The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset (Lev. 23:32). It
was originally divided into three parts (Ps. 55:17). "The heat
of the day" (1 Sam. 11:11; Neh. 7:3) was at our nine o'clock,
and "the cool of the day" just before sunset (Gen. 3:8). Before
the Captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches, (1)
from sunset to midnight (Lam. 2:19); (2) from midnight till the
cock-crowing (Judg. 7:19); and (3) from the cock-crowing till
sunrise (Ex. 14:24). In the New Testament the division of the
Greeks and Romans into four watches was adopted (Mark 13:35).
(See WATCHES T0003789.)
The division of the day by hours is first mentioned in Dan.
3:6, 15; 4:19; 5:5. This mode of reckoning was borrowed from the
Chaldeans. The reckoning of twelve hours was from sunrise to
sunset, and accordingly the hours were of variable length (John
The word "day" sometimes signifies an indefinite time (Gen.
2:4; Isa. 22:5; Heb. 3:8, etc.). In Job 3:1 it denotes a
birthday, and in Isa. 2:12, Acts 17:31, and 2 Tim. 1:18, the
great day of final judgment.
Judgment, The final
the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day
(Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).
The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is
committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7). "It
pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest
the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies,
together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both
The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam
without a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52;
Rev. 20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude
The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed
to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke
12:47,48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be
judged by the law" (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light
of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matt.
11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be
brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2,3) to vindicate
the justice of the sentence pronounced.
The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb.
9:27; Acts 17:31).
As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain
[Eccl. 11:9], universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5],
decisive [1 Cor. 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences
[Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal
interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our
precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere
to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him
Book of Zephaniah
The book of the prophecies of Zephaniah consists of:
(a) An introduction (1:1-6), announcing the judgment of the world, and the judgment upon Israel, because of their transgressions.
(b) The description of the judgment (1:7-18).
(c) An exhortation to seek God while there is still time (2:1-3).
(d) The announcement of judgment on the heathen (2:4-15).
(e) The hopeless misery of Jerusalem (3:1-7).
(f) The promise of salvation (3:8-20).
(Matt. 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed
according as the magistrate might direct, and from which
judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a
tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's
residence. (See GABBATHA T0001403.)
Coming of Christ
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the
time" (1 John 5:20; 2 John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his
coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11; 3:20,
21; 1 Thess. 4:15; 2 Tim. 4:1; Heb. 9:28).
The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of
the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible
establishment of his kingdom in the world (Matt. 16:28), the
conferring on his people of the peculiar tokens of his love
(John 14:18, 23, 28), and his executing judgment on the wicked
(2 Thess. 2:8).
It was the custom of the Roman governors to erect their
tribunals in open places, as the market-place, the circus, or
even the highway. Pilate caused his seat of judgment to be set
down in a place called "the Pavement" (John 19:13) i.e., a place
paved with a mosaic of coloured stones. It was probably a place
thus prepared in front of the "judgment hall." (See GABBATHA
Jehovah has concealed, or Jehovah of darkness. (1.) The son of
Cushi, and great-grandson of Hezekiah, and the ninth in the
order of the minor prophets. He prophesied in the days of
Josiah, king of Judah (B.C. 641-610), and was contemporary with
Jeremiah, with whom he had much in common. The book of his
prophecies consists of:
(a) An introduction (1:1-6), announcing the judgment of the
world, and the judgment upon Israel, because of their
(b) The description of the judgment (1:7-18).
(c) An exhortation to seek God while there is still time
(d) The announcement of judgment on the heathen (2:4-15).
(e) The hopeless misery of Jerusalem (3:1-7).
(f) The promise of salvation (3:8-20).
(2.) The son of Maaseiah, the "second priest" in the reign of
Zedekiah, often mentioned in Jeremiah as having been sent from
the king to inquire (Jer. 21:1) regarding the coming woes which
he had denounced, and to entreat the prophet's intercession that
the judgment threatened might be averted (Jer. 29:25, 26, 29;
37:3; 52:24). He, along with some other captive Jews, was put to
death by the king of Babylon "at Riblah in the land of Hamath"
(2 Kings 25:21).
(3.) A Kohathite ancestor of the prophet Samuel (1 Chr. 6:36).
(4.) The father of Josiah, the priest who dwelt in Jerusalem
when Darius issued the decree that the temple should be rebuilt
father of judgment; judge, head of the tribe of Benjamin at the
Exodus (Num. 1:11; 2:22).
God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in
him (Ps. 71:3; 91:9). Justice and judgment are the habitation of
God's throne (Ps. 89:14, Heb. mekhon, "foundation"), because all
his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Ps. 132:5,
13; Eph. 2:22, of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's
habitation.) God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwells
not only among men, but in eternity, where time is unknown; and
"the praises of Israel" (Ps. 22:3), i.e., he dwells among those
praises and is continually surrounded by them.
Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" = "the temple-mound,"
on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This
"temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr.
lithostroton, i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was
placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium"
(q.v.), the judgment-hall (John 18:28; 19:13).
This word has a comprehensive meaning in Scripture. In the Old
Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word "sepher", which
properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" (Ex. 17:14;
Deut. 28:58; 29:20; Job 19:23) or "roll of a book" (Jer. 36:2,
Books were originally written on skins, on linen or cotton
cloth, and on Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The
leaves of the book were generally written in columns, designated
by a Hebrew word properly meaning "doors" and "valves" (Jer.
36:23, R.V., marg. "columns").
Among the Hebrews books were generally rolled up like our
maps, or if very long they were rolled from both ends, forming
two rolls (Luke 4:17-20). Thus they were arranged when the
writing was on flexible materials; but if the writing was on
tablets of wood or brass or lead, then the several tablets were
bound together by rings through which a rod was passed.
A sealed book is one whose contents are secret (Isa. 29:11;
Rev. 5:1-3). To "eat" a book (Jer. 15:16; Ezek. 2:8-10; 3:1-3;
Rev. 10:9) is to study its contents carefully.
The book of judgment (Dan. 7:10) refers to the method of human
courts of justice as illustrating the proceedings which will
take place at the day of God's final judgment.
The book of the wars of the Lord (Num. 21:14), the book of
Jasher (Josh. 10:13), and the book of the chronicles of the
kings of Judah and Israel (2 Chr. 25:26), were probably ancient
documents known to the Hebrews, but not forming a part of the
The book of life (Ps. 69:28) suggests the idea that as the
redeemed form a community or citizenship (Phil. 3:20; 4:3), a
catalogue of the citizens' names is preserved (Luke 10:20; Rev.
20:15). Their names are registered in heaven (Luke 10:20; Rev.
The book of the covenant (Ex. 24:7), containing Ex.
20:22-23:33, is the first book actually mentioned as a part of
the written word. It contains a series of laws, civil, social,
and religious, given to Moses at Sinai immediately after the
delivery of the decalogue. These were written in this "book."
the name given to Noah's flood, the history of which is recorded
in Gen. 7 and 8.
It began in the year 2516 B.C., and continued twelve lunar
months and ten days, or exactly one solar year.
The cause of this judgment was the corruption and violence
that filled the earth in the ninth generation from Adam. God in
righteous indignation determined to purge the earth of the
ungodly race. Amid a world of crime and guilt there was one
household that continued faithful and true to God, the household
of Noah. "Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations."
At the command of God, Noah made an ark 300 cubits long, 50
broad, and 30 high. He slowly proceeded with this work during a
period of one hundred and twenty years (Gen. 6:3). At length the
purpose of God began to be carried into effect. The following
table exhibits the order of events as they occurred:
In the six hundredth year of his life Noah is commanded by God
to enter the ark, taking with him his wife, and his three sons
with their wives (Gen. 7:1-10).
The rain begins on the seventeenth day of the second month
The rain ceases, the waters prevail, fifteen cubits upward
The ark grounds on one of the mountains of Ararat on the
seventeenth day of the seventh month, or one hundred and fifty
days after the Deluge began (Gen. 8:1-4).
Tops of the mountains visible on the first day of the tenth
month (Gen. 8:5).
Raven and dove sent out forty days after this (Gen. 8:6-9).
Dove again sent out seven days afterwards; and in the evening
she returns with an olive leaf in her mouth (Gen. 8:10, 11).
Dove sent out the third time after an interval of other seven
days, and returns no more (Gen. 8:12).
The ground becomes dry on the first day of the first month of
the new year (Gen. 8:13).
Noah leaves the ark on the twenty-seventh day of the second
month (Gen. 8:14-19).
The historical truth of the narrative of the Flood is
established by the references made to it by our Lord (Matt.
24:37; compare Luke 17:26). Peter speaks of it also (1 Pet. 3:20;
2 Pet. 2:5). In Isa. 54:9 the Flood is referred to as "the
waters of Noah." The Biblical narrative clearly shows that so
far as the human race was concerned the Deluge was universal;
that it swept away all men living except Noah and his family,
who were preserved in the ark; and that the present human race
is descended from those who were thus preserved.
Traditions of the Deluge are found among all the great
divisions of the human family; and these traditions, taken as a
whole, wonderfully agree with the Biblical narrative, and agree
with it in such a way as to lead to the conclusion that the
Biblical is the authentic narrative, of which all these
traditions are more or less corrupted versions. The most
remarkable of these traditions is that recorded on tablets
prepared by order of Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria. These
were, however, copies of older records which belonged to
somewhere about B.C. 2000, and which formed part of the priestly
library at Erech (q.v.), "the ineradicable remembrance of a real
and terrible event." (See NOAH T0002741; CHALDEA T0000758.)
frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt (Ex. 9:23). It is
mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment (Hag. 2:17). A
hail-storm destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought
against Joshua (Josh. 10:11). Ezekiel represents the wall daubed
with untempered mortar as destroyed by great hail-stones (Ezek.
13:11). (See also 38:22; Rev. 8:7; 11:19; 16:21.)
(Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour"), the day of
rest. It is first mentioned as having been instituted in
Paradise, when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:2). "The sabbath was
made for man," as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and
of blessing to the soul.
It is next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to
the children of Israel in the wilderness (Ex. 16:23); and
afterwards, when the law was given from Sinai (20:11), the
people were solemnly charged to "remember the sabbath day, to
keep it holy." Thus it is spoken of as an institution already
In the Mosaic law strict regulations were laid down regarding
its observance (Ex. 35:2, 3; Lev. 23:3; 26:34). These were
peculiar to that dispensation.
In the subsequent history of the Jews frequent references are
made to the sanctity of the Sabbath (Isa. 56:2, 4, 6, 7; 58:13,
14; Jer. 17:20-22; Neh. 13:19). In later times they perverted
the Sabbath by their traditions. Our Lord rescued it from their
perversions, and recalled to them its true nature and intent
(Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 2:27; Luke 13:10-17).
The Sabbath, originally instituted for man at his creation, is
of permanent and universal obligation. The physical necessities
of man require a Sabbath of rest. He is so constituted that his
bodily welfare needs at least one day in seven for rest from
ordinary labour. Experience also proves that the moral and
spiritual necessities of men also demand a Sabbath of rest. "I
am more and more sure by experience that the reason for the
observance of the Sabbath lies deep in the everlasting
necessities of human nature, and that as long as man is man the
blessedness of keeping it, not as a day of rest only, but as a
day of spiritual rest, will never be annulled. I certainly do
feel by experience the eternal obligation, because of the
eternal necessity, of the Sabbath. The soul withers without it.
It thrives in proportion to its observance. The Sabbath was made
for man. God made it for men in a certain spiritual state
because they needed it. The need, therefore, is deeply hidden in
human nature. He who can dispense with it must be holy and
spiritual indeed. And he who, still unholy and unspiritual,
would yet dispense with it is a man that would fain be wiser
than his Maker" (F. W. Robertson).
The ancient Babylonian calendar, as seen from recently
recovered inscriptions on the bricks among the ruins of the
royal palace, was based on the division of time into weeks of
seven days. The Sabbath is in these inscriptions designated
Sabattu, and defined as "a day of rest for the heart" and "a day
of completion of labour."
The change of the day. Originally at creation the seventh day
of the week was set apart and consecrated as the Sabbath. The
first day of the week is now observed as the Sabbath. Has God
authorized this change? There is an obvious distinction between
the Sabbath as an institution and the particular day set apart
for its observance. The question, therefore, as to the change of
the day in no way affects the perpetual obligation of the
Sabbath as an institution. Change of the day or no change, the
Sabbath remains as a sacred institution the same. It cannot be
If any change of the day has been made, it must have been by
Christ or by his authority. Christ has a right to make such a
change (Mark 2:23-28). As Creator, Christ was the original Lord
of the Sabbath (John 1:3; Heb. 1:10). It was originally a
memorial of creation. A work vastly greater than that of
creation has now been accomplished by him, the work of
redemption. We would naturally expect just such a change as
would make the Sabbath a memorial of that greater work.
True, we can give no text authorizing the change in so many
words. We have no express law declaring the change. But there
are evidences of another kind. We know for a fact that the first
day of the week has been observed from apostolic times, and the
necessary conclusion is, that it was observed by the apostles
and their immediate disciples. This, we may be sure, they never
would have done without the permission or the authority of their
After his resurrection, which took place on the first day of
the week (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1), we never
find Christ meeting with his disciples on the seventh day. But
he specially honoured the first day by manifesting himself to
them on four separate occasions (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:34, 18-33;
John 20:19-23). Again, on the next first day of the week, Jesus
appeared to his disciples (John 20:26).
Some have calculated that Christ's ascension took place on the
first day of the week. And there can be no doubt that the
descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost was on that day (Acts
2:1). Thus Christ appears as instituting a new day to be
observed by his people as the Sabbath, a day to be henceforth
known amongst them as the "Lord's day." The observance of this
"Lord's day" as the Sabbath was the general custom of the
primitive churches, and must have had apostolic sanction (compare
Acts 20:3-7; 1 Cor. 16:1, 2) and authority, and so the sanction
and authority of Jesus Christ.
The words "at her sabbaths" (Lam. 1:7, A.V.) ought probably to
be, as in the Revised Version, "at her desolations."
a bee. (1.) Rebekah's nurse. She accompanied her mistress when
she left her father's house in Padan-aram to become the wife of
Isaac (Gen. 24:59). Many years afterwards she died at Bethel,
and was buried under the "oak of weeping", Allon-bachuth (35:8).
(2.) A prophetess, "wife" (woman?) of Lapidoth. Jabin, the
king of Hazor, had for twenty years held Israel in degrading
subjection. The spirit of patriotism seemed crushed out of the
nation. In this emergency Deborah roused the people from their
lethargy. Her fame spread far and wide. She became a "mother in
Israel" (Judg. 4:6, 14; 5:7), and "the children of Israel came
up to her for judgment" as she sat in her tent under the palm
tree "between Ramah and Bethel." Preparations were everywhere
made by her direction for the great effort to throw off the yoke
of bondage. She summoned Barak from Kadesh to take the command
of 10,000 men of Zebulun and Naphtali, and lead them to Mount
Tabor on the plain of Esdraelon at its NE end. With his
aid she organized this army. She gave the signal for attack, and
the Hebrew host rushed down impetuously upon the army of Jabin,
which was commanded by Sisera, and gained a great and decisive
victory. The Canaanite army almost wholly perished. That was a
great and ever-memorable day in Israel. In Judg. 5 is given the
grand triumphal ode, the "song of Deborah," which she wrote in
grateful commemoration of that great deliverance. (See LAPIDOTH
T0002240, JABIN T0001938 .)
First found in Dan. 3:6; 4:19, 33;5:5. It is the rendering of
the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look." It is used in
the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season
(Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39).
With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were
"morning, evening, and noon-day" (Ps. 55:17, etc.). The Greeks,
following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours.
The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the
Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became
subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of
reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches (Luke
12:38; Matt. 14:25; 13:25). Frequent allusion is also made to
hours (Matt. 25:13; 26:40, etc.). (See DAY T0000984.)
An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from
sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in
frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3-6).
Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2
Sam. 22:15; Job 28:26; 37:4; Ps. 135:7; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They
represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some
judgment of God on the world (20:9).
i.e., "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament (Acts 2:1;
20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). The festival so named is first spoken of in
Ex. 23:16 as "the feast of harvest," and again in Ex. 34:22 as
"the day of the firstfruits" (Num. 28:26). From the sixteenth of
the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven
complete weeks, i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and
this feast was held on the fiftieth day. The manner in which it
was to be kept is described in Lev. 23:15-19; Num. 28:27-29.
Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion, every one
was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a free-will offering"
(Deut. 16:9-11). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate
the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature
was the offering of "two leavened loaves" made from the new corn
of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved
before the Lord as a thank offering.
The day of Pentecost is noted in the Christian Church as the
day on which the Spirit descended upon the apostles, and on
which, under Peter's preaching, so many thousands were converted
in Jerusalem (Acts 2).
third and youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:1-4,
20-23). Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea, induced her to
leave her husband, Azizus, the king of Emesa, and become his
wife. She was present with Felix when Paul reasoned of
"righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come" (Acts 24:24).
She and her son perished in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D.
(Heb. goral, a "pebble"), a small stone used in casting lots
(Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the
Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God,
and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33),
and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was
used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral
tribes (Num. 26:55; 34:13), at the detection of Achan (Josh.
7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam. 10:20, 21),
the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service
(1 Chr. 24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the
feast of Atonement (Lev. 16:8). Matthias, who was "numbered with
the eleven" (Acts 1:24-26), was chosen by lot.
This word also denotes a portion or an inheritance (Josh.
15:1; Ps. 125:3; Isa. 17:4), and a destiny, as assigned by God
(Ps. 16:5; Dan. 12:13).
Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and
nephew of Abraham (Gen. 11:27). On the death of his father, he
was left in charge of his grandfather Terah (31), after whose
death he accompanied his uncle Abraham into Canaan (12:5),
thence into Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan (13:1). After
this he separated from him and settled in Sodom (13:5-13). There
his righteous soul was "vexed" from day to day (2 Pet. 2:7), and
he had great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the
separation he was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued
by Abraham (Gen. 14). At length, when the judgment of God
descended on the guilty cities of the plain (Gen. 19:1-20), Lot
was miraculously delivered. When fleeing from the doomed city
his wife "looked back from behind him, and became a pillar of
salt." There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of
the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot,
i.e., Lot's wife. It is "a tall, isolated needle of rock, which
really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a
child upon her shoulder." From the words of warning in Luke
17:32, "Remember Lot's wife," it would seem as if she had gone
back, or tarried so long behind in the desire to save some of
her goods, that she became involved in the destruction which
fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a
time in the saline incrustations. She became "a pillar of salt",
i.e., as some think, of asphalt. (See SALT T0003196.)
Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then,
fearing to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the
neighbouring mountains (Gen. 19:30). Lot has recently been
connected with the people called on the Egyptian monuments
Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been the hero of the
Edomite tribe Lotan.
a lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews (Esther 9:24-32)
in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a
Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious
day for executing his cruel plot against their nation. It became
a national institution by the common consent of the Jews, and is
observed by them to the present day, on the 14th and 15th of the
month Adar, a month before the Passover.
a prophetic period mentioned in Dan. 9:24, and usually
interpreted on the "year-day" theory, i.e., reckoning each day
for a year. This period will thus represent 490 years. This is
regarded as the period which would elapse till the time of the
coming of the Messiah, dating "from the going forth of the
commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" i.e., from the
close of the Captivity.
Atonement, Day of
the great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins
of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one
commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is
described in Lev. 16:3-10; 23:26-32; and Num. 29:7-11.
It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five
days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to
sunset. (See AZAZEL T0000374.)
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, 33; 19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common
hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders
"palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium"
(q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence
of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general,
though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word
"praitorion" has this meaning (compare Acts 23:35). Pilate's
official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part
of the fortress of Antonia.
The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of
the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered
together in the palace court.
The Greek word (praitorion) thus rendered in Mark 15:16 is
rendered "common hall" (Matt. 27:27, marg., "governor's house"),
"judgment hall," (John 18:28, 33, marg., "Pilate's house", 19:9;
Acts 23:35), "palace" (Phil. 1:13). This is properly a military
word. It denotes (1) the general's tent or headquarters; (2) the
governor's residence, as in Acts 23:35 (R.V., "palace"); and (3)
the praetorian guard (See PALACE T0002827), or the camp or
quarters of the praetorian cohorts (Acts 28:16), the imperial
guards in immediate attendance on the emperor, who was "praetor"
only once, in Rev. 1:10, was in the early Christian ages used to
denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's
resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus
used the name. (See SABBATH T0003170.)
(Isa. 1:13), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of
Tabernacles (Lev. 23:36; Num. 29:35, R.V., "solemn assembly;"
marg., "closing festival"). It is the name given also to the
convocation held on the seventh day of the Passover (Deut.
The observance of birth-days was common in early times (Job 1:4,
13, 18). They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt
(Gen. 40:20). There is no recorded instance in Scripture of the
celebration of birth-days among the Jews. On the occasion of
Herod's birth-day John the Baptist was beheaded (Matt. 14:6).
first-born, of the tribe of Manasseh, and of the family of
Gilead; died in the wilderness. Having left no sons, his
daughters, concerned lest their father's name should be "done
away from among his family," made an appeal to Moses, who, by
divine direction, appointed it as "a statute of judgment" in
Israel that daughters should inherit their father's portion when
no sons were left (Num. 27:1-11). But that the possession of
Zelophehad might not pass away in the year of jubilee from the
tribe to which he belonged, it was ordained by Moses that his
daughters should not marry any one out of their father's tribe;
and this afterwards became a general law (Num. 36).
day of God. (1.) One of Simeon's five sons (1 Chr. 4:24), called
also Jemuel (Gen. 46:10). (2.) A Reubenite, a son of Eliab, and
brother of Dathan and Abiram (Num. 26:9).
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and
for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy",
i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the
emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The
word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows
his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius,
and the governor of such a province was called a "proconsul." He
is spoken of by his contemporaries as "sweet Gallio," and is
described as a most popular and affectionate man. When the Jews
brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading
"men to worship God contrary to the law" (18:13), he refused to
listen to them, and "drave them from the judgment seat" (18:16).
is the translation of a word (tse'med), which properly means a
yoke, and denotes a space of ground that may be ploughed by a
yoke of oxen in a day. It is about an acre of our measure (Isa.
5:10; 1 Sam. 14:14).
spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor
of a province (Acts 25:12).
The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of
the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the
"judgment," perhaps, in Matt. 5:21, 22) in the cities of
Israel (Matt. 10:17; Mark 13:9). In the time of Christ the
functions of the Sanhedrim were limited (John 16:2; 2 Cor.
11:24). In Ps. 68:27 the word "council" means simply a company
of persons. (R.V. marg., "company.")
In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an
assembly of pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation
of church affairs. The first of these councils was that of the
apostles and elders at Jerusalem, of which we have a detailed
account in Acts 15.
the period following sunset with which the Jewish day began
(Gen. 1:5; Mark 13:35). The Hebrews reckoned two evenings of
each day, as appears from Ex. 16:12: 30:8; 12:6 (marg.); Lev.
23:5 (marg. R.V., "between the two evenings"). The "first
evening" was that period when the sun was verging towards
setting, and the "second evening" the moment of actual sunset.
The word "evenings" in Jer. 5:6 should be "deserts" (marg.
Jezreel, Day of
the time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds
of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5).
Sabbath day's journey
supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than
half-a-mile, the distance to which, according to Jewish
tradition, it was allowable to travel on the Sabbath day without
violating the law (Acts 1:12; compare Ex. 16:29; Num. 35:5; Josh.
The expression in the Authorized Version (Isa. 19:7), "the paper
reeds by the brooks," is in the Revised Version more correctly
"the meadows by the Nile." The words undoubtedly refer to a
grassy place on the banks of the Nile fit for pasturage.
In 2 John 1:12 the word is used in its proper sense. The
material so referred to was manufactured from the papyrus, and
hence its name. The papyrus (Heb. gome) was a kind of bulrush
(q.v.). It is mentioned by Job (8:11) and Isaiah (35:7). It was
used for many purposes. This plant (Papyrus Nilotica) is now
unknown in Egypt; no trace of it can be found. The unaccountable
disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by Isaiah
(19:6, 7) as a part of the divine judgment on that land. The
most extensive papyrus growths now known are in the marshes at
the northern end of the lake of Merom.
"There is no dew properly so called in Israel, for there is
no moisture in the hot summer air to be chilled into dew-drops
by the coldness of the night. From May till October rain is
unknown, the sun shining with unclouded brightness day after
day. The heat becomes intense, the ground hard, and vegetation
would perish but for the moist west winds that come each night
from the sea. The bright skies cause the heat of the day to
radiate very quickly into space, so that the nights are as cold
as the day is the reverse, a peculiarity of climate from which
poor Jacob suffered thousands of years ago (Gen. 31:40). To this
coldness of the night air the indispensable watering of all
plant-life is due. The winds, loaded with moisture, are robbed
of it as they pass over the land, the cold air condensing it
into drops of water, which fall in a gracious rain of mist on
every thirsty blade. In the morning the fog thus created rests
like a sea over the plains, and far up the sides of the hills,
which raise their heads above it like so many islands. At
sunrise, however, the scene speedily changes. By the kindling
light the mist is transformed into vast snow-white clouds, which
presently break into separate masses and rise up the
mountain-sides, to disappear in the blue above, dissipated by
the increasing heat. These are 'the morning clouds and the early
dew that go away' of which Hosea (6:4; 13:3) speaks so
touchingly" (Geikie's The Holy Land, etc., i., p. 72). Dew is a
source of great fertility (Gen. 27:28; Deut. 33:13; Zech. 8:12),
and its withdrawal is regarded as a curse from God (2 Sam. 1:21;
1 Kings 17:1). It is the symbol of a multitude (2 Sam. 17:12;
Ps. 110:3); and from its refreshing influence it is an emblem of
brotherly love and harmony (Ps. 133:3), and of rich spiritual
blessings (Hos. 14:5).
succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years
of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2 Chr. 36:9). He is
also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and Coniah
(22:24; 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah =
Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish
crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar,
along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in
Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some
thirteen thousand in all (2 Kings 24:12-16; Jer. 52:28). After
an imprisonment of thirty-seven years (Jer. 52:31, 33), he was
liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in
the king's household and sit at his table, receiving "every day
a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life"
Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath,
Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were
trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and
(2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the
juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job
24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are
found in almost every part of Israel. They are "the only sure
relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity.
Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill
slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common
in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in
Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of
divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19, 20).
(Dan. 8:12; 11:31; 12:11), a burnt offering of two lambs of a
year old, which were daily sacrificed in the name of the whole
Israelitish people upon the great altar, the first at dawn of
day, and the second at evening (Dan. 9:21), or more correctly,
"between the two evenings." (See SACRIFICE T0003179.)
palpitation, a fountain near which Gideon and his army encamped
on the morning of the day when they encountered and routed the
Midianites (Judg. 7). It was south of the hill Moreh. The
present 'Ain Jalud ("Goliath's Fountain"), south of Jezreel and
nearly opposite Shunem, is probably the fountain here referred
to (7:4, 5).
Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.)
Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isa. 5:14, elsewhere
"statute." (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jer. 13:25, elsewhere "garment."
(c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Ex. 26:2,
8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Lev. 19:35; 1 Chr. 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jer.
30:11, elsewhere "judgment." (f) Mithkoneth and token, Ezek.
45:11. (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus
rendered (Matt. 7:2; 23:32; Mark 4:24).
(2.) Those which are definite. (a) 'Eyphah, Deut. 25:14, 15,
usually "ephah." (b) Ammah, Jer. 51:13, usually "cubit." (c)
Kor, 1 Kings 4:22, elsewhere "cor;" Greek koros, Luke 16:7. (d)
Seah, Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam. 25:18, a seah; Greek saton, Matt. 13:33;
Luke 13:21. (e) Shalish, "a great measure," Isa. 40:12;
literally a third, i.e., of an ephah. (f) In New Testament
batos, Luke 16:6, the Hebrew "bath;" and choinix, Rev. 6:6, the
choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius.
an umpire or arbiter or judge (Job 9:33). This word is formed
from the Latin diem dicere, i.e., to fix a day for hearing a
cause. Such an one is empowered by mutual consent to decide the
cause, and to "lay his hand", i.e., to impose his authority, on
both, and enforce his sentence.
the easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor.
Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1 Pet.
1:1). On the day of Pentecost there were Cappadocians at
Jerusalem (Acts 2:9).
the principal meal of the day among the Jews. It was partaken of
in the early part of the evening (Mark 6:21; John 12:2; 1 Cor.
11:21). (See LORD'S SUPPER T0002318.)
Paul and his company, loosing from Paphos, sailed north-west and
came to Perga, the capital of Pamphylia (Acts 13:13, 14), a
province about the middle of the southern sea-board of Asia
Minor. It lay between Lycia on the west and Cilicia on the east.
There were strangers from Pamphylia at Jerusalem on the day of
Malachi, Prophecies of
The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters. In the
Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but
one. The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an
introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet reminds Israel
of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6-2:9) contains
a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the
name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his
worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in
administering the law. In the second (2:9-16) the people are
rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen. In the
third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns
them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the
advent of the Messiah.
This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament
(Matt. 11:10; 17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).
boughs of, were to be carried in festive procession on the first
day of the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). This was probably
the olive tree (Neh. 8:15), although no special tree is
A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Lev.
22:28; Ex. 23:19; Deut. 22:6, 7). The reason for this enactment
is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words
of Isa. 7:21-25, where, instead of possessing great resources, a
man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family
on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.
As streams were few in Israel, water was generally stored up
in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in
numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the
foot (Deut. 11:10).
For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or
pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the
banks of the Nile to the present day.
occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically
designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God
Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly means the
"mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict
between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was
suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of
in Rom. 13:2, means "condemnation," which comes on those who
withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of
condemnation comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose
authority is thus resisted.
In 1 Cor. 11:29 (R.V., "judgment") this word means
condemnation, in the sense of exposure to severe temporal
judgements from God, as the following verse explains.
In Rom. 14:23 the word "damned" means "condemned" by one's own
conscience, as well as by the Word of God. The apostle shows
here that many things which are lawful are not expedient; and
that in using our Christian liberty the question should not
simply be, Is this course I follow lawful? but also, Can I
follow it without doing injury to the spiritual interests of a
brother in Christ? He that "doubteth", i.e., is not clear in his
conscience as to "meats", will violate his conscience "if he
eat," and in eating is condemned; and thus one ought not so to
use his liberty as to lead one who is "weak" to bring upon
himself this condemnation.
(1.) That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast.
This word is used figuratively in Eph. 6:14 and Isa. 59:17. (See
(2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first
mentioned in Ex. 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set
with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each
stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Ex.
28:15-29; 39:8-21). It was in size about ten inches square. The
two upper corners were fastened to the ephod by blue ribbons. It
was not to be "loosed from the ephod" (Ex. 28:28). The lower
corners were fastened to the girdle of the priest. As it
reminded the priest of his representative character, it was
called the memorial (28:29). It was also called the breastplate
of judgment (28:15). (See PRIEST T0003001.)
fountain of the sun a spring which formed one of the landmarks
on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:7; 18:17).
It was between the "ascent of Adummim" and the spring of
En-rogel, and hence was on the east of Jerusalem and of the
Mount of Olives. It is the modern 'Ain-Haud i.e., the "well of
the apostles" about a mile east of Bethany, the only spring on
the road to Jericho. The sun shines on it the whole day long.
an ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain (Ex. 13:4;
23:15); the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the
seventh of the civil year. It began about the time of the vernal
equinox, on 21st March. It was called Nisan, after the Captivity
(Neh. 2:1). On the fifteenth day of the month, harvest was begun
by gathering a sheaf of barley, which was offered unto the Lord
on the sixteenth (Lev. 23:4-11).
an artificer in stone. The Tyrians seem to have been specially
skilled in architecture (1 Kings 5:17, 18; 2 Sam. 5:11). This
art the Hebrews no doubt learned in Egypt (Ex. 1:11, 14), where
ruins of temples and palaces fill the traveller with wonder at
the present day.
(Heb. homer), cement of lime and sand (Gen. 11:3; Ex. 1:14);
also potter's clay (Isa. 41:25; Nah. 3:14). Also Heb. 'aphar,
usually rendered "dust," clay or mud used for cement in building
(Lev. 14:42, 45).
Mortar for pulverizing (Prov. 27:22) grain or other substances
by means of a pestle instead of a mill. Mortars were used in the
wilderness for pounding the manna (Num. 11:8). It is commonly
used in Israel at the present day to pound wheat, from which
the Arabs make a favourite dish called kibby.
Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office
(Ex. 29:7; 30:23; Lev. 8:12). He wore a peculiar dress, which on
his death passed to his successor in office (Ex. 29:29, 30).
Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests,
there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest:
(1.) The "robe" of the ephod, all of blue, of "woven work,"
worn immediately under the ephod. It was without seam or
sleeves. The hem or skirt was ornamented with pomegranates and
golden bells, seventy-two of each in alternate order. The
sounding of the bells intimated to the people in the outer court
the time when the high priest entered into the holy place to
burn incense before the Lord (Ex. 28).
(2.) The "ephod" consisted of two parts, one of which covered
the back and the other the breast, which were united by the
"curious girdle." It was made of fine twined linen, and
ornamented with gold and purple. Each of the shoulder-straps was
adorned with a precious stone, on which the names of the twelve
tribes were engraved. This was the high priest's distinctive
vestment (1 Sam. 2:28; 14:3; 21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7).
(3.) The "breastplate of judgment" (Ex. 28:6-12, 25-28;
39:2-7) of "cunning work." It was a piece of cloth doubled, of
one span square. It bore twelve precious stones, set in four
rows of three in a row, which constituted the Urim and Thummim
(q.v.). These stones had the names of the twelve tribes engraved
on them. When the high priest, clothed with the ephod and the
breastplate, inquired of the Lord, answers were given in some
mysterious way by the Urim and Thummim (1 Sam. 14:3, 18, 19;
23:2, 4, 9, 11,12; 28:6; 2 Sam. 5:23).
(4.) The "mitre," or upper turban, a twisted band of eight
yards of fine linen coiled into a cap, with a gold plate in
front, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a
ribbon of blue.
To the high priest alone it was permitted to enter the holy of
holies, which he did only once a year, on the great Day of
Atonement, for "the way into the holiest of all was not yet made
manifest" (Heb. 9; 10). Wearing his gorgeous priestly vestments,
he entered the temple before all the people, and then, laying
them aside and assuming only his linen garments in secret, he
entered the holy of holies alone, and made expiation, sprinkling
the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and offering up
incense. Then resuming his splendid robes, he reappeared before
the people (Lev. 16). Thus the wearing of these robes came to be
identified with the Day of Atonement.
The office, dress, and ministration of the high priest were
typical of the priesthood of our Lord (Heb. 4:14; 7:25; 9:12,
It is supposed that there were in all eighty-three high
priests, beginning with Aaron (B.C. 1657) and ending with
Phannias (A.D. 70). At its first institution the office of high
priest was held for life (but compare 1 Kings 2:27), and was
hereditary in the family of Aaron (Num. 3:10). The office
continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron's eldest son, for two
hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first
of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron. In this
line it continued to Abiathar, whom Solomon deposed, and
appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (1 Kings
2:35), in which it remained till the time of the Captivity.
After the Return, Joshua, the son of Josedek, of the family of
Eleazar, was appointed to this office. After him the succession
was changed from time to time under priestly or political
(abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom
Jesus conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the
resurrection (Luke 24:18). We know nothing definitely regarding
him. It is not certain that he was the Clopas of John 19:25, or
the Alphaeus of Matt. 10:3, although he may have been so.
Book of Amos
The Book of Amos consists of three parts:
(1.) The nations around are summoned to judgment because of
their sins (1:1-2:3). He quotes Joel 3:16.
(2.) The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of
Israel, is described (2:4-6:14).
(3.) In 7:1-9:10 are recorded five prophetic visions. (a) The
first two (7:1-6) refer to judgments against the guilty people.
(b) The next two (7:7-9; 8:1-3) point out the ripeness of the
people for the threatened judgements. 7:10-17 consists of a
conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel. (c)
The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel (9:1-10);
to which is added the promise of the restoration of the kingdom
and its final glory in the Messiah's kingdom.
The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to
natural objects and to agricultural occupations. Other allusions
show also that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child
of nature." These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of
teeth" [i.e., want of bread] (4:6); "The excellency of Jacob"
(6:8; 8:7); "The high places of Isaac" (7:9); "The house of
Isaac" (7:16); "He that createth the wind" (4:13). Quoted, Acts
a meeting of a religious character as distinguished from
congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and
legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such
convocations were the Sabbaths (Lev. 23:2, 3), the Passover (Ex.
12:16; Lev. 23:7, 8; Num. 28:25), Pentecost (Lev. 23:21), the
feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), the feast of Weeks
(Num. 28:26), and the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:35, 36). The
great fast, the annual day of atonement, was "the holy
convocation" (Lev. 23:27; Num. 29:7).
(1.) Jonah's gourd (Jonah 4:6-10), bearing the Hebrew name
"kikayon" (found only here), was probably the kiki of the
Egyptians, the croton. This is the castor-oil plant, a species
of ricinus, the palma Christi, so called from the palmate
division of its leaves. Others with more probability regard it
as the cucurbita the el-keroa of the Arabs, a kind of pumpkin
peculiar to the East. "It is grown in great abundance on the
alluvial banks of the Tigris and on the plain between the river
and the ruins of Nineveh." At the present day it is trained to
run over structures of mud and brush to form boots to protect
the gardeners from the heat of the noon-day sun. It grows with
extraordinary rapidity, and when cut or injured withers away
also with great rapidity.
(2.) Wild gourds (2 Kings 4:38-40), Heb. pakkuoth, belong to
the family of the cucumber-like plants, some of which are
poisonous. The species here referred to is probably the
colocynth (Cucumis colocynthus). The LXX. render the word by
"wild pumpkin." It abounds in the desert parts of Syria, Egypt,
and Arabia. There is, however, another species, called the
Cucumis prophetarum, from the idea that it afforded the gourd
which "the sons of the prophets" shred by mistake into their
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary."
It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Ex. 30:34-36).
That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense"
(30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and
besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place,
and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest
in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer
(Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
the season for gathering grain or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib
(or April) a handful of ripe ears of corn was offered as a
first-fruit before the Lord, and immediately after this the
harvest commenced (Lev. 23:9-14; 2 Sam. 21:9, 10; Ruth 2:23). It
began with the feast of Passover and ended with Pentecost, thus
lasting for seven weeks (Ex. 23:16). The harvest was a season of
joy (Ps. 126:1-6; Isa. 9:3). This word is used figuratively
Matt. 9:37; 13:30; Luke 10:2; John 4:35. (See AGRICULTURE
Herod Agrippa I.
son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great.
He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias
II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his
grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the
apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison
(Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1-19). On the second day of a festival held
in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great
theatre of Caesarea. "The king came in clothed in magnificent
robes, of which silver was the costly brilliant material. It was
early in the day, and the sun's rays fell on the king, so that
the eyes of the beholders were dazzled with the brightness which
surrounded him. Voices here and there from the crowd exclaimed
that it was the apparition of something divine. And when he
spoke and made an oration to them, they gave a shout, saying,
'It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.' But in the midst
of this idolatrous ostentation an angel of God suddenly smote
him. He was carried out of the theatre a dying man." He died
(A.D. 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his
grandfather (Acts. 12:21-23), in the fifty-fourth year of his
age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king
over the whole of Israel. After his death his kingdom came
under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Israel was now
fully incorporated with the empire.
(1.) Used as manure (Luke 13:8); collected outside the city
walls (Neh. 2:13). Of sacrifices, burned outside the camp (Ex.
29:14; Lev. 4:11; 8:17; Num. 19:5). To be "cast out as dung," a
figurative expression (1 Kings 14:10; 2 Kings 9:37; Jer. 8:2;
Ps. 18:42), meaning to be rejected as unprofitable.
(2.) Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with
difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt (Ezek. 4:12-15),
where cows' and camels' dung is used to the present day for this
The use of the bath was very frequent among the Hebrews (Lev.
14:8; Num. 19:19, ect.). The high priest at his inauguration
(Lev. 8:6), and on the day of atonement, was required to bathe
himself (16:4, 24). The "pools" mentioned in Neh. 3:15, 16, 2
Kings 20:20, Isa. 22:11, John 9:7, were public bathing-places.
(1.) Gr. balantion, a bag (Luke 10:4; 22:35, 36).
(2.) Gr. zone, properly a girdle (Matt. 10:9; Mark 6:8), a
money-belt. As to our Lord's sending forth his disciples without
money in their purses, the remark has been made that in this
"there was no departure from the simple manners of the country.
At this day the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive
without a para in his purse; and a modern Moslem prophet of
Tarshisha thus sends forth his apostles over this identical
region. No traveller in the East would hestitate to throw
himself on the hospitality of any village." Thomson's Land and
the Book. (See SCRIP T0003242.)
hot baths, a village "three-score furlongs" from jerusalem,
where our Lord had an interview with two of his disciples on the
day of his resurrection (Luke 24:13). This has been identified
with the modern el-Kubeibeh, lying over 7 miles north-west of
Jerusalem. This name, el-Kubeibeh, meaning "little dome," is
derived from the remains of the Crusaders' church yet to be
found there. Others have identified it with the modern Khurbet
Khamasa i.e., "the ruins of Khamasa", about 8 miles south-west
of Jerusalem, where there are ruins also of a Crusaders' church.
Its site, however has been much disputed.
When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh. 8), he burned it and
"made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins of this
city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at
length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears
the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Israel,
that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it
to mark the former site. But the site of Ai has no other name
'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel, 'the heap' par
Only mentioned in Isa. 3:21, although refered to in Gen. 24:47,
Prov. 11:22, Hos. 2:13. They were among the most valued of
ancient female ornaments. They "were made of ivory or metal, and
occasionally jewelled. They were more than an inch in diameter,
and hung upon the mouth. Eliezer gave one to Rebekah which was
of gold and weighed half a shekel...At the present day the women
in the country and in the desert wear these ornaments in one of
the sides of the nostrils, which droop like the ears in
face of God, a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the
Jordan and north of the river Jabbok. It is also called
"Peniel." Here Jacob wrestled (Gen. 32:24-32) "with a man" ("the
angel", Hos. 12:4. Jacob says of him, "I have seen God face to
face") "till the break of day."
A town was afterwards built there (Judg. 8:8; 1 Kings 12:25).
The men of this place refused to succour Gideon and his little
army when they were in pursuit of the Midianites (Judg. 8:1-21).
On his return, Gideon slew the men of this city and razed its
lofty watch-tower to the ground.
foolish, a descendant of Caleb who dwelt at Maon (1 Sam. 25),
the modern Main, 7 miles south-east of Hebron. He was "very
great, and he had 3,000 sheep and 1,000 goats...but the man was
churlish and evil in his doings." During his wanderings David
came into that district, and hearing that Nabal was about to
shear his sheep, he sent ten of his young men to ask "whatsoever
cometh unto thy hand for thy servants." Nabal insultingly
resented the demand, saying, "Who is David, and who is the son
of Jesse?" (1 Sam. 25:10, 11). One of the shepherds that stood
by and saw the reception David's messengers had met with,
informed Abigail, Nabal's wife, who at once realized the danger
that threatened her household. She forthwith proceeded to the
camp of David, bringing with her ample stores of provisions
(25:18). She so courteously and persuasively pled her cause that
David's anger was appeased, and he said to her, "Blessed be the
Lord God of Israel which sent thee this day to meet me."
On her return she found her husband incapable from drunkenness
of understanding the state of matters, and not till the
following day did she explain to him what had happened. He was
stunned by a sense of the danger to which his conduct had
exposed him. "His heart died within him, and he became as a
stone." and about ten days after "the Lord smote Nabal that he
died" (1 Sam. 25:37, 38). Not long after David married Abigail
(Heb. minhah), originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word
came latterly to denote an "unbloody" sacrifice, as opposed to a
"bloody" sacrifice. A "drink-offering" generally accompanied it.
The law regarding it is given in Lev. 2, and 6:14-23. It was a
recognition of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in
giving all earthly blessings (1 Chr. 29:10-14; Deut. 26:5-11).
It was an offering which took for granted and was based on the
offering for sin. It followed the sacrifice of blood. It was
presented every day with the burnt-offering (Ex. 29:40, 41), and
consisted of flour or of cakes prepared in a special way with
oil and frankincense.
a person employed to perform culinary service. In early times
among the Hebrews cooking was performed by the mistress of the
household (Gen. 18:2-6; Judg. 6:19), and the process was very
expeditiously performed (Gen. 27:3, 4, 9, 10). Professional
cooks were afterwards employed (1 Sam. 8:13; 9:23). Few animals,
as a rule, were slaughtered (other than sacrifices), except for
purposes of hospitality (Gen. 18:7; Luke 15:23). The paschal
lamb was roasted over a fire (Ex. 12:8, 9; 2Chr. 35:13). Cooking
by boiling was the usual method adopted (Lev. 8:31; Ex. 16:23).
No cooking took place on the Sabbath day (Ex. 35:3).
This word has considerable latitude of meaning in Scripture.
Thus Joseph is called a child at the time when he was probably
about sixteen years of age (Gen. 37:3); and Benjamin is so
called when he was above thirty years (44:20). Solomon called
himself a little child when he came to the kingdom (1 Kings
The descendants of a man, however remote, are called his
children; as, "the children of Edom," "the children of Moab,"
"the children of Israel."
In the earliest times mothers did not wean their children till
they were from thirty months to three years old; and the day on
which they were weaned was kept as a festival day (Gen. 21:8;
Ex. 2:7, 9; 1 Sam. 1:22-24; Matt. 21:16). At the age of five,
children began to learn the arts and duties of life under the
care of their fathers (Deut. 6:20-25; 11:19).
To have a numerous family was regarded as a mark of divine
favour (Gen. 11:30; 30:1; 1 Sam. 2:5; 2 Sam. 6:23; Ps. 127:3;
Figuratively the name is used for those who are ignorant or
narrow-minded (Matt. 11:16; Luke 7:32; 1 Cor. 13:11). "When I
was a child, I spake as a child." "Brethren, be not children in
understanding" (1 Cor. 14:20). "That we henceforth be no more
children, tossed to and fro" (Eph. 4:14).
Children are also spoken of as representing simplicity and
humility (Matt. 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-17).
Believers are "children of light" (Luke 16:8; 1 Thess. 5:5) and
"children of obedience" (1 Pet. 1:14).
Tabernacles, Feast of
the third of the great annual festivals of the Jews (Lev.
23:33-43). It is also called the "feast of ingathering" (Ex.
23:16; Deut. 16:13). It was celebrated immediately after the
harvest, in the month Tisri, and the celebration lasted for
eight days (Lev. 23:33-43). During that period the people left
their homes and lived in booths formed of the branches of trees.
The sacrifices offered at this time are mentioned in Num.
29:13-38. It was at the time of this feast that Solomon's temple
was dedicated (1 Kings 8:2). Mention is made of it after the
return from the Captivity. This feast was designed (1) to be a
memorial of the wilderness wanderings, when the people dwelt in
booths (Lev. 23:43), and (2) to be a harvest thanksgiving (Neh.
8:9-18). The Jews, at a later time, introduced two appendages to
the original festival, viz., (1) that of drawing water from the
Pool of Siloam, and pouring it upon the altar (John 7:2, 37), as
a memorial of the water from the rock in Horeb; and (2) of
lighting the lamps at night, a memorial of the pillar of fire by
night during their wanderings.
"The feast of Tabernacles, the harvest festival of the Jewish
Church, was the most popular and important festival after the
Captivity. At Jerusalem it was a gala day. It was to the autumn
pilgrims, who arrived on the 14th (of the month Tisri, the feast
beginning on the 15th) day, like entrance into a silvan city.
Roofs and courtyards, streets and squares, roads and gardens,
were green with boughs of citron and myrtle, palm and willow.
The booths recalled the pilgrimage through the wilderness. The
ingathering of fruits prophesied of the spiritual harvest.",
Valling's Jesus Christ, p. 133.
the successor of Felix (A.D. 60) as procurator of Judea (Acts
24:27). A few weeks after he had entered on his office the case
of Paul, then a prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The
"next day," after he had gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul
defend himself in the presence of Herod Agrippa II. and his
sister Bernice, and not finding in him anything worthy of death
or of bonds, would have set him free had he not appealed unto
Caesar (Acts 25:11, 12). In consequence of this appeal Paul was
sent to Rome. Festus, after being in office less than two years,
died in Judea. (See AGRIPPA T0000126.)
the graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the
Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady
Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig,
where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found,
about 30 miles NE of Sinai, and exactly a day's journey
from 'Ain Hudherah.
"Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints
broke out among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and
the privations of the march; and then God at once punished them
by lightning, which fell on the hinder part of the camp, and
killed many persons, but ceased at the intercession of Moses
(Num. 11:1, 2). Then a disgust fell on the multitude at having
nothing to eat but the manna day after day, no change, no flesh,
no fish, no high-flavoured vegetables, no luscious fruits...The
people loathed the 'light food,' and cried out to Moses, 'Give
us flesh, give us flesh, that we may eat.'" In this emergency
Moses, in despair, cried unto God. An answer came. God sent "a
prodigious flight of quails, on which the people satiated their
gluttonous appetite for a full month. Then punishment fell on
them: they loathed the food which they had desired; it bred
disease in them; the divine anger aggravated the disease into a
plague, and a heavy mortality was the consequence. The dead were
buried without the camp; and in memory of man's sin and of the
divine wrath this name, Kibroth-hattaavah, the Graves of Lust,
was given to the place of their sepulchre" (Num. 11:34, 35;
33:16, 17; Deut. 9:22; compare Ps. 78:30, 31)., Rawlinson's Moses,
p. 175. From this encampment they journeyed in a NEern
direction to Hazeroth.
a peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range,
reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the
Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Israel (Deut.
3:8, 4:48; Josh. 11:3, 17; 13:11; 12:1), and is seen from a
great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of
Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" (Ps. 42:6) because it has
more than one summit. The Sidonians called it Sirion, and the
Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9; Cant. 4:8). It is also called
Baal-hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23) and Sion (Deut. 4:48).
There is every probability that one of its three summits was the
scene of the transfiguration (q.v.). The "dew of Hermon" is
referred to (Ps. 89: 12). Its modern name is Jebel-esh-Sheikh,
"the chief mountain." It is one of the most conspicuous
mountains in Israel or Syria. "In whatever part of Israel
the Israelite turned his eye northward, Hermon was there,
terminating the view. From the plain along the coast, from the
Jordan valley, from the heights of Moab and Gilead, from the
plateau of Bashan, the pale, blue, snow-capped cone forms the
one feature in the northern horizon."
Our Lord and his disciples climbed this "high mountain apart"
one day, and remained on its summit all night, "weary after
their long and toilsome ascent." During the night "he was
transfigured before them; and his face did shine as the sun."
The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi.
Haggai, Book of
consists of two brief, comprehensive chapters. The object of the
prophet was generally to urge the people to proceed with the
rebuilding of the temple.
Chapter first comprehends the first address (2-11) and its
effects (12-15). Chapter second contains,
(1.) The second prophecy (1-9), which was delivered a month
after the first.
(2.) The third prophecy (10-19), delivered two months and
three days after the second; and
(3.) The fourth prophecy (20-23), delivered on the same day as
These discourses are referred to in Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Heb.
12:26. (Compare Hag. 2:7, 8, 22.)
smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between
southern Israel and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of
this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a "Midianite" (Num.
10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the
Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, "the
gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They
formed an important guild in an age when the art of metallurgy
was confined to a few" (Sayce's Races, etc.). They showed
kindness to Israel in their journey through the wilderness. They
accompanied them in their march as far as Jericho (Judg. 1:16),
and then returned to their old haunts among the Amalekites, in
the desert to the south of Judah. They sustained afterwards
friendly relations with the Israelites when settled in Canaan
(Judg. 4:11, 17-21; 1 Sam. 27:10; 30:29). The Rechabites
belonged to this tribe (1 Chr. 2:55) and in the days of Jeremiah
(35:7-10) are referred to as following their nomad habits. Saul
bade them depart from the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:6) when, in
obedience to the divine commission, he was about to "smite
Amalek." And his reason is, "for ye showed kindness to all the
children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt." Thus "God is
not unrighteous to forget the kindnesses shown to his people;
but they shall be remembered another day, at the farthest in the
great day, and recompensed in the resurrection of the just" (M.
Henry's Commentary). They are mentioned for the last time in
Scripture in 1 Sam. 27:10; compare 30:20.
now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the
Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one
time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred
cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's
quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his
epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts,
slow bellies" (Titus 1:12). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on
the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). The island was visited by Paul
on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left
Titus (1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was
the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.
(Heb. hargol, meaning "leaper"). Mention of it is made only in
Lev. 11:22, where it is obvious the word cannot mean properly
the beetle. It denotes some winged creeper with at least four
feet, "which has legs above its feet, to leap withal." The
description plainly points to the locust (q.v.). This has been
an article of food from the earliest times in the East to the
present day. The word is rendered "cricket" in the Revised
(Gr. charismata), gifts supernaturally bestowed on the early
Christians, each having his own proper gift or gifts for the
edification of the body of Christ. These were the result of the
extraordinary operation of the Spirit, as on the day of
Pentecost. They were the gifts of speaking with tongues, casting
out devils, healing, etc. (Mark 16:17, 18), usually communicated
by the medium of the laying on of the hands of the apostles
(Acts 8:17; 19:6; 1 Tim. 4:14). These charismata were enjoyed
only for a time. They could not continue always in the Church.
They were suited to its infancy and to the necessities of those
cave-land, mentioned only in Ezek. 47:16, 18. It was one of the
ancient divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay on the south-east of
Gaulanitis or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah, extending
from the Arnon to the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region
in Syria, and to this day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of
which have stone doors and massive walls. It retains its ancient
name. It was known by the Greeks and Romans as "Auranitis."
are at the present day "eaten from a round table little higher
than a stool, guests sitting cross-legged on mats or small
carpets in a circle, and dipping their fingers into one large
dish heaped with a mixture of boiled rice and other grain and
meat. But in the time of our Lord, and perhaps even from the
days of Amos (6:4, 7), the foreign custom had been largely
introduced of having broad couches, forming three sides of a
small square, the guests reclining at ease on their elbows
during meals, with their faces to the space within, up and down
which servants passed offering various dishes, or in the absence
of servants, helping themselves from dishes laid on a table set
between the couches." Geikie's Life of Christ. (Compare Luke
7:36-50.) (See ABRAHAM'S BOSOM T0000055; BANQUET T0000434;
one who practises serpent-charming (Ps. 58:5; Jer. 8:17; Eccl.
10:11). It was an early and universal opinion that the most
venomous reptiles could be made harmless by certain charms or by
sweet sounds. It is well known that there are jugglers in India
and in other Eastern lands who practise this art at the present
In Isa. 19:3 the word "charmers" is the rendering of the
Hebrew "'ittim", meaning, properly, necromancers (R.V. marg.,
"whisperers"). In Deut. 18:11 the word "charmer" means a dealer
in spells, especially one who, by binding certain knots, was
supposed thereby to bind a curse or a blessing on its object. In
Isa. 3:3 the words "eloquent orator" should be, as in the
Revised Version, "skilful enchanter."
(1.) A priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the
twenty-four courses into which the priests had been originally
divided by David (1 Chr. 23:1-19). Only four of these courses or
"families" of the priests returned from the Exile (Ezra
2:36-39); but they were then re-distributed under the old
designations. The priests served at the temple twice each year,
and only for a week each time. Zacharias's time had come for
this service. During this period his home would be one of the
chambers set apart for the priests on the sides of the temple
ground. The offering of incense was one of the most solemn parts
of the daily worship of the temple, and lots were drawn each day
to determine who should have this great honour, an honour which
no priest could enjoy more than once during his lifetime.
While Zacharias ministered at the golden altar of incense in
the holy place, it was announced to him by the angel Gabriel
that his wife Elisabeth, who was also of a priestly family, now
stricken in years, would give birth to a son who was to be
called John, and that he would be the forerunner of the
long-expected Messiah (Luke 1:12-17). As a punishment for his
refusing to believe this message, he was struck dumb and "not
able to speak until the day that these things should be
performed" (20). Nine months passed away, and Elisabeth's child
was born, and when in answer to their inquiry Zacharias wrote on
a "writing tablet," "His name is John," his mouth was opened,
and he praised God (60-79). The child (John the Baptist), thus
"born out of due time," "waxed strong in spirit" (1:80).
(2.) The "son of Barachias," mentioned as having been slain
between the temple and the altar (Matt. 23:35; Luke 11:51).
"Barachias" here may be another name for Jehoiada, as some
think. (See ZECHARIAH T0003892.)
(1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7), the Arabic for the swift,
which "is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring,
and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in
the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land,
and fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is
ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its
flight, habits, and migration.
(2.) Heb. deror, i.e., "the bird of freedom" (Ps. 84:3; Prov.
26:2), properly rendered swallow, distinguished for its
swiftness of flight, its love of freedom, and the impossibility
of retaining it in captivity. In Isa. 38:14 and Jer. 8:7 the
word thus rendered ('augr) properly means "crane" (as in the
literally bed-keeper or chamberlain, and not necessarily in all
cases one who was mutilated, although the practice of employing
such mutilated persons in Oriental courts was common (2 Kings
9:32; Esther 2:3). The law of Moses excluded them from the
congregation (Deut. 23:1). They were common also among the
Greeks and Romans. It is said that even to-day there are some in
Rome who are employed in singing soprano in the Sistine Chapel.
Three classes of eunuchs are mentioned in Matt. 19:12.
shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor the Hivite (Gen. 33:19; 34).
(2.) A descendant of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2).
(3.) A city in Samaria (Gen. 33:18), called also Sichem
(12:6), Sychem (Acts 7:16). It stood in the narrow sheltered
valley between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these
mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here
Abraham pitched his tent and built his first altar in the
Promised Land, and received the first divine promise (Gen. 12:6,
7). Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of
the children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and
settled with his household, which he purged from idolatry by
burying the teraphim of his followers under an oak tree, which
was afterwards called "the oak of the sorcerer" (Gen. 33:19;
35:4; Judg. 9:37). (See MEONENIM T0002483.) Here too, after a
while, he dug a well, which bears his name to this day (John
4:5, 39-42). To Shechem Joshua gathered all Israel "before God,"
and delivered to them his second parting address (Josh.
24:1-15). He "made a covenant with the people that day" at the
very place where, on first entering the land, they had responded
to the law from Ebal and Gerizim (Josh. 24:25), the terms of
which were recorded "in the book of the law of God", i.e., in
the roll of the law of Moses; and in memory of this solemn
transaction a great stone was set up "under an oak" (compare Gen.
28:18; 31:44-48; Ex. 24:4; Josh. 4:3, 8, 9), possibly the old
"oak of Moreh," as a silent witness of the transaction to all
Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the central city
of refuge for Western Israel (Josh. 20:7), and here the bones
of Joseph were buried (24:32). Rehoboam was appointed king in
Shechem (1 Kings 12:1, 19), but Jeroboam afterwards took up his
residence here. This city is mentioned in connection with our
Lord's conversation with the woman of Samaria (John 4:5); and
thus, remaining as it does to the present day, it is one of the
oldest cities of the world. It is the modern Nablus, a
contraction for Neapolis, the name given to it by Vespasian. It
lies about a mile and a half up the valley on its southern
slope, and on the north of Gerizim, which rises about 1,100 feet
above it, and is about 34 miles north of Jerusalem. It contains
about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom about 160 are Samaritans and
100 Jews, the rest being Christians and Mohammedans.
The site of Shechem is said to be of unrivalled beauty.
Stanley says it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only very
beautiful, spot in Central Israel."
Gaza, near Shechem, only mentioned 1 Chr. 7:28, has entirely
disappeared. It was destroyed at the time of the Conquest, and
its place was taken by Shechem. (See SYCHAR T0003542.)
There were daily (Lev. 23), weekly, monthly, and yearly
festivals, and great stress was laid on the regular observance
of them in every particular (Num. 28:1-8; Ex. 29:38-42; Lev.
6:8-23; Ex. 30:7-9; 27:20).
(1.) The septenary festivals were,
(a) The weekly Sabbath (Lev. 23:1-3; Ex. 19:3-30; 20:8-11;
(b) The seventh new moon, or the feast of Trumpets (Num.
(c) The Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:10, 11; Lev. 25:2-7).
(d) The year of jubilee (Lev. 23-35; 25: 8-16; 27:16-25).
(2.) The great feasts were,
(a) The Passover. (b) The feast of Pentecost, or of weeks. (c)
The feast of Tabernacles, or of ingathering.
On each of these occasions every male Israelite was commanded
"to appear before the Lord" (Deut. 27:7; Neh. 8:9-12). The
attendance of women was voluntary. (Compare Luke 2:41; 1 Sam. 1:7;
2:19.) The promise that God would protect their homes (Ex.
34:23, 24) while all the males were absent in Jerusalem at these
feasts was always fulfilled. "During the whole period between
Moses and Christ we never read of an enemy invading the land at
the time of the three festivals. The first instance on record is
thirty-three years after they had withdrawn from themselves the
divine protection by imbruing their hands in the Saviour's
blood, when Cestius, the Roman general, slew fifty of the people
of Lydda while all the rest had gone up to the feast of
Tabernacles, A.D. 66."
These festivals, besides their religious purpose, had an
important bearing on the maintenance among the people of the
feeling of a national unity. The times fixed for their
observance were arranged so as to interfere as little as
possible with the industry of the people. The Passover was kept
just before the harvest commenced, Pentecost at the conclusion
of the corn harvest and before the vintage, the feast of
Tabernacles after all the fruits of the ground had been gathered
(3.) The Day of Atonement, the tenth day of the seventh month
(Lev. 16:1, 34; 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11). (See ATONEMENT, DAY OF
Of the post-Exilian festivals reference is made to the feast
of Dedication (John 10:22). This feast was appointed by Judas
Maccabaeus in commemoration of the purification of the temple
after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes. The "feast of
Purim" (q.v.), Esther 9:24-32, was also instituted after the
Exile. (Cf. John 5:1.)
This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its
use by our Lord in his interview with "Simon, the son of Jonas,"
after his resurrection (John 21:16, 17). When our Lord says,
"Lovest thou me?" he uses the Greek word "agapas"; and when
Simon answers, he uses the Greek word "philo", i.e., "I love."
This is the usage in the first and second questions put by our
Lord; but in the third our Lord uses Simon's word. The
distinction between these two Greek words is thus fitly
described by Trench:, ""Agapan" has more of judgment and
deliberate choice; "philein" has more of attachment and peculiar
personal affection. Thus the 'Lovest thou' (Gr. agapas) on the
lips of the Lord seems to Peter at this moment too cold a word,
as though his Lord were keeping him at a distance, or at least
not inviting him to draw near, as in the passionate yearning of
his heart he desired now to do. Therefore he puts by the word
and substitutes his own stronger 'I love' (Gr. philo) in its
room. A second time he does the same. And now he has conquered;
for when the Lord demands a third time whether he loves him, he
does it in the word which alone will satisfy Peter ('Lovest
thou,' Gr. phileis), which alone claims from him that personal
attachment and affection with which indeed he knows that his
heart is full."
In 1 Cor. 13 the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as
the word "charity" there is rendered in the Revised Version.
the most celebrated city in the world at the time of Christ. It
is said to have been founded B.C. 753. When the New Testament
was written, Rome was enriched and adorned with the spoils of
the world, and contained a population estimated at 1,200,000, of
which the half were slaves, and including representatives of
nearly every nation then known. It was distinguished for its
wealth and luxury and profligacy. The empire of which it was the
capital had then reached its greatest prosperity.
On the day of Pentecost there were in Jerusalem "strangers
from Rome," who doubtless carried with them back to Rome tidings
of that great day, and were instrumental in founding the church
there. Paul was brought to this city a prisoner, where he
remained for two years (Acts 28:30, 31) "in his own hired
house." While here, Paul wrote his epistles to the Philippians,
to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, to Philemon, and probably
also to the Hebrews. He had during these years for companions
Luke and Aristarchus (Acts 27:2), Timothy (Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1),
Tychicus (Eph. 6: 21), Epaphroditus (Phil. 4:18), and John Mark
(Col. 4:10). (See PAUL T0002871.)
Beneath this city are extensive galleries, called "catacombs,"
which were used from about the time of the apostles (one of the
inscriptions found in them bears the date A.D. 71) for some
three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of
persecution, and also of worship and burial. About four thousand
inscriptions have been found in the catacombs. These give an
interesting insight into the history of the church at Rome down
to the time of Constantine.
Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of
its sound (1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps. 98:6; Hos. 5:8). It
is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It
denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long.
The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the
cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the
day of Atonement. In Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word (keren) so
rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in 2 Sam. 6:5 (Heb.
mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument
played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of
rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.
(Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion,
only in Num. 11:5). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in
the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in
earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family
of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most
refreshing. "We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites,
wearily marching through the arid solitudes of the Sinaitic
peninsula, thought more of the cucumbers and watermelons of
which they had had no lack in Egypt, rather than of the cruel
bondage which was the price of these luxuries." Groser's
Scripture Natural History.
Isaiah speaks of a "lodge" (1:8; Heb. sukkah), i.e., a shed or
edifice more solid than a booth, for the protection throughout
the season from spring to autumn of the watchers in a "garden of
As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt
(Ezek. 16:4), and then swathed with bandages (Job 38:9; Luke
2:7, 12). A Hebrew mother remained forty days in seclusion after
the birth of a son, and after the birth of a daughter double
that number of days. At the close of that period she entered
into the tabernacle or temple and offered up a sacrifice of
purification (Lev. 12:1-8; Luke 2:22). A son was circumcised on
the eighth day after his birth, being thereby consecrated to God
(Gen. 17:10-12; compare Rom. 4:11). Seasons of misfortune are
likened to the pains of a woman in travail, and seasons of
prosperity to the joy that succeeds child-birth (Isa. 13:8; Jer.
4:31; John 16:21, 22). The natural birth is referred to as the
emblem of the new birth (John 3:3-8; Gal. 6:15; Titus 3:5,
the process of preserving a body by means of aromatics (Gen.
50:2, 3, 26). This art was practised by the Egyptians from the
earliest times, and there brought to great perfection. This
custom probably originated in the belief in the future reunion
of the soul with the body. The process became more and more
complicated, and to such perfection was it carried that bodies
embalmed thousands of years ago are preserved to the present day
in the numberless mummies that have been discovered in Egypt.
The embalming of Jacob and Joseph was according to the
Egyptian custom, which was partially followed by the Jews (2
Chr. 16:14), as in the case of king Asa, and of our Lord (John
19:39, 40; Luke 23:56; 24:1). (See PHARAOH T0002923.)