goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and
Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz (Isa.
father of goodness, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:11).
Goodness of God
a perfection of his character which he exercises towards his
creatures according to their various circumstances and relations
(Ps. 145:8, 9; 103:8; 1 John 4:8). Viewed generally, it is
benevolence; as exercised with respect to the miseries of his
creatures it is mercy, pity, compassion, and in the case of
impenitent sinners, long-suffering patience; as exercised in
communicating favour on the unworthy it is grace. "Goodness and
justice are the several aspects of one unchangeable, infinitely
wise, and sovereign moral perfection. God is not sometimes
merciful and sometimes just, but he is eternally infinitely just
and merciful." God is infinitely and unchangeably good (Zeph.
3:17), and his goodness is incomprehensible by the finite mind
(Rom. 11: 35, 36). "God's goodness appears in two things, giving
brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the
death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high
priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1 Sam.
14:3; 22:9, 11, 12, 20).
(2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul
after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1 Chr. 6:7,
8; 2 Sam. 8:17).
in man is not a mere passive quality, but the deliberate
preference of right to wrong, the firm and persistent resistance
of all moral evil, and the choosing and following of all moral
persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz
(q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was
suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon
him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once
more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and
even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived
the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in
a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of
integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the
sorest calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is
known, is recorded in his book.
(A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the
Divine Being. It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew "'El", from
a word meaning to be strong; (2) of "'Eloah", plural "'Elohim".
The singular form, "Eloah", is used only in poetry. The plural
form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew
word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to
denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the
Authorized Version by "LORD," printed in small capitals. The
existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is
nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves this truth
is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Ps. 14:1).
The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the
being of God are:
(1.) The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by
(2.) The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically
from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments are,
(a) The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be
a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause.
(b) The teleological, or the argument from design. We see
everywhere the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature.
(c) The moral argument, called also the anthropological
argument, based on the moral consciousness and the history of
mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only
be explained on the supposition of the existence of God.
Conscience and human history testify that "verily there is a God
that judgeth in the earth."
The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Ex.
34:6,7. (see also Deut. 6:4; 10:17; Num. 16:22; Ex. 15:11;
33:19; Isa. 44:6; Hab. 3:6; Ps. 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are
also systematically classified in Rev. 5:12 and 7:12.
God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, i.e., such
as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative,
i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his
creatures. Others distinguish them into communicable, i.e.,
those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures:
goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which
cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity,
and eternity. They are by some also divided into natural
attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness,
servant of God, (Jer. 36:26), the father of Shelemiah.
vision of God, the father of Joel the prophet (Joel 1:1).
face of God, father of the prophetess Anna (q.v.), Luke 2:36.
(1.) God blesses his people when he bestows on them some gift
temporal or spiritual (Gen. 1:22; 24:35; Job 42:12; Ps. 45:2;
(2.) We bless God when we thank him for his mercies (Ps.
103:1, 2; 145:1, 2).
(3.) A man blesses himself when he invokes God's blessing
(Isa. 65:16), or rejoices in God's goodness to him (Deut. 29:19;
(4.) One blesses another when he expresses good wishes or
offers prayer to God for his welfare (Gen. 24:60; 31:55; 1 Sam.
2:20). Sometimes blessings were uttered under divine
inspiration, as in the case of Noah, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses
(Gen. 9:26, 27; 27:28, 29, 40; 48:15-20; 49:1-28; Deut. 33). The
priests were divinely authorized to bless the people (Deut.
10:8; Num. 6:22-27). We have many examples of apostolic
benediction (2 Cor. 13:14; Eph. 6:23, 24; 2 Thess. 3:16, 18;
Heb. 13:20, 21; 1 Pet. 5:10, 11).
(5.) Among the Jews in their thank-offerings the master of the
feast took a cup of wine in his hand, and after having blessed
God for it and for other mercies then enjoyed, handed it to his
guests, who all partook of it. Ps. 116:13 refers to this custom.
It is also alluded to in 1 Cor. 10:16, where the apostle speaks
of the "cup of blessing."
smitten by God, the son of Irad, and father of Methusael (Gen.
Decrees of God
"The decrees of God are his eternal, unchangeable, holy, wise,
and sovereign purpose, comprehending at once all things that
ever were or will be in their causes, conditions, successions,
and relations, and determining their certain futurition. The
several contents of this one eternal purpose are, because of the
limitation of our faculties, necessarily conceived of by us in
partial aspects, and in logical relations, and are therefore
styled Decrees." The decree being the act of an infinite,
absolute, eternal, unchangeable, and sovereign Person,
comprehending a plan including all his works of all kinds, great
and small, from the beginning of creation to an unending
eternity; ends as well as means, causes as well as effects,
conditions and instrumentalities as well as the events which
depend upon them, must be incomprehensible by the finite
intellect of man. The decrees are eternal (Acts 15:18; Eph. 1:4;
2 Thess. 2:13), unchangeable (Ps. 33:11; Isa. 46:9), and
comprehend all things that come to pass (Eph. 1:11; Matt. 10:29,
30; Eph. 2:10; Acts 2:23; 4:27, 28; Ps. 17:13, 14).
The decrees of God are (1) efficacious, as they respect those
events he has determined to bring about by his own immediate
agency; or (2) permissive, as they respect those events he has
determined that free agents shall be permitted by him to effect.
This doctrine ought to produce in our minds "humility, in view
of the infinite greatness and sovereignty of God, and of the
dependence of man; confidence and implicit reliance upon wisdom,
rightenousness, goodness, and immutability of God's purpose."
father (i.e., "possessor") of God = "pious." (1.) The son of
Zeror and father of Ner, who was the grandfather of Saul (1 Sam.
14:51; 1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). In 1 Sam. 9:1, he is called the
"father," probably meaning the grandfather, of Kish. (2.) An
Arbathite, one of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:32); called also
Abi-albon (2 Sam. 23:31).
whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of
Job's friends (Job 32:2, 6).
whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather
of Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah (Neh. 6:10).
asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).
gift of God. (1.) The son of Levi, and father of Heli (Luke
(2.) Son of another Levi (Luke 3:29).
friend of God, (Num. 10:29)=Reuel (q.v.), Ex. 2:18, the
father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine
of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons.
This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by
Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used
by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The
propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is
one, and that there is but one God (Deut. 6:4; 1 Kings 8:60;
Isa. 44:6; Mark 12:29, 32; John 10:30). 2. That the Father is a
distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona,
suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy
Spirit. 3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person
distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit. 4. That the Holy
Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.
man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God. (1.) The son of
Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Gen.
22:22, 23; 24:15, 24, 47). He appears in person only once
(2.) A southern city of Judah (1 Chr. 4:30); called also
Bethul (Josh. 19:4) and Bethel (12:16; 1 Sam. 30:27).
gift of God. (1.) The father of Jashobeam, who was one of
David's officers (1 Chr. 27:2).
(2.) An overseer of the priests after the Captivity (Neh.
(god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria.
He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then
fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).
people of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of
the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25). This is
one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai,
ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer
under David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25). (2.) A family head of
the tribe of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36). (3.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).
(Gr. Logos), one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the
writings of John (John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1; Rev. 19:13). As such,
Christ is the revealer of God. His office is to make God known.
"No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which
is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (John
1:18). This title designates the divine nature of Christ. As the
Word, he "was in the beginning" and "became flesh." "The Word
was with God " and "was God," and was the Creator of all things
(compare Ps.33: 6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18; Isa. 40:8).
whom God has given. (1.) An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father
of Nehushta, who was the mother of king Jehoiachin (2 Kings
24:8). Probably the same who tried to prevent Jehoiakim from
burning the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies (Jer. 26:22; 36:12).
(2.) Ezra 8:16.
strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2, 20;
20:1; Isa. 1:1; 2:1). As to his personal history little is
positively known. He is supposed by some to have been the "man
of God" spoken of in 2 Chr. 25:7, 8.
people of God. (1.) One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to
search the land of Canaan (Num. 13:12). He was one of the ten
who perished by the plague for their unfavourable report (Num.
(2.) The father of Machir of Lo-debar, in whose house
Mephibosheth resided (2 Sam. 9:4, 5; 17:27).
(3.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, and
afterwards of David (1 Chr. 3:5). He is called Eliam in 2 Sam.
(4.) One of the sons of Obed-edom the Levite (1 Chr. 26:5).
God is my light. (1.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (1 Chr.
(2.) The chief of the Kohathites at the time when the ark was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:5, 11).
(3.) The father of Michaiah, one of Rehoboam's wives, and
mother of Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2).
denounced by God against the serpent (Gen. 3:14), and against
Cain (4:11). These divine maledictions carried their effect with
them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men
(Gen. 9:25; 49:7; Deut. 27:15; Josh. 6:26). Such curses are not
the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions.
No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother (Ex.
21:17), nor the prince of his people (22:28), nor the deaf (Lev.
19:14). Cursing God or blaspheming was punishable by death (Lev.
24:10-16). The words "curse God and die" (R.V., "renounce God
and die"), used by Job's wife (Job 2:9), have been variously
interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but death
was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and
destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.
God his strength. (1.) One of Job's "three friends" who visited
him in his affliction (4:1). He was a "Temanite", i.e., a native
of Teman, in Idumea. He first enters into debate with Job. His
language is uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the
other two, although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause
of his present sufferings. He states with remarkable force of
language the infinite purity and majesty of God (4:12-21;
(2.) The son of Esau by his wife Adah, and father of several
Edomitish tribes (Gen. 36:4, 10, 11, 16).
friend of God. (1.) A son of Esau and Bashemath (Gen. 36:4, 10;
1 Chr. 1:35). (2.) "The priest of Midian," Moses' father-in-law
(Ex. 2:18)=Raguel (Num. 10:29). If he be identified with Jethro
(q.v.), then this may be regarded as his proper name, and Jether
or Jethro (i.e., "excellency") as his official title. (3.) Num.
2:14, called also Deuel (1:14; 7:42).
Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the
feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4;
Son of God
The plural, "sons of God," is used (Gen. 6:2, 4) to denote the
pious descendants of Seth. In Job 1:6; 38:7 this name is applied
to the angels. Hosea uses the phrase (1:10) to designate the
gracious relation in which men stand to God.
In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the
relation into which we are brought to God by adoption (Rom.
8:14, 19; 2 Cor. 6:18; Gal. 4:5, 6; Phil. 2:15; 1 John 3:1, 2).
It occurs thirty-seven times in the New Testament as the
distinctive title of our Saviour. He does not bear this title in
consequence of his miraculous birth, nor of his incarnation, his
resurrection, and exaltation to the Father's right hand. This is
a title of nature and not of office. The sonship of Christ
denotes his equality with the Father. To call Christ the Son of
God is to assert his true and proper divinity. The second Person
of the Trinity, because of his eternal relation to the first
Person, is the Son of God. He is the Son of God as to his divine
nature, while as to his human nature he is the Son of David
(Rom. 1:3, 4. Compare Gal. 4:4; John 1:1-14; 5:18-25; 10:30-38,
which prove that Christ was the Son of God before his
incarnation, and that his claim to this title is a claim of
equality with God).
When used with reference to creatures, whether men or angels,
this word is always in the plural. In the singular it is always
used of the second Person of the Trinity, with the single
exception of Luke 3:38, where it is used of Adam.
Jehovah's king. (1.) The head of the fifth division of the
priests in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:9).
(2.) A priest, the father of Pashur (1 Chr. 9:12; Jer. 38:1).
(3.) One of the priests appointed as musicians to celebrate
the completion of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
(4.) A priest who stood by Ezra when he "read in the book of
the law of God" (Neh. 8:4).
(5.) Neh. 3:11.
(6.) Neh. 3:31.
(7.) Neh. 3:14.
God-created. (1.) The second son of Korah (Ex. 6:24), or,
according to 1 Chr. 6:22, 23, more correctly his grandson.
(2.) Another Levite of the line of Heman the singer, although
he does not seem to have performed any of the usual Levitical
offices. He was father of Samuel the prophet (1 Chr. 6:27, 34).
He was "an Ephrathite" (1 Sam. 1:1, 4, 8), but lived at Ramah, a
man of wealth and high position. He had two wives, Hannah, who
was the mother of Samuel, and Peninnah.
God has gratified me, or is gracious. (1.) One of the sons of
Heman (1 Chr. 25:4, 25). (2.) A prophet who was sent to rebuke
king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king of
Syria, against Judah (2 Chr. 16:1-10). He was probably the
father of the prophet Jehu (1 Kings 16:7). (3.) Probably a
brother of Nehemiah (Neh. 1:2; 7:2), who reported to him the
melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards appointed
him to have charge of the city gates.
God's living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon (1 Chr. 9:35).
(2.) One of David's guard (1 Chr. 11:44).
(3.) One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to
conduct the music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to
Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the
close of his reign (1 Chr. 27:32).
(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted
Hezekiah in his work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).
(7.) A "prince" and "ruler of the house of God" who
contributed liberally to the renewal of the temple sacrifices
under Josiah (2 Chr. 35:8).
(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).
(9.) One of the "sons" of Elam (Ezra 10:26).
(10.) Ezra 10:21.
who is like God? (1.) The title given to one of the chief angels
(Dan. 10:13, 21; 12:1). He had special charge of Israel as a
nation. He disputed with Satan (Jude 1:9) about the body of
Moses. He is also represented as warning against "that old
serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole
world" (Rev. 12:7-9).
(2.) The father of Sethur, the spy selected to represent Asher
(3.) 1 Chr. 7:3, a chief of the tribe of Issachar.
(4.) 1 Chr. 8:16, a Benjamite.
(5.) A chief Gadite in Bashan (1 Chr. 5:13).
(6.) A Manassite, "a captain of thousands" who joined David at
Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20).
(7.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:40).
(8.) The father of Omri (1 Chr. 27:18).
(9.) One of the sons of king Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 21:2, 4). He
was murdered by his brother Jehoram.
father of Him; i.e., "worshipper of God", the second of the sons
of Aaron (Ex. 6:23; Num. 3:2; 26:60; 1 Chr. 6:3). Along with his
three brothers he was consecrated to the priest's office (Ex.
28:1). With his father and elder brother he accompanied the
seventy elders part of the way up the mount with Moses (Ex.
24:1,9). On one occasion he and Nadab his brother offered
incense in their censers filled with "strange" (i.e., common)
fire, i.e., not with fire taken from the great brazen altar
(Lev. 6:9, etc.), and for this offence they were struck dead,
and were taken out and buried without the camp (Lev. 10:1-11;
compare Num. 3:4; 26:61; 1 Chr. 24:2). It is probable that when
they committed this offence they were intoxicated, for
immediately after is given the law prohibiting the use of wine
or strong drink to the priests.
to whom God is father. (1.) A Reubenite, son of Pallu (Num.
16:1, 12; 26:8, 9; Deut. 11:6).
(2.) A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the
time of the census in the wilderness (Num. 1:9; 2:7).
(3.) The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1 Sam. 16:6). It
was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to
fight Goliath (1 Sam. 17:28).
(4.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his
stronghold in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:9).
a name applied (1) to any ancestor (Deut. 1:11; 1 Kings 15:11;
Matt. 3:9; 23:30, etc.); and (2) as a title of respect to a
chief, ruler, or elder, etc. (Judg. 17:10; 18:19; 1 Sam. 10:12;
2 Kings 2:12; Matt. 23:9, etc.). (3) The author or beginner of
anything is also so called; e.g., Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:20,
21; compare Job 38:28).
Applied to God (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 32:6; 2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 89:27,
28, etc.). (1.) As denoting his covenant relation to the Jews
(Jer. 31:9; Isa. 63:16; 64:8; John 8:41, etc.).
(2.) Believers are called God's "sons" (John 1:12; Rom. 8:16;
Matt. 6:4, 8, 15, 18; 10:20, 29). They also call him "Father"
(Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:2; Gal. 1:4)
initiated. (1.) The eldest son of Cain (Gen. 4:17), who built a
city east of Eden in the land of Nod, and called it "after the
name of his son Enoch." This is the first "city" mentioned in
(2.) The son of Jared, and father of Methuselah (Gen. 5:21;
Luke 3:37). His father was one hundred and sixty-two years old
when he was born. After the birth of Methuselah, Enoch "walked
with God three hundred years" (Gen. 5:22-24), when he was
translated without tasting death. His whole life on earth was
three hundred and sixty-five years. He was the "seventh from
Adam" (Jude 1:14), as distinguished from the son of Cain, the
third from Adam. He is spoken of in the catalogue of Old
Testament worthies in the Epistle to the Hebrews (11:5). When he
was translated, only Adam, so far as recorded, had as yet died a
natural death, and Noah was not yet born. Mention is made of
Enoch's prophesying only in Jude 1:14.
builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The
prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1 Kings 22:26; 2
(2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He
restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had
cast down. Zephaniah (1:4; 3:4, 11) refers to the moral
depravity prevailing in this king's reign.
He was assassinated (2 Kings 21:18-26: 2 Chr. 33:20-25) by his
own servants, who conspired against him.
(3.) An Egyptian god, usually depicted with a human body and
the head of a ram, referred to in Jer. 46:25, where the word
"multitudes" in the Authorized Version is more appropriately
rendered "Amon" in the Revised Version. In Nah. 3:8 the
expression "populous No" of the Authorized version is rendered
in the Revised Version "No-amon." Amon is identified with Ra,
the sun-god of Heliopolis.
(4.) Neh. 7:59.
When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in
the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried
to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas "was near to be delivered. And
when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and
that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed
herself and travailed" (1 Sam. 4:19-22). In her great distress
she regarded not "the women that stood by her," but named the
child that was born "Ichabod" i.e., no glory, saying, "The glory
is departed from Isreal;" and with that word on her lips she
favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the
mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at
Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to
Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to
attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law
(Ex. 23:15; 34:18; Deut. 16:16), probably at the feast of the
Passover (compare Ex. 13:10). On occasion of one of these "yearly"
visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct toward
her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the
sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at
the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and
misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct
(1 Sam. 1:14-16). After hearing her explanation he retracted his
injurious charge and said to her, "Go in peace: and the God of
Israel grant thee thy petition." Perhaps the story of the wife
of Manoah was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his
family retired to their quiet home, and there, before another
Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son, whom, in grateful memory
of the Lord's goodness, she called Samuel, i.e., "heard of God."
After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she
brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to
Eli the aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by
thee here, praying unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and
the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him:
therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as long as he
liveth he is granted to the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:27, 28, R.V.). Her
gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic
song (2:1-10; compare Luke 1:46-55) which contains the first
designation of the Messiah under that name (1 Sam. 2:10,
"Annointed" = "Messiah"). And so Samuel and his parents parted.
He was left at Shiloh to minister "before the Lord." And each
year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent
child "a little coat" (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the
"robe" of the ephod worn by the high priest, Ex. 28:31), a
priestly robe, a long upper tunic (1 Chr. 15:27), in which to
minister in the tabernacle (1 Sam. 2:19; 15:27; Job 2:12). "And
the child Samuel grew before the Lord." After Samuel, Hannah had
three sons and two daughters.
"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all
things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was
absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of
all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation
is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, 26); (2) to the
Father (1 Cor. 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17);
(4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30). The
fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true
God (Isa. 37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11, 12). The
one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of
the glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36).
God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him;
and between the teachings of the one and those of the other,
when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.
Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are
found among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD
T0000060.) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the
Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower
Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have been brought
to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued
from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a
remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.
a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and
left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a
gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this
word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the
temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the
year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16-24). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees
for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they
had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour
their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from
helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over
their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.
laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos
(2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest
lived of the three patriarchs (Gen. 21:1-3). He was circumcised
when eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years
old a great feast was held in connection with his being weaned.
The next memorable event in his life is that connected with
the command of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a
sacrifice on a mountain in the land of Moriah (Gen. 22). (See
ABRAHAM T0000055.) When he was forty years of age Rebekah was
chosen for his wife (Gen. 24). After the death and burial of his
father he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi (25:7-11),
where his two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the
former of whom seems to have been his favourite son (27,28).
In consequence of a famine (Gen. 26:1) Isaac went to Gerar,
where he practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah,
imitating the conduct of his father in Egypt (12:12-20) and in
Gerar (20:2). The Philistine king rebuked him for his
After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines,
he returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of
covenant blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a covenant
of peace with him.
The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons
(Gen. 27:1). He died at Mamre, "being old and full of days"
(35:27-29), one hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in
the cave of Machpelah.
In the New Testament reference is made to his having been
"offered up" by his father (Heb. 11:17; James 2:21), and to his
blessing his sons (Heb. 11:20). As the child of promise, he is
contrasted with Ishmael (Rom. 9:7, 10; Gal. 4:28; Heb. 11:18).
Isaac is "at once a counterpart of his father in simple
devoutness and purity of life, and a contrast in his passive
weakness of character, which in part, at least, may have sprung
from his relations to his mother and wife. After the expulsion
of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor, and grew up in
the shade of Sarah's tent, moulded into feminine softness by
habitual submission to her strong, loving will." His life was so
quiet and uneventful that it was spent "within the circle of a
few miles; so guileless that he let Jacob overreach him rather
than disbelieve his assurance; so tender that his mother's death
was the poignant sorrow of years; so patient and gentle that
peace with his neighbours was dearer than even such a coveted
possession as a well of living water dug by his own men; so
grandly obedient that he put his life at his father's disposal;
so firm in his reliance on God that his greatest concern through
life was to honour the divine promise given to his race.",
Geikie's Hours, etc.
father of kindness, the father of Barak (Judg. 4:6; 5:1).
gift. (1.) A priest of Baal, slain before his altar during the
reformation under Jehoiada (2 Kings 11:18).
(2.) The son of Eleazar, and father of Jacob, who was the
father of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin Mary (Matt. 1:15).
(3.) The father of Shephatiah (Jer. 38:1).
Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among
the sons of his legitimate wives (Gen. 21:10; 24:36; 25:5), the
eldest son getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic
law made specific regulations regarding the transmission of real
property, which are given in detail in Deut. 21:17; Num. 27:8;
36:6; 27:9-11. Succession to property was a matter of right and
not of favour. Christ is the "heir of all things" (Heb. 1:2;
Col. 1:15). Believers are heirs of the "promise," "of
righteousness," "of the kingdom," "of the world," "of God,"
"joint heirs" with Christ (Gal 3:29; Heb. 6:17; 11:7; James 2:5;
Rom. 4:13; 8:17).
light, the father of Kish (1 Chr. 8:33). 1 Sam. 14:51 should be
read, "Kish, the father of Saul, and Ner, the father of Abner,
were the sons of Abiel." And hence this Kish and Ner were
brothers, and Saul and Abner were first cousins (compare 1 Chr.
whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39.
(2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30).
(3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13).
(4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah
(Jer. 37:3; 38:1).
(5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13).
(6.) Jer. 36:14.
the offspring of the divine command (Gen. 1:3). "All the more
joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the
frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were
habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived
from light" (1 Kings 11:36; Isa. 58:8; Esther 8:16; Ps. 97:11).
Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the
felicity it imparts (Ps. 119:105; Isa. 8:20; Matt. 4:16, etc.),
and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col. 1:12; Rev.
21:23-25). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (1 Tim.
6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Matt. 5:16; John
5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the "Sun
of righteousness" (Mal. 4:2; Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9). God is
styled "the Father of lights" (James 1:17). It is used of angels
(2 Cor. 11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a "burning and
a shining light" (John 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are
styled "the light of the world" (Matt. 5:14).
redemption of the Lord. (1.) The father of Zebudah, who was the
wife of Josiah and mother of king Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36).
(2.) The father of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:17-19).
(3.). The father of Joel, ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh
(1 Chr. 27:20).
(4.) Neh. 3:25.
(5.) A Levite (8:4).
(6.) A Benjamite (11:7).
(7.) A Levite (13:13).
people of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the
Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10;
2:18; 7:48, 53).
(2.) Num. 34:20. (3.) Num. 34:28.
(4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom
fled after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
(5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1 Chr. 9:4).
illustrious, or the well-man. (1.) The father of Judith, one of
the wives of Esau (Gen. 26:34), the same as Adah (Gen. 36:2).
(2.) The father of the prophet Hosea (1:1).
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an
infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by
his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving
descendant of Solomon (2 Chr. 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high
priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was
eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah
with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when
she heard the shout of the people, "Long live the king;" and
when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be
led forth to death (2 Kings 11:13-20). While the high priest
lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law;
but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land
was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of
the high priest, was put to death. These evil deeds brought down
on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the
Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted by Matthew
(1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah
and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21).
(See JOASH T0002078 .)
(2.) The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel (2
Kings 14:1; compare 12:1; 13:10). When he ascended the throne the
kingdom was suffering from the invasion of the Syrians. Hazael
"was cutting Israel short." He tolerated the worship of the
golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of
sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the prophet
Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying,
addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah
was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot
of Israel and the horsemen thereof." He was afterwards involved
in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah (2 Chr. 25:23-24), whom
he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and
Philistia, and advancing on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of
the wall, and carried away the treasures of the temple and the
palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was buried in Samaria
(2 Kings 14:1-17, 19, 20). He was succeeded by his son. (See
JOASH T0002078 [5.].)
John, First Epistle of
the fourth of the catholic or "general" epistles. It was
evidently written by John the evangelist, and probably also at
Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The purpose of
the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to
whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship
with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the
means of union with God are, (1) on the part of Christ, his
atoning work (1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10, 14; 5:11, 12) and his
advocacy (2:1); and (2), on the part of man, holiness (1:6),
obedience (2:3), purity (3:3), faith (3:23; 4:3; 5:5), and love
(2:7, 8; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1).
a torch. (1.) The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom (Gen.
(2.) The father of Balaam (Num. 22:5; 24:3, 15; 31:8). In 2
Pet. 2:15 he is called Bosor.
Azur and Azzur
helper. (1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer.
(2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1).
(3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the
return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).
horseman, or chariot. (1.) One of Ishbosheth's "captains of
bands" or leaders of predatory troops (2 Sam. 4:2).
(2.) The father of Jehonadab, who was the father of the
Rechabites (2 Kings 10:15, 23; Jer. 35:6-19).
grain. (1.) The son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr.
(2.) The father of Ehud the judge (Judg. 3:15).
(3.) The father of Shimei, who so grossly abused David (2 Sam.
16:5; 19:16, 18).
This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or
purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is
found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, 30; 1
Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:5, 11; and in all of them it has the same
meaning. They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and
unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all
This doctrine of predestination or election is beset with many
difficulties. It belongs to the "secret things" of God. But if
we take the revealed word of God as our guide, we must accept
this doctrine with all its mysteriousness, and settle all our
questionings in the humble, devout acknowledgment, "Even so,
Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight."
For the teaching of Scripture on this subject let the
following passages be examined in addition to those referred to
above; Gen. 21:12; Ex. 9:16; 33:19; Deut. 10:15; 32:8; Josh.
11:20; 1 Sam. 12:22; 2 Chr. 6:6; Ps. 33:12; 65:4; 78:68; 135:4;
Isa. 41:1-10; Jer. 1:5; Mark 13:20; Luke 22:22; John 6:37;
15:16; 17:2, 6, 9; Acts 2:28; 3:18; 4:28; 13:48; 17:26; Rom.
9:11, 18, 21; 11:5; Eph. 3:11; 1 Thess. 1:4; 2 Thess. 2:13; 2
Tim. 1:9; Titus 1:2; 1 Pet. 1:2. (See DECREES OF GOD T0001002;
Hodge has well remarked that, "rightly understood, this
doctrine (1) exalts the majesty and absolute sovereignty of God,
while it illustrates the riches of his free grace and his just
displeasure with sin. (2.) It enforces upon us the essential
truth that salvation is entirely of grace. That no one can
either complain if passed over, or boast himself if saved. (3.)
It brings the inquirer to absolute self-despair and the cordial
embrace of the free offer of Christ. (4.) In the case of the
believer who has the witness in himself, this doctrine at once
deepens his humility and elevates his confidence to the full
assurance of hope" (Outlines).
father of might. (1.) Num. 3:35. (2.) 1 Chr. 2:29. (3.) 1 Chr.
(4.) The second wife of King Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:18), a
descendant of Eliab, David's eldest brother.
(5.) The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15).
(1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the
epistle (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the
husband of Mary (John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is
Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.).
(2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).
(Heb. Hebhel), a breath, or vanity, the second son of Adam and
Eve. He was put to death by his brother Cain (Gen. 4:1-16).
Guided by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were
trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of time"
(marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each of them
offered up to God of the first-fruits of his labors. Cain, as a
husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; Abel, as a
shepherd, of the firstlings of his flock. "The Lord had respect
unto Abel and his offering; but unto Cain and his offering he
had not respect" (Gen. 4:3-5). On this account Cain was angry
with his brother, and formed the design of putting him to death;
a design which he at length found an opportunity of carrying
into effect (Gen. 4:8,9. Compare 1 John 3:12). There are several
references to Abel in the New Testament. Our Saviour speaks of
him as "righteous" (Matt. 23:35). "The blood of sprinkling" is
said to speak "better things than that of Abel" (Heb. 12:24);
i.e., the blood of Jesus is the reality of which the blood of
the offering made by Abel was only the type. The comparison here
is between the sacrifice offered by Christ and that offered by
Abel, and not between the blood of Christ calling for mercy and
the blood of the murdered Abel calling for vengeance, as has
sometimes been supposed. It is also said (Heb. 11:4) that "Abel
offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain." This
sacrifice was made "by faith;" this faith rested in God, not
only as the Creator and the God of providence, but especially in
God as the great Redeemer, whose sacrifice was typified by the
sacrifices which, no doubt by the divine institution, were
offered from the days of Adam downward. On account of that
"faith" which looked forward to the great atoning sacrifice,
Abel's offering was accepted of God. Cain's offering had no such
reference, and therefore was rejected. Abel was the first
martyr, as he was the first of our race to die.
Abel (Heb. 'abhel), lamentation (1 Sam. 6:18), the name given
to the great stone in Joshua's field whereon the ark was "set
down." The Revised Version, however, following the Targum and
the LXX., reads in the Hebrew text "'ebhen" (= a stone), and
accordingly translates "unto the great stone, whereon they set
down the ark." This reading is to be preferred.
Abel (Heb. 'abhel), a grassy place, a meadow. This word enters
into the composition of the following words:
father (i.e., "possessor") of renown. (1.) One of the sons of
Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:3); called also Ahihud (ver.
(2.) A descendant of Zerubbabel and father of Eliakim (Matt.
1:13, "Abiud"); called also Juda (Luke 3:26), and Obadiah (1
blessed by Jehovah. (1.) Son of Shimea, and father of Asaph the
musician (1 Chr. 6:39; 15:17).
(2.) One of the seven Ephraimite chieftains, son of
Meshillemoth (2 Chr. 28:12).
(3.) The fourth of the five sons of Zerubbabel, of the royal
family of Judah (1 Chr. 3:20).
(4.) The father of the prophet Zechariah (1:1,7).
his excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who
succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his
exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks.
While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after
their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing
with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount of
God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto
Pharaoh" (Ex. 18:8). On the following day Jethro, observing the
multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to
appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of
fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only
the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before
the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called
Hobab (q.v.), which was probably his personal name, while Jethro
was an official name. (See MOSES T0002602.)
the father of the prophet Ezekiel (1:3).
(1.) The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory
over Absalom (2 Sam. 18:32).
(2.) The father of Shelemiah (Jer. 36:14).
(3.) Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah
(4.) Moses married a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). From this
circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and
hence that Midian was Cush.
defiled, the father of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46).
replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2 Chr. 18:7,8).
surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of Moses (Ex. 4:18
marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).
(2.) The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons (Judg. 8:20).
(3.) The father of Amasa, David's general (1 Kings 2:5, 32);
called Ithra (2 Sam. 17:25).
(4.) 1 Chr. 7:38.
(5.) 1 Chr. 2:32; one of Judah's posterity.
(6.) 1 Chr. 4:17.
amatory; loving. (1.) A descendant of Issachar (Judg. 10:1).
(2.) An Ahohite, father of Eleazar, who was one of David's
three heroes (2 Sam. 23:9; 1 Chr. 11:12). He was the same with
Dodai mentioned in 1 Chr. 27:4.
(3.) A Bethlehemite, and father of Elhanan, who was one of
David's thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:24).
a Kenite (1 Chr. 2:55), the father of the house of Rechab.
one of the sons of Ashur, the father of Tekoa (1 Chr. 4:6).
painter, (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55). The father of some of the
the father of Gaddi, who was one of the twelve spies (Num.
a gift, or in evil. (1.) One of Asher's four sons, and father of
Heber (Gen. 46:17).
(2.) A son of Ephraim (1 Chr. 7:20-23), born after the
slaughter of his brothers, and so called by his father "because
it went evil with his house" at that time.
(3.) A Benjamite who with his brother Shema founded Ajalon and
expelled the Gittites (1 Chr. 8:13).
sight; aspect, the father of Jeroboam, the king of Israel (1
Kings 11:26, etc.).
returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel (1 Chr.
pious, the father of Agur (Prov. 30:1). Nothing is known of him.
prize of Jehovah, a Benjamite, the father of Uzzi (1 Chr. 9:8).
praising, a Pirathonite, father of the judge Abdon (Judg. 12:13,
seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of
priests (1 Chr. 24:13).
the Chaldee or Aramaic form of the name Beor, the father of
Balaam (2 Pet. 2:15).
elevation, father of Joseph in the line of our Lord's ancestry
good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria (1 Kings
a little bird, the father of Balak, king of Moab (Num. 22:2, 4).
resting, an Ephraimite; the father of Amasa, mentioned in 2 Chr.
father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" (Esther 3:1,
the work of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites whom David
appointed as porter for the ark (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with
Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne (2 Chr. 23:1).
(3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz,
killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of
Israel (2 Chr. 28:7).
(4.) One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple (2
Chr. 34:8). He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the
Authorized Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of
(5.) The father of the priest Zephaniah (Jer. 21:1; 37:3).
(6.) The father of the false prophet Zedekiah (Jer. 29:21).
Maase'iah, refuge is Jehovah, a priest, the father of Neriah
(Jer. 32:12; 51:59).
In the Old Testament the Hebrew word "tsir", meaning "one who
goes on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17;
Isa. 18:2; Jer. 49:14; Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of
"melits", meaning "an interpreter," in 2 Chr. 32:31; and of
"malak", a "messenger," in 2 Chr. 35:21; Isa. 30:4; 33:7; Ezek.
17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those
who are appointed by God to declare his will (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph.
The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had
recourse to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract
alliances (Josh. 9:4), to solicit favours (Num. 20:14), to
remonstrate when wrong was done (Judg. 11:12), to condole with a
young king on the death of his father (2 Sam. 10:2), and to
congratulate a king on his accession to the throne (1 Kings
To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who sent
him (2 Sam. 10:5).
cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and
grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).
(2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan
(1 Chr. 27:22).
(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on
(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.
long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim (Josh. 15:13;
21:11, Heb. "Anok").
(1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14).
In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the word refers to the
tribe of Judah.
(2.) The father of Simeon in Christ's maternal ancestry (Luke
(3.) Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ's maternal
ancestry (26), probably identical with Abiud (Matt. 1:13), and
with Obadiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) One of the Lord's "brethren" (Mark 6:3).