the queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was
converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the
evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called
by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of
commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and
hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14).
It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have
prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare "Pharaoh,"
"Ptolemy," "Caesar") being a title common to several successive
queens. It is probable that Judaism had taken root in Ethiopia
at this time, and hence the visit of the queen's treasurer to
Jerusalem to keep the feast. There is a tradition that Candace
was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his
return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that
whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia. It is said that
he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where
he suffered martyrdom. (See PHILIP T0002936.)
curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He
was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1 Cor.
a heifer, an Athenian woman converted to Christianity under the
preaching of Paul (Acts 17:34). Some have supposed that she may
have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.
the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense
the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon
heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more
special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine
grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things
pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak
of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (16:19-34), of Paul
(9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (8:26-40), of Cornelius
(10), of Lydia (16:13-15), and others. (See REGENERATION
(2 Kings 10:27). Jehu ordered the temple of Baal to be
destroyed, and the place to be converted to the vile use of
receiving offal or ordure. (Compare Matt. 15:17.)
the chief officer or prime minister of state of Candace (q.v.),
queen of Ethiopia. He was converted to Christianity through the
instrumentality of Philip (Act 8:27). The northern portion of
Ethiopia formed the kingdom of Meroe, which for a long period
was ruled over by queens, and it was probably from this kingdom
that the eunuch came.
useful, a slave who, after robbing his master Philemon (q.v.) at
Colosse, fled to Rome, where he was converted by the apostle
Paul, who sent him back to his master with the epistle which
bears his name. In it he beseeches Philemon to receive his slave
as a "faithful and beloved brother." Paul offers to pay to
Philemon anything his slave had taken, and to bear the wrong he
had done him. He was accompanied on his return by Tychicus, the
bearer of the Epistle to the Colossians (Philemon 1:16, 18).
The story of this fugitive Colossian slave is a remarkable
evidence of the freedom of access to the prisoner which was
granted to all, and "a beautiful illustration both of the
character of St. Paul and the transfiguring power and righteous
principles of the gospel."
(Ex. 32:20; Deut. 9:21; Judg. 16:21), to crush small (Heb.
tahan); to oppress the poor (Isa. 3:5). The hand-mill was early
used by the Hebrews (Num. 11:8). It consisted of two stones, the
upper (Deut. 24:6; 2 Sam. 11:21) being movable and slightly
concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned
Eccl. 12:3 are the teeth. (See MILL T0002550.)
i.e., "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament (Acts 2:1;
20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). The festival so named is first spoken of in
Ex. 23:16 as "the feast of harvest," and again in Ex. 34:22 as
"the day of the firstfruits" (Num. 28:26). From the sixteenth of
the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven
complete weeks, i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and
this feast was held on the fiftieth day. The manner in which it
was to be kept is described in Lev. 23:15-19; Num. 28:27-29.
Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion, every one
was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a free-will offering"
(Deut. 16:9-11). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate
the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature
was the offering of "two leavened loaves" made from the new corn
of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved
before the Lord as a thank offering.
The day of Pentecost is noted in the Christian Church as the
day on which the Spirit descended upon the apostles, and on
which, under Peter's preaching, so many thousands were converted
in Jerusalem (Acts 2).
(Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:20; Col. 2:9), the essential being or the
nature of God.
the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his
conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke
1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from
the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas,
and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He
accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his
imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release
in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's
third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who
probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a
period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's
constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18).
He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at
Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out
for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and
where he remains with him till the close of his first
imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the
"beloved physician" is in 2 Tim. 4:11.
There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the
writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his
the cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar
Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1). His
decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely
ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy
(Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title
meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the
senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his
death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire
(Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.
among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the
face of the person being supposed to be toward the east.
a name figuratively given to Christ (Rev. 22:16; compare 2 Pet.
1:19). When Christ promises that he will give the "morning star"
to his faithful ones, he "promises that he will give to them
himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will impart
to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for
the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being
therefore linked with the sceptre (Num. 24:17). All the glory of
the world shall end in being the glory of the Church." Trench's
(from Lat. mille, "a thousand;" Matt. 5:41), a Roman measure of
1,000 paces of 5 feet each. Thus the Roman mile has 1618 yards,
being 142 yards shorter than the English mile.
a name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the
time of David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:30), probably as one being
a native of some unknown town called Meronoth.
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1 Cor. 7:20).
The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting
from your being called into the kingdom of God.
raven, a prince of Midian, who, being defeated by Gideon and put
to straits, was slain along with Zeeb (Judg. 7:20-25). Many of
the Midianites perished along with him (Ps. 83:9; Isa. 10:26).
homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render
to any created being (Ex. 34:14; Isa. 2:8). Such worship was
refused by Peter (Acts 10:25,26) and by an angel (Rev. 22:8,9).
a name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one
of David's warriors (2 Sam. 23:31; 1 Chr. 11:32), probably as
being an inhabitant of Arabah (Josh. 15:61), a town in the
wilderness of Judah.
stricken of the Lord, David's sister, and the mother of Abishai,
Joab, and Asahel (1 Chr. 2:16), who were the three leading
heroes of David's army, and being his nephews, they were
admitted to the closest companionship with him.
(Heb. kelub', Jer. 5:27, marg. "coop;" rendered "basket" in Amos
8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after
being caught. In Rev. 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek
"phulake", properly a prison or place of confinement.
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened,
was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7).
The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still
unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in
From the middle of May to about the middle of August the land of
Israel is dry. It is then the "drought of summer" (Gen.
31:40; Ps. 32:4), and the land suffers (Deut. 28:23: Ps. 102:4),
vegetation being preserved only by the dews (Hag. 1:11). (See
the evangelist; "John whose surname was Mark" (Acts 12:12, 25).
Mark (Marcus, Col. 4:10, etc.) was his Roman name, which
gradually came to supersede his Jewish name John. He is called
John in Acts 13:5, 13, and Mark in 15:39, 2 Tim. 4:11, etc.
He was the son of Mary, a woman apparently of some means and
influence, and was probably born in Jerusalem, where his mother
resided (Acts 12:12). Of his father we know nothing. He was
cousin of Barnabas (Col. 4:10). It was in his mother's house
that Peter found "many gathered together praying" when he was
released from prison; and it is probable that it was here that
he was converted by Peter, who calls him his "son" (1 Pet.
5:13). It is probable that the "young man" spoken of in Mark
14:51, 52 was Mark himself. He is first mentioned in Acts 12:25.
He went with Paul and Barnabas on their first journey (about
A.D. 47) as their "minister," but from some cause turned back
when they reached Perga in Pamphylia (Acts 12:25; 13:13). Three
years afterwards a "sharp contention" arose between Paul and
Barnabas (15:36-40), because Paul would not take Mark with him.
He, however, was evidently at length reconciled to the apostle,
for he was with him in his first imprisonment at Rome (Col.
4:10; Philemon 1:24). At a later period he was with Peter in
Babylon (1 Pet. 5:13), then, and for some centuries afterwards,
one of the chief seats of Jewish learning; and he was with
Timothy in Ephesus when Paul wrote him during his second
imprisonment (2 Tim. 4:11). He then disappears from view.
(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or
palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In
Num. 7:3, the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts
of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious
vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the
furniture of the temple.
This word denotes (1) absolute nakedness (Gen. 2:25; Job 1:21;
Eccl. 5:15; Micah 1:8; Amos 2:16); (2) being poorly clad (Isa.
58:7; James 2:15). It denotes also (3) the state of one who has
laid aside his loose outer garment (Lat. nudus), and appears
clothed only in a long tunic or under robe worn next the skin (1
Sam. 19:24; Isa. 47:3; compare Mark 14:52; John 21:7). It is used
figuratively, meaning "being discovered" or "made manifest" (Job
26:6; Heb. 4:13). In Ex. 32:25 the expression "the people were
naked" (A.V.) is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version
"the people were broken loose", i.e., had fallen into a state of
lawlessness and insubordination. In 2 Chr. 28:19 the words "he
made Judah naked" (A.V.), but Revised Version "he had dealt
wantonly in Judah," mean "he had permitted Judah to break loose
from all the restraints of religion."
commendable, a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent his
salutation (Rom. 16:5). He is spoken of as "the first fruits of
Achaia" (R.V., "of Asia", i.e., of proconsular Asia, which is
probably the correct reading). As being the first convert in
that region, he was peculiarly dear to the apostle. He calls him
his "well beloved."
(Jer. 24:2). "The bad figs may have been such either from having
decayed, and thus been reduced to a rotten condition, or as
being the fruit of the sycamore, which contains a bitter juice"
(Tristram, Nat. Hist.). The inferiority of the fruit is here
referred to as an emblem of the rejected Zedekiah and his
meeting with the Lord. (1.) A Levite who returned from Babylon
(2.) A false prophetess who assisted Tobiah and Sanballat
against the Jews (Neh. 6:14). Being bribed by them, she tried to
stir up discontent among the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and so to
embarrass Nehemiah in his great work of rebuilding the ruined
walls of the city.
smooth; bald, a hill at the southern extremity of Canaan (Josh.
11:17). It is referred to as if it were a landmark in that
direction, being prominent and conspicuous from a distance. It
has by some been identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on
the south frontier of Judah, between the south end of the Dead
Sea and the Wady Gaian.
Grain in the East is usually thrashed by the sheaves being
spread out on a floor, over which oxen and cattle are driven to
and fro, till the grain is trodden out. Moses ordained that the
ox was not to be muzzled while thrashing. It was to be allowed
to eat both the grain and the straw (Deut. 25:4). (See
the wolf, one of the two leaders of the great Midianite host
which invaded Israel and was utterly routed by Gideon. The
division of that host, which attempted to escape across the
Jordan, under Oreb and Zeeb, was overtaken by the Ephraimites,
who, in a great battle, completely vanquished them, their
leaders being taken and slain (Judg. 7:25; Ps. 83:11; Isa.
pure, a superintendant of customs; a chief tax-gather
(publicanus) at Jericho (Luke 19:1-10). "The collection of
customs at Jericho, which at this time produced and exported a
considerable quantity of balsam, was undoubtedly an important
post, and would account for Zacchaeus being a rich man." Being
short of stature, he hastened on before the multitude who were
thronging about Christ as he passed through Jericho on his way
to Jerusalem, and climbed up a sycamore tree that he might be
able to see him. When our Lord reached the spot he looked up to
the publican among the branches, and addressing him by name,
told him to make haste and come down, as he intended that day to
abide at his house. This led to the remarkable interview
recorded by the evangelist, and to the striking parable of the
ten pounds (Luke 19:12-27). At Er-riha (Jericho) there is a
large, venerable looking square tower, which goes by the
traditional name of the House of Zacchaeus.
an animal of the monkey tribe (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chr. 9:21). It
was brought from India by the fleets of Solomon and Hiram, and
was called by the Hebrews "koph", and by the Greeks "kepos",
both words being just the Indian Tamil name of the monkey, kapi,
i.e., swift, nimble, active. No species of ape has ever been
found in Israel or the adjacent regions.
(Prov. 30:31), the rendering of the Hebrew "zarzir mothnayim",
meaning literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V.
marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions
render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also
"stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and
"wrestler." The greyhound, however, was evidently known in
ancient times, as appears from Egyptian monuments.
(Palestinae), a city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the
great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of
Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon. It
was built by Herod the Great (B.C. 10), who named it after
Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos =
"Augustus"), on the site of an old town called "Strato's Tower."
It was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea, the seat of
the governors or procurators, and the headquarters of the Roman
troops. It was the great Gentile city of Israel, with a
spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings
of great splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the
West. Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the
instrumentality of Peter (Acts 10:1, 24), and thus for the first
time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles. Philip the
evangelist resided here with his four daughters (21:8). From
this place Saul sailed for his native Tarsus when forced to flee
from Jerusalem (9:30), and here he landed when returning from
his second missionary journey (18:22). He remained as a prisoner
here for two years before his voyage to Rome (Acts 24:27; 25:1,
4, 6, 13). Here on a "set day," when games were celebrated in
the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa I.
appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the
idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an angel,
and carried out a dying man. He was "eaten of worms" (12:19-23),
thus perishing by the same loathsome disease as his granfather,
Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient name Kaiseriyeh,
but is now desolate. "The present inhabitants of the ruins are
snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals." It is
described as the most desolate city of all Israel.
honouring God, a young disciple who was Paul's companion in many
of his journeyings. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother,
Lois, are mentioned as eminent for their piety (2 Tim. 1:5). We
know nothing of his father but that he was a Greek (Acts 16:1).
He is first brought into notice at the time of Paul's second
visit to Lystra (16:2), where he probably resided, and where it
seems he was converted during Paul's first visit to that place
(1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:11). The apostle having formed a high
opinion of his "own son in the faith," arranged that he should
become his companion (Acts 16:3), and took and circumcised him,
so that he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the
office of an evangelist (1 Tim. 4:14), and went with Paul in his
journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and
Philippi and Berea (Acts 17:14). Thence he followed Paul to
Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to
Thessalonica (17:15; 1 Thess. 3:2). We next find him at Corinth
(1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) with Paul. He passes now out of
sight for a few years, and is again noticed as with the apostle
at Ephesus (Acts 19:22), whence he is sent on a mission into
Macedonia. He accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia (20:4),
where he was with him for some time. When the apostle was a
prisoner at Rome, Timothy joined him (Phil. 1:1), where it
appears he also suffered imprisonment (Heb. 13:23). During the
apostle's second imprisonment he wrote to Timothy, asking him to
rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring with him certain
things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and parchments (2
Tim. 4:13). According to tradition, after the apostle's death he
settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a
(Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7). In both of these passages the Authorized
Version has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. "Crane or
swallow" should be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised
Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is
"'agur", the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Israel. It
is migratory, and is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry
being hoarse and melancholy.
fortunate, (Acts 20:9-12), a young man of Troas who fell through
drowsiness from the open window of the third floor of the house
where Paul was preaching, and was "taken up dead." The
lattice-work of the window being open to admit the air, the lad
fell out and down to the court below. Paul restored him to life
again. (Compare 1 Kings 17:21; 2 Kings 4:34.)
(Heb. dohan; only in Ezek. 4:9), a small grain, the produce of
the Panicum miliaceum of botanists. It is universally cultivated
in the East as one of the smaller corn-grasses. This seed is the
cenchros of the Greeks. It is called in India warree, and by the
Arabs dukhan, and is extensively used for food, being often
mixed with other grain. In this country it is only used for
prince, son of Eliadah. Abandoning the service of Hadadezer, the
king of Zobah, on the occasion of his being defeated by David,
he became the "captain over a band" of marauders, and took
Damascus, and became king of Syria (1 Kings 11:23-25; 2 Sam.
8:3-8). For centuries after this the Syrians were the foes of
Israel. He "became an adversary to Israel all the days of
in the Old Testament denotes (1) a particular part of the body
of man and animals (Gen. 2:21; 41:2; Ps. 102:5, marg.); (2) the
whole body (Ps. 16:9); (3) all living things having flesh, and
particularly humanity as a whole (Gen. 6:12, 13); (4) mutability
and weakness (2 Chr. 32:8; compare Isa. 31:3; Ps. 78:39). As
suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression
"heart of flesh" (Ezek. 11:19). The expression "my flesh and
bone" (Judg. 9:2; Isa. 58:7) denotes relationship.
In the New Testament, besides these it is also used to denote
the sinful element of human nature as opposed to the "Spirit"
(Rom. 6:19; Matt. 16:17). Being "in the flesh" means being
unrenewed (Rom. 7:5; 8:8, 9), and to live "according to the
flesh" is to live and act sinfully (Rom. 8:4, 5, 7, 12).
This word also denotes the human nature of Christ (John 1:14,
"The Word was made flesh." Compare also 1 Tim. 3:16; Rom. 1:3).
whom God will restore. (1.) A priest, head of one of the courses
of the priests of the time of David (1 Chr. 24:12).
(2.) A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh.
12:22, 23). He rebuilt the eastern city wall (3:1), his own
mansion being in that quarter, on the ridge Ophel (3:20, 21).
His indulgence of Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation
of Nehemiah (13:4, 7).
a plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the
hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and
from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and
fertility (1 Chr. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; 35:2; 65:10). The "rose of
Sharon" is celebrated (Cant. 2:1). It is called Lasharon (the
article la being here a part of the word) in Josh. 12:18.
Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled
villages" (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29-34). They were made thick and
strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built
of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1
Kings 6:7; 7:9-12; 20:30; Mark 13:1, 2). The term is used
metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1; 60:18; Rev.
21:12-20). (See FENCE T0001321.)
When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded,
among the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok
and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to
be conducted in the house of God. (1.) He divided the priests
into twenty-four courses (1 Chr. 24:1-19), sixteen being of the
house of Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was
under a head or chief, and ministered for a week, the order
being determined by lot. (2.) The rest of the 38,000 Levites
(23:4) were divided also into twenty-four courses, each to
render some allotted service in public worship: 4,000 in
twenty-four courses were set apart as singers and musicians
under separate leaders (25); 4,000 as porters or keepers of the
doors and gates of the sanctuary (26:1-19); and 6,000 as
officers and judges to see to the administration of the law in
all civil and ecclesiastical matters (20-32).
This arrangement was re-established by Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:2);
and afterwards the four sacerdotal courses which are said to
have returned from the Captivity were re-divided into the
original number of twenty-four by Ezra (6:18).
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally
means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia)
is used by classical writers with reference to the changes
produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is
equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In
Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as
a passing from death to life (1 John 3:14); becoming a new
creature in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17); being born again (John
3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom. 12:2); a resurrection from the
dead (Eph. 2:6); a being quickened (2:1, 5).
This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not
with man but with God (John 1:12, 13; 1 John 2:29; 5:1, 4).
As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting
of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation
of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses
The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in
Scripture (John 3:3; Rom. 7:18; 8:7-9; 1 Cor. 2:14; Eph. 2:1;
The sockets of the lamps of the golden candlestick of the
tabernacle are called bowls (Ex. 25:31, 33, 34; 37:17, 19, 20);
the same word so rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" (Gen.
44:2, 12, 16), and wine "pot" (Jer. 35:5). The reservoir for
oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's vision of
the candlestick, is called also by this name (Zech. 4:2, 3); so
also are the vessels used for libations (Ex. 25:29; 37:16).
Vine of Sodom
referred to only in Deut. 32:32. Among the many conjectures as
to this tree, the most probable is that it is the 'osher of the
Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit
are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to
the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See EN-GEDI
T0001207.) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses
as being utterly corrupt, bringing forth only bitter fruit.
(1.) Hebrew "kiddah'", i.e., "split." One of the principal
spices of the holy anointing oil (Ex. 30:24), and an article of
commerce (Ezek. 27:19). It is the inner bark of a tree
resembling the cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of
botanists, and was probably imported from India.
(2.) Hebrew pl. "ketzi'oth" (Ps. 45:8). Mentioned in
connection with myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garments.
It was probably prepared from the peeled bark, as the Hebrew
word suggests, of some kind of cinnamon.
Corn was winnowed, (1.) By being thrown up by a shovel against
the wind. As a rule this was done in the evening or during the
night, when the west wind from the sea was blowing, which was a
moderate breeze and fitted for the purpose. The north wind was
too strong, and the east wind came in gusts. (2.) By the use of
a fan or van, by which the chaff was blown away (Ruth 3:2; Isa.
30:24; Jer. 4:11, 12; Matt. 3:12).
sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe
of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judg. 1:31). It was known
to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from
Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B.C. 100. Here
Paul landed on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). During
the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and
subsequently, on account of its being occupied by the Knights
Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was called St. Jean d'Acre, or
the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and
Bernice. The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of
the territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias,
with the title of king ("king Herod"), and finally of that of
Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he
became ruler over the whole of Israel. He was a persecutor of
the early Christians. He slew James, and imprisoned Peter (Acts
12:1-4). He died at Caesarea, being "eaten of worms" (Acts
12:23), A.D. 44. (Compare Josephus, Ant. xix. 8.)
only in Luke 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a
translation of the Greek word "Kranion", by which the Hebrew
word "Gulgoleth" was interpreted, "the place of a skull." It
probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low,
rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull.
It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of
our Lord took place outside the city walls (Heb. 13:11-13) and
near the public thoroughfare. "This thing was not done in a
corner." (See GOLGOTHA T0001522.)
only in Matt. 23:24, a small two-winged stinging fly of the
genus Culex, which includes mosquitoes. Our Lord alludes here to
the gnat in a proverbial expression probably in common use, "who
strain out the gnat;" the words in the Authorized Version,
"strain at a gnat," being a mere typographical error, which has
been corrected in the Revised Version. The custom of filtering
wine for this purpose was common among the Jews. It was founded
on Lev. 11:23. It is supposed that the "lice," Ex. 8:16 (marg.
R.V., "sand-flies"), were a species of gnat.
the capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul
and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first
missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted
by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to
Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the
church which had been founded there (14:21,22). It was probably
again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along
with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of
Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.
of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of
the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew a thousand men.
In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow
place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This
is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in
the Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in
Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this
conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in shape
like a jaw-bone.
the fruit of the olive-tree. This tree yielded oil which was
highly valued. The best oil was from olives that were plucked
before being fully ripe, and then beaten or squeezed (Deut.
24:20; Isa. 17:6; 24:13). It was called "beaten," or "fresh oil"
(Ex. 27:20). There were also oil-presses, in which the oil was
trodden out by the feet (Micah 6:15). James (3:12) calls the
fruit "olive berries." The phrase "vineyards and olives" (Judg.
15:5, A.V.) should be simply "olive-yard," or "olive-garden," as
in the Revised Version. (See OIL T0002774.)
house of the hollow, or of the cavern, the name of two towns or
villages (2 Chr. 8:5; 1 Chr. 7:24) in the territory of Ephraim,
on the way from Jerusalem to Joppa. They are distinguished as
Beth-horon "the upper" and Beth-horon "the nether." They are
about 2 miles apart, the former being about 10 miles north-west
of Jerusalem. Between the two places was the ascent and descent
of Beth-horon, leading from Gibeon down to the western plain
(Josh. 10:10, 11; 18:13, 14), down which the five kings of the
Amorites were driven by Joshua in that great battle, the most
important in which the Hebrews had been as yet engaged, being
their first conflict with their enemies in the open field.
Jehovah interposed in behalf of Israel by a terrific hailstorm,
which caused more deaths among the Canaanites than did the
swords of the Israelites. Beth-horon is mentioned as having been
taken by Shishak, B.C. 945, in the list of his conquests, and
the pass was the scene of a victory of Judas Maccabeus. (Compare
Ex. 9:19, 25; Job 38:22, 23; Ps. 18:12-14; Isa. 30:30.) The
modern name of these places is Beit-ur, distinguished by
el-Foka, "the upper," and el-Tahta, "the nether." The lower was
at the foot of the pass, and the upper, 500 feet higher, at the
top, west of Gibeon. (See GIBEON T0001480.)
(A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the
Divine Being. It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew "'El", from
a word meaning to be strong; (2) of "'Eloah", plural "'Elohim".
The singular form, "Eloah", is used only in poetry. The plural
form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew
word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to
denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the
Authorized Version by "LORD," printed in small capitals. The
existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is
nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves this truth
is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Ps. 14:1).
The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the
being of God are:
(1.) The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by
(2.) The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically
from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments are,
(a) The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be
a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause.
(b) The teleological, or the argument from design. We see
everywhere the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature.
(c) The moral argument, called also the anthropological
argument, based on the moral consciousness and the history of
mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only
be explained on the supposition of the existence of God.
Conscience and human history testify that "verily there is a God
that judgeth in the earth."
The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Ex.
34:6,7. (see also Deut. 6:4; 10:17; Num. 16:22; Ex. 15:11;
33:19; Isa. 44:6; Hab. 3:6; Ps. 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are
also systematically classified in Rev. 5:12 and 7:12.
God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, i.e., such
as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative,
i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his
creatures. Others distinguish them into communicable, i.e.,
those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures:
goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which
cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity,
and eternity. They are by some also divided into natural
attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness,
portion; double cave, the cave which Abraham bought, together
with the field in which it stood, from Ephron the Hittite, for a
family burying-place (Gen. 23). It is one of those Bible
localities about the identification of which there can be no
doubt. It was on the slope of a hill on the east of Hebron,
"before Mamre." Here were laid the bodies of Abraham and Sarah,
Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah (Gen. 23:19; 25:9; 49:31;
50:13). Over the cave an ancient Christian church was erected,
probably in the time of Justinian, the Roman emperor. This
church has been converted into a Mohammedan mosque. The whole is
surrounded by the el-Haram i.e., "the sacred enclosure," about
200 feet long, 115 broad, and of an average height of about 50.
This building, from the immense size of some of its stones, and
the manner in which they are fitted together, is supposed by
some to have been erected in the days of David or of Solomon,
while others ascribe it to the time of Herod. It is looked upon
as the most ancient and finest relic of Jewish architecture.
On the floor of the mosque are erected six large cenotaphs as
monuments to the dead who are buried in the cave beneath.
Between the cenotaphs of Isaac and Rebekah there is a circular
opening in the floor into the cavern below, the cave of
Machpelah. Here it may be that the body of Jacob, which was
embalmed in Egypt, is still preserved (much older embalmed
bodies have recently been found in the cave of Deir el-Bahari in
Egypt, see PHARAOH T0002923), though those of the others there
buried may have long ago mouldered into dust. The interior of
the mosque was visited by the Prince of Wales in 1862 by a
special favour of the Mohammedan authorities. An interesting
account of this visit is given in Dean Stanley's Lectures on the
Jewish Church. It was also visited in 1866 by the Marquis of
Bute, and in 1869 by the late Emperor (Frederick) of Germany,
then the Crown Prince of Prussia. In 1881 it was visited by the
two sons of the Prince of Wales, accompanied by Sir C. Wilson
and others. (See Israel Quarterly Statement, October 1882).
(2 Kings 6:25) has been generally understood literally. There
are instances in history of the dung of pigeons being actually
used as food during a famine. Compare also the language of
Rabshakeh to the Jews (2 Kings 18:27; Isa. 36:12). This name,
however, is applied by the Arabs to different vegetable
substances, and there is room for the opinion of those who think
that some such substance is here referred to, as, e.g., the
seeds of a kind of millet, or a very inferior kind of pulse, or
the root of the ornithogalum, i.e., bird-milk, the
double fruitfulness ("for God had made him fruitful in the land
of his affliction"). The second son of Joseph, born in Egypt
(Gen. 41:52; 46:20). The first incident recorded regarding him
is his being placed, along with his brother Manasseh, before
their grandfather, Jacob, that he might bless them (48:10; compare
27:1). The intention of Joseph was that the right hand of the
aged patriarch should be placed on the head of the elder of the
two; but Jacob set Ephraim the younger before his brother,
"guiding his hands wittingly." Before Joseph's death, Ephraim's
family had reached the third generation (Gen. 50:23).
the strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from
Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of
marriage (Gen. 4:18-24). His address to his two wives, Adah and
Zillah (4:23, 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian
poetry. It has been called "Lamech's sword-song." He was "rude
and ruffianly," fearing neither God nor man. With him the
curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his
(2.) The seventh in descent from Seth, being the only son of
Methuselah. Noah was the oldest of his several sons (Gen.
5:25-31; Luke 3:36).
(Gr. heduosmon, i.e., "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden
herbs of which the Pharisees paid tithes (Matt. 23:23; Luke
11:42). It belongs to the labiate family of plants. The species
most common in Syria is the Mentha sylvestris, the wild mint,
which grows much larger than the garden mint (M. sativa). It was
much used in domestic economy as a condiment, and also as a
medicine. The paying of tithes of mint was in accordance with
the Mosiac law (Deut. 14:22), but the error of the Pharisees lay
in their being more careful about this little matter of the mint
than about weightier matters.
the law so designated by Paul (Gal. 3:24, 25). As so used, the
word does not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the
modern page), i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision
of a family, taking them to and from the school, being
responsible for their safety and manners. Hence the pedagogue
was stern and severe in his discipline. Thus the law was a
pedagogue to the Jews, with a view to Christ, i.e., to prepare
for faith in Christ by producing convictions of guilt and
helplessness. The office of the pedagogue ceased when "faith
came", i.e., the object of that faith, the seed, which is
(1.) Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God "tempted [Gen. 22:
1; R.V., 'did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to
tempt, i.e., to try, men (James 1:2, 12; compare Deut. 8:2),
putting their faith and patience to the test. (2.) Ordinarily,
however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and
hence Satan is called "the tempter" (Matt. 4:3). Our Lord was in
this way tempted in the wilderness. That temptation was not
internal, but by a real, active, subtle being. It was not
self-sought. It was submitted to as an act of obedience on his
part. "Christ was led, driven. An unseen personal force bore him
a certain violence is implied in the words" (Matt. 4:1-11).
The scene of the temptation of our Lord is generally supposed
to have been the mountain of Quarantania (q.v.), "a high and
precipitous wall of rock, 1,200 or 1,500 feet above the plain
west of Jordan, near Jericho."
Temptation is common to all (Dan. 12:10; Zech. 13:9; Ps.
66:10; Luke 22:31, 40; Heb. 11:17; James 1:12; 1 Pet. 1:7;
4:12). We read of the temptation of Joseph (Gen. 39), of David
(2 Sam. 24; 1 Chr. 21), of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:31), of Daniel
(Dan. 6), etc. So long as we are in this world we are exposed to
temptations, and need ever to be on our watch against them.
the Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius
Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved
that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to
Syria at the time of our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled,
being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he
was de jure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was
appointed governor of Syria for the second time. During his
tenure of office, at the time of our Lord's birth (Luke 2:2), a
"taxing" (R.V., "enrolment;" i.e., a registration) of the people
was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under his
government. (See TAXING T0003595.)
different from the ordinary prison in being more severe as a
place of punishment. Like the Roman inner prison (Acts 16:24),
it consisted of a deep cell or cistern (Jer. 38:6). To be shut
up in, a punishment common in Egypt (Gen. 39:20; 40:3; 41:10;
42:19). It is not mentioned, however, in the law of Moses as a
mode of punishment. Under the later kings imprisonment was
frequently used as a punishment (2 Chron. 16:10; Jer. 20:2;
32:2; 33:1; 37:15), and it was customary after the Exile (Matt.
11:2; Luke 3:20; Acts 5:18, 21; Matt. 18:30).
the successor of Felix (A.D. 60) as procurator of Judea (Acts
24:27). A few weeks after he had entered on his office the case
of Paul, then a prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The
"next day," after he had gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul
defend himself in the presence of Herod Agrippa II. and his
sister Bernice, and not finding in him anything worthy of death
or of bonds, would have set him free had he not appealed unto
Caesar (Acts 25:11, 12). In consequence of this appeal Paul was
sent to Rome. Festus, after being in office less than two years,
died in Judea. (See AGRIPPA T0000126.)
(Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of
the viscera, Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon
the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek. 21:21
there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon
"looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes
of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.)
is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and
Josephus understood "the liver of goats." By the "caul above the
liver," in Lev. 4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe
of the liver itself.
the people is victor, a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin.
He is first noticed as visiting Jesus by night (John 3:1-21) for
the purpose of learning more of his doctrines, which our Lord
then unfolded to him, giving prominence to the necessity of
being "born again." He is next met with in the Sanhedrin
(7:50-52), where he protested against the course they were
taking in plotting against Christ. Once more he is mentioned as
taking part in the preparation for the anointing and burial of
the body of Christ (John 19:39). We hear nothing more of him.
There can be little doubt that he became a true disciple.
one who farmed the taxes (e.g., Zacchaeus, Luke 19:2) to be
levied from a town or district, and thus undertook to pay to the
supreme government a certain amount. In order to collect the
taxes, the publicans employed subordinates (5:27; 15:1; 18:10),
who, for their own ends, were often guilty of extortion and
peculation. In New Testament times these taxes were paid to the
Romans, and hence were regarded by the Jews as a very heavy
burden, and hence also the collectors of taxes, who were
frequently Jews, were hated, and were usually spoken of in very
opprobrious terms. Jesus was accused of being a "friend of
publicans and sinners" (Luke 7:34).
Hebrew "olah"; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by
fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed.
Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this
was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most
frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one
mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices
offered by Abel (Gen. 4:3, 4, here called "minhah"; i.e., "a
gift"), Noah (Gen. 8:20), Abraham (Gen. 22:2, 7, 8, 13), and by
the Hebrews in Egypt (Ex. 10:25).
The law of Moses afterwards prescribed the occasions and the
manner in which burnt sacrifices were to be offered. There were
"the continual burnt offering" (Ex. 29:38-42; Lev. 6:9-13), "the
burnt offering of every sabbath," which was double the daily one
(Num. 28:9, 10), "the burnt offering of every month" (28:11-15),
the offerings at the Passover (19-23), at Pentecost (Lev.
23:16), the feast of Trumpets (23:23-25), and on the day of
Atonement (Lev. 16).
On other occasions special sacrifices were offered, as at the
consecration of Aaron (Ex. 29) and the dedication of the temple
(1 Kings 8:5, 62-64).
Free-will burnt offerings were also permitted (Lev. 1:13), and
were offered at the accession of Solomon to the throne (1 Chr.
29:21), and at the reformation brought about by Hezekiah (2 Chr.
These offerings signified the complete dedication of the
offerers unto God. This is referred to in Rom. 12:1. (See ALTAR
T0000185, SACRIFICE T0003179.)
a foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore
not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where
he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens.
(1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no
(2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being
naturalized (Lev. 22:10; Ps. 39:12).
Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions,
the same rights as other citizens (Lev. 19:33, 34; Deut. 10:19).
They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the
congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and
abandoning idolatry (Deut. 23:3-8).
This term is used (Eph. 2:12) to denote persons who have no
interest in Christ.
Baptism for the dead
only mentioned in 1 Cor. 15:29. This expression as used by the
apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a
baptism of blood in order to join a glorified church which has
no existence [i.e., if the dead rise not] is a fool." Some also
regard the statement here as an allusion to the strange practice
which began, it is said, to prevail at Corinth, in which a
person was baptized in the stead of others who had died before
being baptized, to whom it was hoped some of the benefits of
that rite would be extended. This they think may have been one
of the erroneous customs which Paul went to Corinth to "set in
the rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word
"tarshish", a precious stone; probably so called as being
brought from Tarshish. It was one of the stones on the
breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:20; R.V. marg.,
"chalcedony;" 39:13). The colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's
vision was as the colour of a beryl stone (1:16; 10:9; R.V.,
"stone of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in Cant. 5:14; Dan. 10:6;
Rev. 21:20. In Ezek. 28:13 the LXX. render the word by
"chrysolite," which the Jewish historian Josephus regards as its
proper translation. This also is the rendering given in the
Authorized Version in the margin. That was a gold-coloured gem,
the topaz of ancient authors.
or Colosse, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, which is a
tributary of the Maeander. It was about 12 miles above Laodicea,
and near the great road from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and was
consequently of some mercantile importance. It does not appear
that Paul had visited this city when he wrote his letter to the
church there (Col. 1:2). He expresses in his letter to Philemon
(ver. 1:22) his hope to visit it on being delivered from his
imprisonment. From Col. 1:7; 4:12 it has been concluded that
Epaphras was the founder of the Colossian church. This town
afterwards fell into decay, and the modern town of Chonas or
Chonum occupies a site near its ruins.
Heb. ramoth, meaning "heights;" i.e., "high-priced" or valuable
things, or, as some suppose, "that which grows high," like a
tree (Job 28:18; Ezek. 27:16), according to the Rabbins, red
coral, which was in use for ornaments.
The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the deposit by
minute polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in which
the animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it grows, but
usually is branched like a tree. Great coral reefs and coral
islands abound in the Red Sea, whence probably the Hebrews
derived their knowledge of it. It is found of different colours,
white, black, and red. The red, being esteemed the most
precious, was used, as noticed above, for ornamental purposes.
Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of
its sound (1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps. 98:6; Hos. 5:8). It
is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It
denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long.
The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the
cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the
day of Atonement. In Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word (keren) so
rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in 2 Sam. 6:5 (Heb.
mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument
played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of
rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.
Degrees, Song of
song of steps, a title given to each of these fifteen psalms,
120-134 inclusive. The probable origin of this name is the
circumstance that these psalms came to be sung by the people on
the ascents or goings up to Jerusalem to attend the three great
festivals (Deut. 16:16). They were well fitted for being sung by
the way from their peculiar form, and from the sentiments they
express. "They are characterized by brevity, by a key-word, by
epanaphora [i.e, repetition], and by their epigrammatic
style...More than half of them are cheerful, and all of them
hopeful." They are sometimes called "Pilgrim Songs." Four of
them were written by David, one (127) by Solomon, and the rest
Hebrew dudaim; i.e., "love-plants", occurs only in Gen. 30:14-16
and Cant. 7:13. Many interpretations have been given of this
word "dudaim". It has been rendered "violets," "Lilies,"
"jasmines," "truffles or mushrooms," "flowers," the "citron,"
etc. The weight of authority is in favour of its being regarded
as the Mandragora officinalis of botanists, "a near relative of
the night-shades, the 'apple of Sodom' and the potato plant." It
possesses stimulating and narcotic properties (Gen. 30:14-16).
The fruit of this plant resembles the potato-apple in size, and
is of a pale orange colour. It has been called the "love-apple."
The Arabs call it "Satan's apple." It still grows near
Jerusalem, and in other parts of Israel.
are frequently met with at the waters of Merom and the Sea of
Galilee. The pelican is ranked among unclean birds (Lev. 11:18;
Deut. 14:17). It is of an enormous size, being about 6 feet
long, with wings stretching out over 12 feet. The Hebrew name
(kaath, i.e., "vomiter") of this bird is incorrectly rendered
"cormorant" in the Authorized Version of Isa. 34:11 and Zeph.
2:14, but correctly in the Revised Version. It receives its
Hebrew name from its habit of storing in its pouch large
quantities of fish, which it disgorges when it feeds its young.
Two species are found on the Syrian coast, the Pelicanus
onocrotalus, or white pelican, and the Pelicanus crispus, or
a city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor,
named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from
it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second
missionary journey, saw the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who
appeared to him, saying, "Come over, and help us" (Acts
16:8-11). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on
one of these visits he left his cloak and some books there (2
Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13). The ruins of Troas extend over many
miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak
trees. The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old
is said to be the oldest extant vellum manuscript. It and the
Codex Sinaiticus are the two oldest uncial manuscripts. They
were probably written in the fourth century. The Vaticanus was
placed in the Vatican Library at Rome by Pope Nicolas V. in
1448, its previous history being unknown. It originally
consisted in all probability of a complete copy of the
Septuagint and of the New Testament. It is now imperfect, and
consists of 759 thin, delicate leaves, of which the New
Testament fills 142. Like the Sinaiticus, it is of the greatest
value to Biblical scholars in aiding in the formation of a
correct text of the New Testament. It is referred to by critics
as Codex B.
the name originally of a narrow strip of territory in Greece, on
the north-west of the Peloponnesus. Subsequently it was applied
by the Romans to the whole Peloponnesus, now called the Morea,
and the south of Greece. It was then one of the two provinces
(Macedonia being the other) into which they divided the country
when it fell under their dominion. It is in this latter enlarged
meaning that the name is always used in the New Testament (Acts
18:12, 27; 19:21; Rom. 15: 26; 16:5, etc.). It was at the time
when Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles under the proconsular
form of government; hence the appropriate title given to Gallio
as the "deputy," i.e., proconsul, of Achaia (Acts 18:12).
whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and
the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Kings 8:18), who "walked
in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2 Chr. 21:6), called
"daughter" of Omri (2 Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband
and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the
vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the
youngest (2 Kings 11:1,2). After a reign of six years she was
put to death in an insurrection (2 Kings 11:20; 2 Chr. 21:6;
22:10-12; 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with
Josiah's being crowned as king.
(2.) Ezra 8:7. (3.) 1 Chr. 8:26.
(Heb. beytsah, "whiteness"). Eggs deserted (Isa. 10:14), of a
bird (Deut. 22:6), an ostrich (Job 39:14), the cockatrice (Isa.
59:5). In Luke 11:12, an egg is contrasted with a scorpion,
which is said to be very like an egg in its appearance, so much
so as to be with difficulty at times distinguished from it. In
Job 6:6 ("the white of an egg") the word for egg (hallamuth')
occurs nowhere else. It has been translated "purslain" (R.V.
marg.), and the whole phrase "purslain-broth", i.e., broth made
of that herb, proverbial for its insipidity; and hence an
insipid discourse. Job applies this expression to the speech of
Eliphaz as being insipid and dull. But the common rendering,
"the white of an egg", may be satisfactorily maintained.
In its primary sense, as denoting the first principles or
constituents of things, it is used in 2 Pet. 3:10: "The elements
shall be dissolved." In a secondary sense it denotes the first
principles of any art or science. In this sense it is used in
Gal. 4:3, 9; Col. 2:8, 20, where the expressions, "elements of
the world," "week and beggarly elements," denote that state of
religious knowledge existing among the Jews before the coming of
Christ, the rudiments of religious teaching. They are "of the
world," because they are made up of types which appeal to the
senses. They are "weak," because insufficient; and "beggarly,"
or "poor," because they are dry and barren, not being
accompanied by an outpouring of spiritual gifts and graces, as
the gospel is.
(Heb. pishtah, i.e., "peeled", in allusion to the fact that the
stalks of flax when dried were first split or peeled before
being steeped in water for the purpose of destroying the pulp).
This plant was cultivated from earliest times. The flax of Egypt
was destroyed by the plague of hail when it "was bolled", i.e.,
was forming pods for seed (Ex. 9:31). It was extensively
cultivated both in Egypt and Israel. Reference is made in
Josh. 2:6 to the custom of drying flax-stalks by exposing them
to the sun on the flat roofs of houses. It was much used in
forming articles of clothing such as girdles, also cords and
bands (Lev. 13:48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11). (See LINEN T0002296.)
Heb. tsir'ah, "stinging", (Ex. 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12).
The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by
which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the
Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a
metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize
the people as a "terror of God" (Gen. 35:5), the consternation
with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Israel there
are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being
larger in size, and they are very abundant. They "attack human
beings in a very furious manner." "The furious attack of a swarm
of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even
caused the death of the animals."
(Heb. nerd), a much-valued perfume (Cant. 1:12; 4:13, 14). It
was "very precious", i.e., very costly (Mark 14:3; John 12:3,5).
It is the root of an Indian plant, the Nardostachys jatamansi,
of the family of Valeriance, growing on the Himalaya mountains.
It is distinguished by its having many hairy spikes shooting out
from one root. It is called by the Arabs sunbul Hindi, "the
Indian spike." In the New Testament this word is the rendering
of the Greek nardos pistike. The margin of the Revised Version
in these passages has "pistic nard," pistic being perhaps a
local name. Some take it to mean genuine, and others liquid. The
most probable opinion is that the word pistike designates the
nard as genuine or faithfully prepared.
lame. (1.) The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D.
41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in
Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of
his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Acts 18:2).
In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was
supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned
During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the
Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod
Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed" (12:2).
He died A.D. 54.
(2.) Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase
the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius
(Acts 21:31-40; 22:28; 23:26).
The first case of intoxication on record is that of Noah (Gen.
9:21). The sin of drunkenness is frequently and strongly
condemned (Rom. 13:13; 1 Cor. 6:9, 10; Eph. 5:18; 1 Thess. 5:7,
8). The sin of drinking to excess seems to have been not
uncommon among the Israelites.
The word is used figuratively, when men are spoken of as being
drunk with sorrow, and with the wine of God's wrath (Isa. 63:6;
Jer. 51:57; Ezek. 23:33). To "add drunkenness to thirst" (Deut.
29:19, A.V.) is a proverbial expression, rendered in the Revised
Version "to destroy the moist with the dry", i.e., the
well-watered equally with the dry land, meaning that the effect
of such walking in the imagination of their own hearts would be
to destroy one and all.
sold. (1.) Manasseh's oldest son (Josh. 17:1), or probably his
only son (see 1 Chr. 7:14, 15; compare Num. 26:29-33; Josh.
13:31). His descendants are referred to under the name of
Machirites, being the offspring of Gilead (Num. 26:29). They
settled in land taken from the Amorites (Num. 32:39, 40; Deut.
3:15) by a special enactment (Num. 36:1-3; Josh. 17:3, 4). He is
once mentioned as the representative of the tribe of Manasseh
east of Jordan (Judg. 5:14).
(2.) A descendant of the preceding, residing at Lo-debar,
where he maintained Jonathan's son Mephibosheth till he was
taken under the care of David (2 Sam. 9:4), and where he
afterwards gave shelter to David himself when he was a fugitive
Solomon, Song of
called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles." It is the "song
of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its
kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it. The
Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question,
but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the
traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is
an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and
the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride.
(Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9;
21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer.
2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.)
an ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Matt. 28:19, 20),
and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the
Supper, "till he come." The words "baptize" and "baptism" are
simply Greek words transferred into English. This was
necessarily done by the translators of the Scriptures, for no
literal translation could properly express all that is implied
The mode of baptism can in no way be determined from the Greek
word rendered "baptize." Baptists say that it means "to dip,"
and nothing else. That is an incorrect view of the meaning of
the word. It means both (1) to dip a thing into an element or
liquid, and (2) to put an element or liquid over or on it.
Nothing therefore as to the mode of baptism can be concluded
from the mere word used. The word has a wide latitude of
meaning, not only in the New Testament, but also in the LXX.
Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions
and baptisms required by the Mosaic law. These were effected by
immersion, and by affusion and sprinkling; and the same word,
"washings" (Heb. 9:10, 13, 19, 21) or "baptisms," designates
them all. In the New Testament there cannot be found a single
well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of the word where
it necessarily means immersion. Moreover, none of the instances
of baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (2:38-41;
8:26-39; 9:17, 18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34) favours the
idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, or by
immersion, while in some of them such a mode was highly
The gospel and its ordinances are designed for the whole
world, and it cannot be supposed that a form for the
administration of baptism would have been prescribed which would
in any place (as in a tropical country or in polar regions) or
under any circumstances be inapplicable or injurious or
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical
ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work
of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. As in the Supper
a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits
in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of
the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water poured or sprinkled
on the person in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
That which is essential in baptism is only "washing with water,"
no mode being specified and none being necessary or essential to
the symbolism of the ordinance.
The apostles of our Lord were baptized with the Holy Ghost
(Matt. 3:11) by his coming upon them (Acts 1:8). The fire also
with which they were baptized sat upon them. The extraordinary
event of Pentecost was explained by Peter as a fulfilment of the
ancient promise that the Spirit would be poured out in the last
days (2:17). He uses also with the same reference the expression
shed forth as descriptive of the baptism of the Spirit (33). In
the Pentecostal baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the
Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed
forth, poured out, fell on them (11:15), came upon them, sat on
them." That was a real and true baptism. We are warranted from
such language to conclude that in like manner when water is
poured out, falls, comes upon or rests upon a person when this
ordinance is administered, that person is baptized. Baptism is
therefore, in view of all these arguments "rightly administered
by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person."
The subjects of baptism. This raises questions of greater
importance than those relating to its mode.
1. The controversy here is not about "believers' baptism," for
that is common to all parties. Believers were baptized in
apostolic times, and they have been baptized in all time by all
the branches of the church. It is altogether a misrepresentation
to allege, as is sometimes done by Baptists, that their doctrine
is "believers' baptism." Every instance of adult baptism, or of
"believers' baptism," recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:41;
8:37; 9:17, 18; 10:47; 16:15; 19:5, etc.) is just such as would
be dealt with in precisely the same way by all branches of the
Protestant Church, a profession of faith or of their being
"believers" would be required from every one of them before
baptism. The point in dispute is not the baptism of believers,
but whether the infant children of believers, i.e., of members
of the church, ought to be baptized.
2. In support of the doctrine of infant baptism, i.e., of the
baptism of the infants, or rather the "children," of believing
parents, the following considerations may be adduced:
The Church of Christ exists as a divinely organized community.
It is the "kingdom of God," one historic kingdom under all
dispensations. The commonwealth of Israel was the "church" (Acts
7:38; Rom. 9:4) under the Mosaic dispensation. The New Testament
church is not a new and different church, but one with that of
the Old Testament. The terms of admission into the church have
always been the same viz., a profession of faith and a promise
of subjection to the laws of the kingdom. Now it is a fact
beyond dispute that the children of God's people under the old
dispensation were recognized as members of the church.
Circumcision was the sign and seal of their membership. It was
not because of carnal descent from Abraham, but as being the
children of God's professing people, that this rite was
administered (Rom. 4:11). If children were members of the church
under the old dispensation, which they undoubtedly were, then
they are members of the church now by the same right, unless it
can be shown that they have been expressly excluded. Under the
Old Testament parents acted for their children and represented
them. (See Gen. 9:9; 17:10; Ex. 24:7, 8; Deut. 29:9-13.) When
parents entered into covenant with God, they brought their
children with them. This was a law in the Hebrew Church. When a
proselyte was received into membership, he could not enter
without bringing his children with him. The New Testament does
not exclude the children of believers from the church. It does
not deprive them of any privilege they enjoyed under the Old
Testament. There is no command or statement of any kind, that
can be interpreted as giving any countenance to such an idea,
anywhere to be found in the New Testament. The church membership
of infants has never been set aside. The ancient practice,
orginally appointed by God himself, must remain a law of his
kingdom till repealed by the same divine authority. There are
lambs in the fold of the Good Shepherd (John 21:15; compare Luke
1:15; Matt. 19:14; 1 Cor. 7:14).
"In a company of converts applying for admission into Christ's
house there are likely to be some heads of families. How is
their case to be treated? How, for example, are Lydia and her
neighbour the keeper of the city prison to be treated? Both have
been converted. Both are heads of families. They desire to be
received into the infant church of Philippi. What is Christ's
direction to them? Shall we say that it is to this effect:
'Arise, and wash away your sins, and come into my house. But you
must come in by yourselves. These babes in your arms, you must
leave them outside. They cannot believe yet, and so they cannot
come in. Those other little ones by your side, their hearts may
perhaps have been touched with the love of God; still, they are
not old enough to make a personal profession, so they too must
be left outside...For the present you must leave them where they
are and come in by yourselves.' One may reasonably demand very
stringent proofs before accepting this as a fair representation
of the sort of welcome Christ offers to parents who come to his
door bringing their children with them. Surely it is more
consonant with all we know about him to suppose that his welcome
will be more ample in its scope, and will breathe a more
gracious tone. Surely it would be more like the Good Shepherd to
say, 'Come in, and bring your little ones along with you. The
youngest needs my salvation; and the youngest is accessible to
my salvation. You may be unable as yet to deal with them about
either sin or salvation, but my gracious power can find its way
into their hearts even now. I can impart to them pardon and a
new life. From Adam they have inherited sin and death; and I can
so unite them to myself that in me they shall be heirs of
righteousness and life. You may without misgiving bring them to
me. And the law of my house requires that the same day which
witnesses your reception into it by baptism must witness their
reception also'" (The Church, by Professor Binnie, D.D.).
(John 2:1-11) "lasted usually for a whole week; but the cost of
such prolonged rejoicing is very small in the East. The guests
sit round the great bowl or bowls on the floor, the meal usually
consisting of a lamb or kid stewed in rice or barley. The most
honoured guests sit nearest, others behind; and all in eating
dip their hand into the one smoking mound, pieces of the thin
bread, bent together, serving for spoons when necessary. After
the first circle have satisfied themselves, those lower in
honour sit down to the rest, the whole company being men, for
women are never seen at a feast. Water is poured on the hands
before eating; and this is repeated when the meal closes, the
fingers having first been wiped on pieces of bread, which, after
serving the same purpose as table-napkins with us, are thrown on
the ground to be eaten by any dog that may have stolen in from
the streets through the ever-open door, or picked up by those
outside when gathered and tossed out to them (Matt. 15:27; Mark
7:28). Rising from the ground and retiring to the seats round
the walls, the guests then sit down cross-legged and gossip, or
listen to recitals, or puzzle over riddles, light being scantily
supplied by a small lamp or two, or if the night be chilly, by a
smouldering fire of weeds kindled in the middle of the room,
perhaps in a brazier, often in a hole in the floor. As to the
smoke, it escapes as it best may; but indeed there is little of
it, though enough to blacken the water or wine or milk skins
hung up on pegs on the wall. (Compare Ps. 119:83.) To some such
marriage-feast Jesus and his five disciples were invited at Cana
of Galilee." Geikie's Life of Christ. (See CANA T0000702.)
This word is found only in Matt. 23:23. It is the plant commonly
known by the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the
botanist. This name dill is derived from a Norse word which
means to soothe, the plant having the carminative property of
allaying pain. The common dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an
annual growing wild in the cornfields of Spain and Portugal and
the south of Europe generally. There is also a species of dill
cultivated in Eastern countries known by the name of shubit. It
was this species of garden plant of which the Pharisees were in
the habit of paying tithes. The Talmud requires that the seeds,
leaves, and stem of dill shall pay tithes. It is an
umbelliferous plant, very like the caraway, its leaves, which
are aromatic, being used in soups and pickles. The proper anise
is the Pimpinella anisum.