lands lying east
of Israel, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, etc.
Trumpets, Feast of
was celebrated at the beginning of the month Tisri, the first
month of the civil year. It received its name from the
circumstances that the trumpets usually blown at the
commencement of each month were on that occasion blown with
unusual solemnity (Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 10:10; 29:1-6). It was
one of the seven days of holy convocation. The special design of
this feast, which is described in these verses, is not known.
a province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and
Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early
time (1 Pet. 1:1). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from
entering this province (Acts 16:7). It is noted in church
history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul,
who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the
numerous Christians brought before his tribunal on account of
their profession of Christianity and their conduct, and wrote to
Trajan, the emperor, for instructions (A.D. 107).
always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike
operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job
39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the
Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition,
Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2
Sam. 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly
multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this,
horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7;
9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of
a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary."
It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Ex. 30:34-36).
That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense"
(30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and
besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place,
and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest
in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer
(Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
The Israelites "borrowed" from the Egyptians (Ex. 12:35, R.V.,
"asked") in accordance with a divine command (3:22; 11:2). But
the word (sha'al) so rendered here means simply and always to
"request" or "demand." The Hebrew had another word which is
properly translated "borrow" in Deut. 28:12; Ps. 37:21. It was
well known that the parting was final. The Egyptians were so
anxious to get the Israelites away out of their land that "they
let them have what they asked" (Ex. 12:36, R.V.), or literally
"made them to ask," urged them to take whatever they desired and
depart. (See LOAN T0002307.)
first used of the tabernacle, which is called "the temple of the
Lord" (1 Sam. 1:9). In the New Testament the word is used
figuratively of Christ's human body (John 2:19, 21). Believers
are called "the temple of God" (1 Cor. 3:16, 17). The Church is
designated "an holy temple in the Lord" (Eph. 2:21). Heaven is
also called a temple (Rev. 7:5). We read also of the heathen
"temple of the great goddess Diana" (Acts 19:27).
This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house
erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It
is called "the temple" (1 Kings 6:17); "the temple [R.V.,
'house'] of the Lord" (2 Kings 11:10); "thy holy temple" (Ps.
79:1); "the house of the Lord" (2 Chr. 23:5, 12); "the house of
the God of Jacob" (Isa. 2:3); "the house of my glory" (60:7); an
"house of prayer" (56:7; Matt. 21:13); "an house of sacrifice"
(2 Chr. 7:12); "the house of their sanctuary" (2 Chr. 36:17);
"the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isa. 2:2); "our holy and our
beautiful house" (64:11); "the holy mount" (27:13); "the palace
for the Lord God" (1 Chr. 29:1); "the tabernacle of witness" (2
Chr. 24:6); "Zion" (Ps. 74:2; 84:7). Christ calls it "my
Father's house" (John 2:16).
occurs twelve times in the New Testament (Heb. 9:15, etc.) as
the rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times
rendered "covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in
the Revised Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by
testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by
which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is
divided. (See BIBLE T0000580.)
Heb. helbenah, (Ex. 30:34), one of the ingredients in the holy
incense. It is a gum, probably from the Galbanum officinale.
the Greek form of the name of Timothy (Acts 16:1, etc.; the R.V.
(Job 40:15-24). Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word
meaning a "water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin
"hippopotamus," which is probably the correct rendering of the
word. The word occurs frequently in Scripture, but, except here,
always as a common name, and translated "beast" or "cattle."
mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the
time of David. The word probably means "runners" or "couriers,"
and may denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard,
they were also sometimes employed as couriers (2 Sam. 8:18;
20:7, 23;1 Kings 1:38, 44; 1 Chr. 18:17). Some, however, think
that these are the names simply of two Philistine tribes from
which David selected his body-guard. They are mentioned along
with the Gittites (2 Sam. 15:18), another body of foreign troops
whom David gathered round him.
Ex. 25:30 (R.V. marg., "presence bread"); 1 Chr. 9:32 (marg.,
"bread of ordering"); Num. 4:7: called "hallowed bread" (R.V.,
"holy bread") in 1 Sam. 21:1-6.
This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest
flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of
six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They were
renewed every Sabbath (Lev. 24:5-9), and those that were removed
to give place to the new ones were to be eaten by the priests
only in the holy place (see 1 Sam. 21:3-6; compare Matt. 12:3, 4).
The number of the loaves represented the twelve tribes of
Israel, and also the entire spiritual Israel, "the true Israel;"
and the placing of them on the table symbolized the entire
consecration of Israel to the Lord, and their acceptance of God
as their God. The table for the bread was made of acacia wood, 3
feet long, 18 inches broad, and 2 feet 3 inches high. It was
plated with pure gold. Two staves, plated with gold, passed
through golden rings, were used for carrying it.
anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a
temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the
word is "anath(ee)ma", once in plural used in the Greek New
Testament, in Luke 21:5, where it is rendered "gifts." In the
LXX. the form "anathema" is generally used as the rendering of
the Hebrew word "herem", derived from a verb which means (1) to
consecrate or devote; and (2) to exterminate. Any object so
devoted to the Lord could not be redeemed (Num. 18:14; Lev.
27:28, 29); and hence the idea of exterminating connected with
the word. The Hebrew verb (haram) is frequently used of the
extermination of idolatrous nations. It had a wide range of
application. The "anathema" or "herem" was a person or thing
irrevocably devoted to God (Lev. 27:21, 28); and "none devoted
shall be ransomed. He shall surely be put to death" (27:29). The
word therefore carried the idea of devoted to destruction (Num.
21:2, 3; Josh. 6:17); and hence generally it meant a thing
accursed. In Deut. 7:26 an idol is called a "herem" =
"anathema", a thing accursed.
In the New Testament this word always implies execration. In
some cases an individual denounces an anathema on himself unless
certain conditions are fulfilled (Acts 23:12, 14, 21). "To call
Jesus accursed" [anathema] (1 Cor. 12:3) is to pronounce him
execrated or accursed. If any one preached another gospel, the
apostle says, "let him be accursed" (Gal. 1:8, 9); i.e., let his
conduct in so doing be accounted accursed.
In Rom. 9:3, the expression "accursed" (anathema) from Christ,
i.e., excluded from fellowship or alliance with Christ, has
occasioned much difficulty. The apostle here does not speak of
his wish as a possible thing. It is simply a vehement expression
of feeling, showing how strong was his desire for the salvation
of his people.
The anathema in 1 Cor. 16:22 denotes simply that they who love
not the Lord are rightly objects of loathing and execration to
all holy beings; they are guilty of a crime that merits the
severest condemnation; they are exposed to the just sentence of
"everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord."
bitterness, the sister of Lazarus and Mary, and probably the
eldest of the family, who all resided at Bethany (Luke 10:38,
40, 41; John 11:1-39). From the residence being called "her
house," some have supposed that she was a widow, and that her
brother and sister lodged with her. She seems to have been of an
anxious, bustling spirit, anxious to be helpful in providing the
best things for the Master's use, in contrast to the quiet
earnestness of Mary, who was more concerned to avail herself of
the opportunity of sitting at his feet and learning of him.
Afterwards at a supper given to Christ and his disciples in her
house "Martha served." Nothing further is known of her.
"Mary and Martha are representatives of two orders of human
character. One was absorbed, preoccupied, abstracted; the other
was concentrated and single-hearted. Her own world was the all
of Martha; Christ was the first thought with Mary. To Martha
life was 'a succession of particular businesses;' to Mary life
'was rather the flow of one spirit.' Martha was Petrine, Mary
was Johannine. The one was a well-meaning, bustling busybody;
the other was a reverent disciple, a wistful listener." Paul had
such a picture as that of Martha in his mind when he spoke of
serving the Lord "without distraction" (1 Cor. 7:35).
bear-keeper, the name given by the ancients to the brightest
star in the constellation Bootes. In the Authorized Version (Job
9:9; 38:32) it is the rendering of the Hebrew word "'ash", which
probably designates the constellation the Great Bear. This word
('ash) is supposed to be derived from an Arabic word meaning
night-watcher, because the Great Bear always revolves about the
pole, and to our nothern hemisphere never sets.
an obligation of any kind (Num. 30:2, 4, 12). The word means
also oppression or affliction (Ps. 116:16; Phil. 1:7). Christian
love is the "bond of perfectness" (Col. 3:14), and the
influences of the Spirit are the "bond of peace" (Eph. 4:3).
Shechinah, a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture,
but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of
God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's
temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before
them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his
presence with his people. For references made to it during the
wilderness wanderings, see Ex. 14:20; 40:34-38; Lev. 9:23, 24;
Num. 14:10; 16:19, 42.
It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this
glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the
covenant in the most holy place. We have, however, no special
reference to it till the consecration of the temple by Solomon,
when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the
priests could not stand to minister (1 Kings 8:10-13; 2 Chr.
5:13, 14; 7:1-3). Probably it remained in the first temple in
the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long
as that temple stood. It afterwards disappeared. (See CLOUD
a city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor,
named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from
it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second
missionary journey, saw the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who
appeared to him, saying, "Come over, and help us" (Acts
16:8-11). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on
one of these visits he left his cloak and some books there (2
Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13). The ruins of Troas extend over many
miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak
trees. The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old
Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos, meaning a "runner,"
"messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual
jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who
spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or
Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian
language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead
of the Hebrew. This jealousy early appeared in the Christian
community. It was alleged by the Hellenists that their widows
were overlooked in the daily distribution of alms. This spirit
must be checked. The apostles accordingly advised the disciples
to look out for seven men of good report, full of the Holy
Ghost, and men of practical wisdom, who should take entire
charge of this distribution, leaving them free to devote
themselves entirely to the spiritual functions of their office
(Acts 6:1-6). This was accordingly done. Seven men were chosen,
who appear from their names to have been Hellenists. The name
"deacon" is nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they
are simply called "the seven" (21:8). Their office was at first
secular, but it afterwards became also spiritual; for among
other qualifications they must also be "apt to teach" (1 Tim. 3:
8-12). Both Philip and Stephen, who were of "the seven,"
preached; they did "the work of evangelists."
(1.) Hebrew "kiddah'", i.e., "split." One of the principal
spices of the holy anointing oil (Ex. 30:24), and an article of
commerce (Ezek. 27:19). It is the inner bark of a tree
resembling the cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of
botanists, and was probably imported from India.
(2.) Hebrew pl. "ketzi'oth" (Ps. 45:8). Mentioned in
connection with myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garments.
It was probably prepared from the peeled bark, as the Hebrew
word suggests, of some kind of cinnamon.
Fear of the Lord the
is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety
(Prov. 1:7; Job 28:28; Ps. 19:9). It is a fear conjoined with
love and hope, and is therefore not a slavish dread, but rather
filial reverence. (Compare Deut. 32:6; Hos. 11:1; Isa. 1:2; 63:16;
64:8.) God is called "the Fear of Isaac" (Gen. 31:42, 53), i.e.,
the God whom Isaac feared.
A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testament as a
preventive of carelessness in religion, and as an incentive to
penitence (Matt. 10:28; 2 Cor. 5:11; 7:1; Phil. 2:12; Eph. 5:21;
Heb. 12:28, 29).
Bible, the English form of the Greek name "Biblia", meaning
"books," the name which in the fifth century began to be given
to the entire collection of sacred books, the "Library of Divine
Revelation." The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came
gradually into use in our English language. The Bible consists
of sixty-six different books, composed by many different
writers, in three different languages, under different
circumstances; writers of almost every social rank, statesmen
and peasants, kings, herdsmen, fishermen, priests,
tax-gatherers, tentmakers; educated and uneducated, Jews and
Gentiles; most of them unknown to each other, and writing at
various periods during the space of about 1600 years: and yet,
after all, it is only one book dealing with only one subject in
its numberless aspects and relations, the subject of man's
It is divided into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine
books, and the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books. The
names given to the Old in the writings of the New are "the
scriptures" (Matt. 21:42), "scripture" (2 Pet. 1:20), "the holy
scriptures" (Rom. 1:2), "the law" (John 12:34), "the law of
Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (Luke 24:44), "the law and
the prophets" (Matt. 5:17), "the old covenant" (2 Cor. 3:14,
R.V.). There is a break of 400 years between the Old Testament
and the New. (See APOCRYPHA T0000263.)
The Old Testament is divided into three parts:, 1. The Law
(Torah), consisting of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses.
2. The Prophets, consisting of (1) the former, namely, Joshua,
Judges, the Books of Samuel, and the Books of Kings; (2) the
latter, namely, the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and
Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets. 3. The Hagiographa, or
holy writings, including the rest of the books. These were
ranked in three divisions:, (1) The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job,
distinguished by the Hebrew name, a word formed of the initial
letters of these books, "emeth", meaning truth. (2) Canticles,
Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, called the five
rolls, as being written for the synagogue use on five separate
rolls. (3) Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles.
Between the Old and the New Testament no addition was made to
the revelation God had already given. The period of New
Testament revelation, extending over a century, began with the
appearance of John the Baptist.
The New Testament consists of (1) the historical books, viz.,
the Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles; (2) the Epistles; and
(3) the book of prophecy, the Revelation.
The division of the Bible into chapters and verses is
altogether of human invention, designed to facilitate reference
to it. The ancient Jews divided the Old Testament into certain
sections for use in the synagogue service, and then at a later
period, in the ninth century A.D., into verses. Our modern
system of chapters for all the books of the Bible was introduced
by Cardinal Hugo about the middle of the thirteenth century (he
died 1263). The system of verses for the New Testament was
introduced by Stephens in 1551, and generally adopted, although
neither Tyndale's nor Coverdale's English translation of the
Bible has verses. The division is not always wisely made, yet it
is very useful. (See VERSION T0003768.)
the Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized
Version of the New Testament (Matt. 3:3; 4:14), but in the
Revised Version always "Isaiah."
the price or payment made for our redemption, as when it is said
that the Son of man "gave his life a ransom for many" (Matt.
20:28; compare Acts 20:28; Rom. 3:23, 24; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal.
3:13; 4:4, 5: Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14; 1 Tim. 2:6; Titus 2:14; 1
Pet. 1:18, 19. In all these passages the same idea is
expressed). This word is derived from the Fr. rancon; Lat.
redemptio. The debt is represented not as cancelled but as fully
paid. The slave or captive is not liberated by a mere gratuitous
favour, but a ransom price has been paid, in consideration of
which he is set free. The original owner receives back his
alienated and lost possession because he has bought it back
"with a price." This price or ransom (Gr. lutron) is always said
to be Christ, his blood, his death. He secures our redemption by
the payment of a ransom. (See REDEMPTION T0003084.)
Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The
Mosaic legislation (Lev. 25:35; Deut. 15:7) tended to promote a
spirit of charity, and to prevent the occurrence of destitution
among the people. Such passages as these, Ps. 41:1; 112:9; Prov.
14:31; Isa. 10:2; Amos 2:7; Jer. 5:28; Ezek. 22:29, would also
naturally foster the same benevolent spirit.
In the time of our Lord begging was common (Mark 10:46; Acts
3:2). The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their almsgivings
(Matt. 6:2). The spirit by which the Christian ought to be
actuated in this duty is set forth in 1 John 3:17. A regard to
the state of the poor and needy is enjoined as a Christian duty
(Luke 3:11; 6:30; Matt. 6:1; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4), a duty which
was not neglected by the early Christians (Luke 14:13; Acts
20:35; Gal. 2:10; Rom. 15:25-27; 1 Cor. 16:1-4). They cared not
only for the poor among themselves, but contributed also to the
necessities of those at a distance (Acts 11:29; 24:17; 2 Cor.
9:12). Our Lord and his attendants showed an example also in
this (John 13:29).
In modern times the "poor-laws" have introduced an element
which modifies considerably the form in which we may discharge
this Christian duty.
the lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make
for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form
is described in Ex. 25:31-40; 37:17-24, and may be seen
represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the
spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D.
70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging
to it was a talent in weight.
The tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial
light was needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which,
however, served also as a symbol of the church or people of God,
who are "the light of the world." The light which "symbolizes
the knowledge of God is not the sun or any natural light, but an
artificial light supplied with a specially prepared oil; for the
knowledge of God is in truth not natural nor common to all men,
but furnished over and above nature."
This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy
Place, opposite the table of shewbread (Ex. 27:21; 30:7, 8; Lev.
24:3; 1 Sam. 3:3). It was lighted every evening, and was
extinguished in the morning. In the morning the priests trimmed
the seven lamps, borne by the seven branches, with golden
snuffers, carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Ex. 25:38),
and supplying the lamps at the same time with fresh oil. What
ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown.
In Solomon's temple there were ten separate candlesticks of
pure gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy
Place (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chr. 4:7). Their structure is not
mentioned. They were carried away to Babylon (Jer. 52:19).
In the temple erected after the Exile there was again but one
candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was
this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where
it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered
Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455). It
was recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533), and carried to
Constantinople and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally
one "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his
apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted
by God to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies
of men, inflicting dumbness (Matt. 9:32), blindness (12:22),
epilepsy (Mark 9:17-27), insanity (Matt. 8:28; Mark 5:1-5).
Daemoniacs are frequently distinguished from those who are
afflicted with ordinary bodily maladies (Mark 1:32; 16:17, 18;
Luke 6:17, 18). The daemons speak in their own persons (Matt.
8:29; Mark 1:23, 24; 5:7). This influence is clearly
distinguished from the ordinary power of corruption and of
temptation over men. In the daemoniac his personality seems to
be destroyed, and his actions, words, and even thoughts to be
overborne by the evil spirit (Mark, l.c.; Acts 19:15).
father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings
of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called
Abijah (1 Kings 15:1,7,8). (See ABIJAH T0000036, 5.)
The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the
Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of
consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the
high priest (Ex. 29:29; Lev. 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Ex.
30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the
anointed" (Lev. 4:3, 5, 16; 6:20; Ps. 132:10). Anointing a king
was equivalent to crowning him (1 Sam. 16:13; 2 Sam. 2:4, etc.).
Prophets were also anointed (1 Kings 19:16; 1 Chr. 16:22; Ps.
105:15). The expression, "anoint the shield" (Isa. 21:5), refers
to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as
to make it supple and fit for use in war.
(2.) Anointing was also an act of hospitality (Luke 7:38, 46).
It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint
themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating
their bodies (Deut. 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 14:2; Ps. 104:15,
etc.). This custom is continued among the Arabians to the
(3.) Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied
to the sick, and also to wounds (Ps. 109:18; Isa. 1:6; Mark
6:13; James 5:14).
(4.) The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed (Mark
14:8; Luke 23:56).
(5.) The promised Deliverer is twice called the "Anointed" or
Messiah (Ps. 2:2; Dan. 9:25, 26), because he was anointed with
the Holy Ghost (Isa. 61:1), figuratively styled the "oil of
gladness" (Ps. 45:7; Heb. 1:9). Jesus of Nazareth is this
anointed One (John 1:41; Acts 9:22; 17:2, 3; 18:5, 28), the
Messiah of the Old Testament.
a scholar, sometimes applied to the followers of John the
Baptist (Matt. 9:14), and of the Pharisees (22:16), but
principally to the followers of Christ. A disciple of Christ is
one who (1) believes his doctrine, (2) rests on his sacrifice,
(3) imbibes his spirit, and (4) imitates his example (Matt.
10:24; Luke 14:26, 27, 33; John 6:69).
a calm temper of mind, not easily provoked (James 3:13).
Peculiar promises are made to the meek (Matt. 5:5; Isa. 66:2).
The cultivation of this spirit is enjoined (Col. 3:12; 1 Tim.
6:11; Zeph. 2:3), and is exemplified in Christ (Matt. 11:29),
Abraham (Gen. 13; 16:5, 6) Moses (Num. 12:3), David (Zech. 12:8;
2 Sam. 16:10, 12), and Paul (1 Cor. 9:19).
is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of
God" (1 John 3:4; Rom. 4:15), in the inward state and habit of
the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether
by omission or commission (Rom. 6:12-17; 7:5-24). It is "not a
mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system
of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral
governor who vindicates his law with penalties. The soul that
sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile
and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and
calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it
two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and
(2) pollution (macula).", Hodge's Outlines.
The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the
moral state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit
of the soul that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin
(Rom. 6:12-17; Gal. 5:17; James 1:14, 15).
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such
to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to
enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it,
however, in no way makes God the author of sin.
Adam's sin (Gen. 3:1-6) consisted in his yielding to the
assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It
involved in it, (1) the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a
liar; and (2) the guilt of disobedience to a positive command.
By this sin he became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms
against his Creator. He lost the favour of God and communion
with him; his whole nature became depraved, and he incurred the
penalty involved in the covenant of works.
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all
mankind, the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death
in sin and corrupted nature were conveyed to all their
posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation." Adam
was constituted by God the federal head and representative of
all his posterity, as he was also their natural head, and
therefore when he fell they fell with him (Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor.
15:22-45). His probation was their probation, and his fall their
fall. Because of Adam's first sin all his posterity came into
the world in a state of sin and condemnation, i.e., (1) a state
of moral corruption, and (2) of guilt, as having judicially
imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin.
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only
the moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men
from Adam. This inherited moral corruption consists in, (1) the
loss of original righteousness; and (2) the presence of a
constant proneness to evil, which is the root and origin of all
actual sin. It is called "sin" (Rom. 6:12, 14, 17; 7:5-17), the
"flesh" (Gal. 5:17, 24), "lust" (James 1:14, 15), the "body of
sin" (Rom. 6:6), "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation
from the life of God" (Eph. 4:18, 19). It influences and
depraves the whole man, and its tendency is still downward to
deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no recuperative
element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it is also
universally inherited by all the natural descendants of Adam
(Rom. 3:10-23; 5:12-21; 8:7). Pelagians deny original sin, and
regard man as by nature morally and spiritually well;
semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as
they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as described above,
spiritually dead (Eph. 2:1; 1 John 3:14).
The doctrine of original sin is proved, (1.) From the fact of
the universal sinfulness of men. "There is no man that sinneth
not" (1 Kings 8:46; Isa. 53:6; Ps. 130:3; Rom. 3:19, 22, 23;
Gal. 3:22). (2.) From the total depravity of man. All men are
declared to be destitute of any principle of spiritual life;
man's apostasy from God is total and complete (Job 15:14-16;
Gen. 6:5,6). (3.) From its early manifestation (Ps. 58:3; Prov.
22:15). (4.) It is proved also from the necessity, absolutely
and universally, of regeneration (John 3:3; 2 Cor. 5:17). (5.)
From the universality of death (Rom. 5:12-20).
Various kinds of sin are mentioned, (1.) "Presumptuous sins,"
or as literally rendered, "sins with an uplifted hand", i.e.,
defiant acts of sin, in contrast with "errors" or
"inadvertencies" (Ps. 19:13). (2.) "Secret", i.e., hidden sins
(19:12); sins which escape the notice of the soul. (3.) "Sin
against the Holy Ghost" (q.v.), or a "sin unto death" (Matt.
12:31, 32; 1 John 5:16), which amounts to a wilful rejection of
Sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which
means, as does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so
called from the abundance of clay found there. It is called by
Ezekel (Ezek. 30:15) "the strength of Egypt, "thus denoting its
importance as a fortified city. It has been identified with the
modern Tineh, "a miry place," where its ruins are to be found.
Of its boasted magnificence only four red granite columns
remain, and some few fragments of others.
(Herb. nesher; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so
called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for
its swiftness of flight (Deut. 28:49; 2 Sam. 1:23), its mounting
high in the air (Job 39:27), its strength (Ps. 103:5), its
setting its nest in high places (Jer. 49:16), and its power of
vision (Job 39:27-30).
This "ravenous bird" is a symbol of those nations whom God
employs and sends forth to do a work of destruction, sweeping
away whatever is decaying and putrescent (Matt. 24:28; Isa.
46:11; Ezek. 39:4; Deut. 28:49; Jer. 4:13; 48:40). It is said
that the eagle sheds his feathers in the beginning of spring,
and with fresh plumage assumes the appearance of youth. To this,
allusion is made in Ps. 103:5 and Isa. 40:31. God's care over
his people is likened to that of the eagle in training its young
to fly (Ex. 19:4; Deut. 32:11, 12). An interesting illustration
is thus recorded by Sir Humphry Davy:, "I once saw a very
interesting sight above the crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent
eagles were teaching their offspring, two young birds, the
maneuvers of flight. They began by rising from the top of the
mountain in the eye of the sun. It was about mid-day, and bright
for the climate. They at first made small circles, and the young
birds imitated them. They paused on their wings, waiting till
they had made their flight, and then took a second and larger
gyration, always rising toward the sun, and enlarging their
circle of flight so as to make a gradually ascending spiral. The
young ones still and slowly followed, apparently flying better
as they mounted; and they continued this sublime exercise,
always rising till they became mere points in the air, and the
young ones were lost, and afterwards their parents, to our
aching sight." (See Isa. 40:31.)
There have been observed in Israel four distinct species of
eagles, (1) the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos); (2) the
spotted eagle (Aquila naevia); (3) the common species, the
imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca); and (4) the Circaetos gallicus,
which preys on reptiles. The eagle was unclean by the Levitical
law (Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12).
used to season food (Job 6:6), and mixed with the fodder of
cattle (Isa. 30:24, "clean;" in marg. of R.V. "salted"). All
meat-offerings were seasoned with salt (Lev. 2:13). To eat salt
with one is to partake of his hospitality, to derive subsistence
from him; and hence he who did so was bound to look after his
host's interests (Ezra 4:14, "We have maintenance from the
king's palace;" A.V. marg., "We are salted with the salt of the
palace;" R.V., "We eat the salt of the palace").
A "covenant of salt" (Num. 18:19; 2 Chr. 13:5) was a covenant
of perpetual obligation. New-born children were rubbed with salt
(Ezek. 16:4). Disciples are likened unto salt, with reference to
its cleansing and preserving uses (Matt. 5:13). When Abimelech
took the city of Shechem, he sowed the place with salt, that it
might always remain a barren soil (Judg. 9:45). Sir Lyon
Playfair argues, on scientific grounds, that under the generic
name of "salt," in certain passages, we are to understand
petroleum or its residue asphalt. Thus in Gen. 19:26 he would
read "pillar of asphalt;" and in Matt. 5:13, instead of "salt,"
"petroleum," which loses its essence by exposure, as salt does
not, and becomes asphalt, with which pavements were made.
The Jebel Usdum, to the south of the Dead Sea, is a mountain
of rock salt about 7 miles long and from 2 to 3 miles wide and
some hundreds of feet high.
Judgment, The final
the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day
(Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).
The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is
committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7). "It
pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest
the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies,
together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both
The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam
without a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52;
Rev. 20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude
The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed
to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke
12:47,48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be
judged by the law" (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light
of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matt.
11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be
brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2,3) to vindicate
the justice of the sentence pronounced.
The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb.
9:27; Acts 17:31).
As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain
[Eccl. 11:9], universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5],
decisive [1 Cor. 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences
[Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal
interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our
precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere
to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him
of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their
rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26-35).
They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to
cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19; 5:6).
The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1-49. Many
of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified.
Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regarding
the "Wanderings," but it is enough for us to take the sacred
narrative as it stands, and rest assured that "He led them forth
by the right way" (Ps. 107:1-7, 33-35). (See WILDERNESS
rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in
Ex. 30:25; 37:29; Eccl. 10:1. The holy oils and ointments were
prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. The
feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered
"confectionaries" in 1 Sam. 8:13.
a species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour
of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev.
11:30, where the Hebrew word so translated is "coah" (R.V.,
"land crocodile"). In the same verse the Hebrew "tanshemeth",
rendered in Authorized Version "mole," is in Revised Version
"chameleon," which is the correct rendering. This animal is very
common in Egypt and in the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan
Congregation, mount of the
(Isa. 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God
promised to meet with his people (Ex. 25:22; 29:42, 43) i.e.,
the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king
of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his
own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The
"mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the
northern mountain, supposed by the Babylonians to be the
meeting-place of their gods. In the Babylonian inscriptions
mention is made of a mountain which is described as "the mighty
mountain of Bel, whose head rivals heaven, whose root is the
holy deep." This mountain was regarded in their mythology as the
place where the gods had their seat.
a word as used in Scripture denoting produce in general, whether
vegetable or animal. The Hebrews divided the fruits of the land
into three classes:,
(1.) The fruit of the field, "corn-fruit" (Heb. dagan); all
kinds of grain and pulse.
(2.) The fruit of the vine, "vintage-fruit" (Heb. tirosh);
grapes, whether moist or dried.
(3.) "Orchard-fruits" (Heb. yitshar), as dates, figs, citrons,
Injunctions concerning offerings and tithes were expressed by
these Hebrew terms alone (Num. 18:12; Deut. 14:23). This word
"fruit" is also used of children or offspring (Gen. 30:2; Deut.
7:13; Luke 1:42; Ps. 21:10; 132:11); also of the progeny of
beasts (Deut. 28:51; Isa. 14:29).
It is used metaphorically in a variety of forms (Ps. 104:13;
Prov. 1:31; 11:30; 31:16; Isa. 3:10; 10:12; Matt. 3:8; 21:41;
26:29; Heb. 13:15; Rom. 7:4, 5; 15:28).
The fruits of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22, 23; Eph. 5:9; James 3:17,
18) are those gracious dispositions and habits which the Spirit
produces in those in whom he dwells and works.
Luke, Gospel according to
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an
eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best
sources of information within his reach, and to have written an
orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the
first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each
other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance
of the Holy Spirit.
Each writer has some things, both in matter and style,
peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common.
Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full
of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a
suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the
Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of
progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness
of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the
good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the
Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of
womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the
publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of
tolerance." The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar
(Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in
the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were
oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; compare Luke 4:18). Luke
wrote for the "Hellenic world." This Gospel is indeed "rich and
"Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with
Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common
with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many
instances all three use identical language." (See MATTHEW
T0002442; MARK T0002419; GOSPELS T0001532.)
There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this
Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records
seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and
Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels
are related to each other after the following scheme. If the
contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when
compared this result is obtained:
Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences.
Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences.
Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences.
That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew,
and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same
things in very similar language.
Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of
Matthew and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He
uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20),
but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink
of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar,
"he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.
This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the
The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been
written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is
generally fixed at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written,
therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at
Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others
have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's
imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can
It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction,
if not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are
common to both; e.g., compare:
Luke 4:22; with Col. 4:6.
Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor. 2:4.
Luke 6:36; with 2 Cor. 1:3.
Luke 6:39; with Rom. 2:19.
Luke 9:56; with 2 Cor. 10:8.
Luke 10:8; with 1 Cor. 10:27.
Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15.
Luke 18:1; with 2 Thess. 1:11.
Luke 21:36; with Eph. 6:18.
Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor. 11:23-29.
Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3.
Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor. 15:5.
the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate,
after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical
In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the
worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1-7) regarding
sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings
(1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by
the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering
of sacrifices (6; 7). (2.) An historical section (8-10), giving
an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (8);
Aaron's first offering for himself and the people (9); Nadab and
Abihu's presumption in offering "strange fire before Jehovah,"
and their punishment (10). (3.) Laws concerning purity, and the
sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (11-16). An
interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of
the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the
Holy Land by the Israel Exploration officers, makes the
following statement:, "Take these two catalogues of the clean
and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus  and
Deuteronomy . There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not
occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds
which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are
numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus
a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people
were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong
proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the
journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes
the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz.,
that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna
and the flora of the desert" (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan. 1887).
(4.) Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen
(17-20). (5.) Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and
their eating of the holy things (20; 21); about the offerings of
Israel, that they were to be without blemish (22:17-33); and
about the due celebration of the great festivals (23; 25). (6.)
Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding
obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows.
The various ordinances contained in this book were all
delivered in the space of a month (compare Ex. 40:17; Num. 1:1),
the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the
third book of Moses.
No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost
throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a
prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is
Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be
interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It
contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace