=Tahpanhes=Tehaphnehes, (called "Daphne" by the Greeks, now Tell
Defenneh), an ancient Egyptian city, on the Tanitic branch of
the Nile, about 16 miles from Pelusium. The Jews from Jerusalem
fled to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q.v.), and
settled there for a time (Jer. 2:16; 43:7; 44:1; 46:14). A
platform of brick-work, which there is every reason to believe
was the pavement at the entry of Pharaoh's palace, has been
discovered at this place. "Here," says the discoverer, Mr.
Petrie, "the ceremony described by Jeremiah [43:8-10;
"brick-kiln", i.e., pavement of brick] took place before the
chiefs of the fugitives assembled on the platform, and here
Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion" (R.V., "brickwork").
Used in brick-making (Ex. 5:7-18). Used figuratively in Job
41:27; Isa. 11:7; 25:10; 65:25.
(in the LXX. called "Thorgal"), styled the "king of nations"
(Gen.14:1-9). Mentioned as Tudkhula on Arioch's brick (see
facing page 139). "Goyyim", translated "nations," is the country
called Gutium, east of Tigris and north of Elam.
(1.) Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at
the top of which materials were cast in (Dan. 3:22, 23; compare
Jer. 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for
the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also
the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.
(2.) Heb. kibshan, a smelting furnace (Gen. 19:28), also a
lime-kiln (Isa. 33:12; Amos 2:1).
(3.) Heb. kur, a refining furnace (Prov. 17:3; 27:21; Ezek.
(4.) Heb. alil, a crucible; only used in Ps. 12:6.
(5.) Heb. tannur, oven for baking bread (Gen. 15:17; Isa.
31:9; Neh. 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top.
When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread
over the heated surface, and thus was baked. "A smoking furnace
and a burning lamp" (Gen. 15:17), the symbol of the presence of
the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's
sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him.
(See OVEN T0002814.)
(6.) Gr. kamnos, a furnace, kiln, or oven (Matt. 13:42, 50;
Rev. 1:15; 9:2).
The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing."
From Isa. 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted
by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of
Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same
Hebrew word is used in Deut. 27:2-4, and is there rendered
"plaster." Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains
There are five different Hebrew words so rendered in the
Authorized Version: (1.) A basket (Heb. sal, a twig or osier)
for holding bread (Gen. 40:16; Ex. 29:3, 23; Lev. 8:2, 26, 31;
Num. 6:15, 17, 19). Sometimes baskets were made of twigs peeled;
their manufacture was a recognized trade among the Hebrews.
(2.) That used (Heb. salsilloth') in gathering grapes (Jer.
(3.) That in which the first fruits of the harvest were
presented, Heb. tene, (Deut. 26:2, 4). It was also used for
household purposes. In form it tapered downwards like that
called "corbis" by the Romans.
(4.) A basket (Heb. kelub) having a lid, resembling a
bird-cage. It was made of leaves or rushes. The name is also
applied to fruit-baskets (Amos 8:1, 2).
(5.) A basket (Heb. dud) for carrying figs (Jer. 24:2), also
clay to the brick-yard (R.V., Ps. 81:6), and bulky articles (2
Kings 10:7). This word is also rendered in the Authorized
Version "kettle" (1 Sam. 2:14), "caldron" (2 Chr. 35:13),
"seething-pot" (Job 41:20).
In the New Testament mention is made of the basket (Gr.
kophinos, small "wicker-basket") for the "fragments" in the
miracle recorded Mark 6:43, and in that recorded Matt. 15:37
(Gr. spuris, large "rope-basket"); also of the basket in which
Paul escaped (Acts 9:25, Gr. spuris; 2 Cor. 11: 33, Gr. sargane,
"basket of plaited cords").
light, or the moon city, a city "of the Chaldees," the
birthplace of Haran (Gen. 11:28,31), the largest city of Shinar
or northern Chaldea, and the principal commercial centre of the
country as well as the centre of political power. It stood near
the mouth of the Euphrates, on its western bank, and is
represented by the mounds (of bricks cemented by bitumen) of
el-Mugheir, i.e., "the bitumined," or "the town of bitumen," now
150 miles from the sea and some 6 miles from the Euphrates, a
little above the point where it receives the Shat el-Hie, an
affluent from the Tigris. It was formerly a maritime city, as
the waters of the Persian Gulf reached thus far inland. Ur was
the port of Babylonia, whence trade was carried on with the
dwellers on the gulf, and with the distant countries of India,
Ethiopia, and Egypt. It was abandoned about B.C. 500, but long
continued, like Erech, to be a great sacred cemetery city, as is
evident from the number of tombs found there. (See ABRAHAM
The oldest king of Ur known to us is Ur-Ba'u (servant of the
goddess Ba'u), as Hommel reads the name, or Ur-Gur, as others
read it. He lived some twenty-eight hundred years B.C., and took
part in building the famous temple of the moon-god Sin in Ur
itself. The illustration here given represents his cuneiform
inscription, written in the Sumerian language, and stamped upon
every brick of the temple in Ur. It reads: "Ur-Ba'u, king of Ur,
who built the temple of the moon-god."
"Ur was consecrated to the worship of Sin, the Babylonian
moon-god. It shared this honour, however, with another city, and
this city was Haran, or Harran. Harran was in Mesopotamia, and
took its name from the highroad which led through it from the
east to the west. The name is Babylonian, and bears witness to
its having been founded by a Babylonian king. The same witness
is still more decisively borne by the worship paid in it to the
Babylonian moon-god and by its ancient temple of Sin. Indeed,
the temple of the moon-god at Harran was perhaps even more
famous in the Assyrian and Babylonian world than the temple of
the moon-god at Ur.
"Between Ur and Harran there must, consequently, have been a
close connection in early times, the record of which has not yet
been recovered. It may be that Harran owed its foundation to a
king of Ur; at any rate the two cities were bound together by
the worship of the same deity, the closest and most enduring
bond of union that existed in the ancient world. That Terah
should have migrated from Ur to Harran, therefore, ceases to be
extraordinary. If he left Ur at all, it was the most natural
place to which to go. It was like passing from one court of a
temple into another.
"Such a remarkable coincidence between the Biblical narrative
and the evidence of archaeological research cannot be the result
of chance. The narrative must be historical; no writer of late
date, even if he were a Babylonian, could have invented a story
so exactly in accordance with what we now know to have been the
truth. For a story of the kind to have been the invention of
Palestinian tradition is equally impossible. To the unprejudiced
mind there is no escape from the conclusion that the history of
the migration of Terah from Ur to Harran is founded on fact"
place of fragrance, a fenced city in the midst of a vast grove
of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the place
where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Josh. 3:16). Its
site was near the 'Ain es-Sultan, Elisha's Fountain (2 Kings
2:19-22), about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most
important city in the Jordan valley (Num. 22:1; 34:15), and the
strongest fortress in all the land of Canaan. It was the key to
This city was taken in a very remarkable manner by the
Israelites (Josh. 6). God gave it into their hands. The city was
"accursed" (Heb. herem, "devoted" to Jehovah), and accordingly
(Josh. 6:17; compare Lev. 27:28, 29; Deut. 13:16) all the
inhabitants and all the spoil of the city were to be destroyed,
"only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of
iron" were reserved and "put into the treasury of the house of
Jehovah" (Josh. 6:24; compare Num. 31:22, 23, 50-54). Only Rahab
"and her father's household, and all that she had," were
preserved from destruction, according to the promise of the
spies (Josh. 2:14). In one of the Amarna tablets Adoni-zedec
(q.v.) writes to the king of Egypt informing him that the 'Abiri
(Hebrews) had prevailed, and had taken the fortress of Jericho,
and were plundering "all the king's lands." It would seem that
the Egyptian troops had before this been withdrawn from
This city was given to the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21),
and it was inhabited in the time of the Judges (Judg. 3:13; 2
Sam. 10:5). It is not again mentioned till the time of David (2
Sam. 10:5). "Children of Jericho" were among the captives who
returned under Zerubbabel Ezra 2:34; Neh. 7:36). Hiel (q.v.) the
Bethelite attempted to make it once more a fortified city (1
Kings 16:34). Between the beginning and the end of his
undertaking all his children were cut off.
In New Testament times Jericho stood some distance to the
south-east of the ancient one, and near the opening of the
valley of Achor. It was a rich and flourishing town, having a
considerable trade, and celebrated for the palm trees which
adorned the plain around. It was visited by our Lord on his last
journey to Jerusalem. Here he gave sight to two blind men (Matt.
20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52), and brought salvation to the house of
Zacchaeus the publican (Luke 19:2-10).
The poor hamlet of er-Riha, the representative of modern
Jericho, is situated some two miles farther to the east. It is
in a ruinous condition, having been destroyed by the Turks in
1840. "The soil of the plain," about the middle of which the
ancient city stood, "is unsurpassed in fertility; there is
abundance of water for irrigation, and many of the old aqueducts
are almost perfect; yet nearly the whole plain is waste and
desolate...The climate of Jericho is exceedingly hot and
unhealthy. This is accounted for by the depression of the plain,
which is about 1,200 feet below the level of the sea."
There were three different Jerichos, on three different sites,
the Jericho of Joshua, the Jericho of Herod, and the Jericho of
the Crusades. Er-Riha, the modern Jericho, dates from the time
of the Crusades. Dr. Bliss has found in a hollow scooped out for
some purpose or other near the foot of the biggest mound above
the Sultan's Spring specimens of Amorite or pre-Israelitish
pottery precisely identical with what he had discovered on the
site of ancient Lachish. He also traced in this place for a
short distance a mud brick wall in situ, which he supposes to be
the very wall that fell before the trumpets of Joshua. The wall
is not far from the foot of the great precipice of Quarantania
and its numerous caverns, and the spies of Joshua could easily
have fled from the city and been speedily hidden in these