(1.) Heb. pattish, used by gold-beaters (Isa. 41:7) and by
quarry-men (Jer. 23:29). Metaphorically of Babylon (Jer. 50:23)
(2.) Heb. makabah, a stone-cutter's mallet (1 Kings 6:7), or
of any workman (Judg. 4:21; Isa. 44:12).
(3.) Heb. halmuth, a poetical word for a workman's hammer,
found only in Judg. 5:26, where it denotes the mallet with which
the pins of the tent of the nomad are driven into the ground.
(4.) Heb. mappets, rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20. This
was properly a "mace," which is thus described by Rawlinson:
"The Assyrian mace was a short, thin weapon, and must either
have been made of a very tough wood or (and this is more
probable) of metal. It had an ornamented head, which was
sometimes very beautifully modelled, and generally a strap or
string at the lower end by which it could be grasped with
mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite (Judg. 4:17-22).
When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain
of Jabin's army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe
of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael
invited him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied
on the floor he fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her
left hand one of the great wooden pins ("nail") which fastened
down the cords of the tent, and in her right hand the mallet, or
"hammer," used for driving it into the ground, and stealthily
approaching her sleeping guest, with one well-directed blow
drove the nail through his temples into the earth (Judg. 5:27).
She then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and
boastfully showed him what she had done. (See SISERA T0003452;
This word does not occur in Scripture. It was the name given to
the leaders of the national party among the Jews who suffered in
the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded to the
Syrian throne B.C. 175. It is supposed to have been derived from
the Hebrew word (makkabah) meaning "hammer," as suggestive of
the heroism and power of this Jewish family, who are, however,
more properly called Asmoneans or Hasmonaeans, the origin of
which is much disputed.
After the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes from Egypt by the
Romans, he gave vent to his indignation on the Jews, great
numbers of whom he mercilessly put to death in Jerusalem. He
oppressed them in every way, and tried to abolish altogether the
Jewish worship. Mattathias, an aged priest, then residing at
Modin, a city to the west of Jerusalem, became now the
courageous leader of the national party; and having fled to the
mountains, rallied round him a large band of men prepared to
fight and die for their country and for their religion, which
was now violently suppressed. In 1 Macc. 2:60 is recorded his
dying counsels to his sons with reference to the war they were
now to carry on. His son Judas, "the Maccabee," succeeded him
(B.C. 166) as the leader in directing the war of independence,
which was carried on with great heroism on the part of the Jews,
and was terminated in the defeat of the Syrians.
(Egypt. Ses-Ra, "servant of Ra"). (1.) The captain of Jabin's
army (Judg. 4:2), which was routed and destroyed by the army of
Barak on the plain of Esdraelon. After all was lost he fled to
the settlement of Heber the Kenite in the plain of Zaanaim.
Jael, Heber's wife, received him into her tent with apparent
hospitality, and "gave him butter" (i.e., lebben, or curdled
milk) "in a lordly dish." Having drunk the refreshing beverage,
he lay down, and soon sank into the sleep of the weary. While he
lay asleep Jael crept stealthily up to him, and taking in her
hand one of the tent pegs, with a mallet she drove it with such
force through his temples that it entered into the ground where
he lay, and "at her feet he bowed, he fell; where he bowed,
there he fell down dead." The part of Deborah's song (Judg.
5:24-27) referring to the death of Sisera (which is a "mere
patriotic outburst," and "is no proof that purer eyes would have
failed to see gross sin mingling with Jael's service to Israel")
is thus rendered by Professor Roberts (Old Testament Revision):
"Extolled above women be Jael,
The wife of Heber the Kenite,
Extolled above women in the tent.
He asked for water, she gave him milk;
She brought him cream in a lordly dish.
She stretched forth her hand to the nail,
Her right hand to the workman's hammer,
And she smote Sisera; she crushed his head,
She crashed through and transfixed his temples.
At her feet he curled himself, he fell, he lay still;
At her feet he curled himself, he fell;
And where he curled himself, there he fell dead."
(2.) The ancestor of some of the Nethinim who returned with
Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55).
Arms are employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment,
both offensive and defensive.
(1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods
of history. The "rod of iron" (Ps. 2:9) is supposed to mean a
mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a
strong arm. The "maul" (Prov. 25:18; cognate Hebrew word
rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in
Ezek. 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual
translation of "hereb", which properly means "poniard." The real
sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always
double-edged), was also used (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8; 1 Kings
20:11). The spear was another offensive weapon (Josh. 8:18; 1
Sam. 17:7). The javelin was used by light troops (Num. 25:7, 8;
1 Sam. 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1 Sam. 19:9, 10),
and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The bow was,
however, the chief weapon of offence. The arrows were carried in
a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action
(Gen. 27:3; 48:22; Ps. 18:34). The sling was a favourite weapon
of the Benjamites (1 Sam. 17:40; 1 Chr. 12:2. Compare 1 Sam.
(2.) Of the defensive armour a chief place is assigned to the
shield or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the
"tzinnah"), for the protection of the whole person (Gen. 15:1;
Ps. 47:9; 1 Sam. 17:7; Prov. 30:5), and the buckler (Heb.
"mageen") or small shield (1 Kings 10:17; Ezek. 26:8). In Ps.
91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel appropriated to archers or
slingers. The helmet (Ezek. 27:10; 1 Sam. 17:38), a covering for
the head; the coat of mail or corselet (1 Sam. 17:5), or
habergeon (Neh. 4;16), harness or breat-plate (Rev. 9:9), for
the covering of the back and breast and both upper arms (Isa.
59:17; Eph. 6:14). The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather
or quilted cloth, were also for the covering of the body.
Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn in the time of
David (1 Sam. 17:6). Reference is made by Paul (Eph. 6:14-17) to
the panoply of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon,
a door-like oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole
person, not the small round shield. There is no armour for the
back, but only for the front.
Before his death David had "with all his might" provided
materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on
the summit of Mount Moriah (1 Chr. 22:14; 29:4; 2 Chr. 3:1), on
the east of the city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up
Isaac (Gen. 22:1-14). In the beginning of his reign Solomon set
about giving effect to the desire that had been so earnestly
cherished by his father, and prepared additional materials for
the building. From subterranean quarries at Jerusalem he
obtained huge blocks of stone for the foundations and walls of
the temple. These stones were prepared for their places in the
building under the eye of Tyrian master-builders. He also
entered into a compact with Hiram II., king of Tyre, for the
supply of whatever else was needed for the work, particularly
timber from the forests of Lebanon, which was brought in great
rafts by the sea to Joppa, whence it was dragged to Jerusalem (1
Kings 5). As the hill on which the temple was to be built did
not afford sufficient level space, a huge wall of solid masonry
of great height, in some places more than 200 feet high, was
raised across the south of the hill, and a similar wall on the
eastern side, and in the spaces between were erected many arches
and pillars, thus raising up the general surface to the required
level. Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for
the temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which
water was conveyed by channels from the "pools" near Bethlehem.
One of these cisterns, the "great sea," was capable of
containing three millions of gallons. The overflow was led off
by a conduit to the Kidron.
In all these preparatory undertakings a space of about three
years was occupied; and now the process of the erection of the
great building began, under the direction of skilled Phoenician
builders and workmen, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign, 480
years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6; 2 Chr. 3). Many thousands of
labourers and skilled artisans were employed in the work. Stones
prepared in the quarries underneath the city (1 Kings 5:17, 18)
of huge dimension (see QUARRIES T0003032) were gradually placed
on the massive walls, and closely fitted together without any
mortar between, till the whole structure was completed. No sound
of hammer or axe or any tool of iron was heard as the structure
arose (6:7). "Like some tall palm the noiseless fabric sprang."
The building was 60 cubits long, 20 cubits wide, and 30 cubits
high. The engineers of the Israel Exploration Fund, in their
explorations around the temple area, discovered what is believed
to have been the "chief corner stone" of the temple, "the most
interesting stone in the world." It lies at the bottom of the
south-eastern angle, and is 3 feet 8 inches high by 14 feet
long. It rests on the solid rock at a depth of 79 feet 3 inches
below the present surface. (See PINNACLE T0002957.) In
examining the walls the engineers were "struck with admiration
at the vastness of the blocks and the general excellence of the
At length, in the autumn of the eleventh year of his reign,
seven and a half years after it had been begun, the temple was
completed in all its architectural magnificence and beauty. For
thirteen years there it stood, on the summit of Moriah, silent
and unused. The reasons for this strange delay in its
consecration are unknown. At the close of these thirteen years
preparations for the dedication of the temple were made on a
scale of the greatest magnificence. The ark was solemnly brought
from the tent in which David had deposited it to the place
prepared for it in the temple, and the glory-cloud, the symbol
of the divine presence, filled the house. Then Solomon ascended
a platform which had been erected for him, in the sight of all
the people, and lifting up his hands to heaven poured out his
heart to God in prayer (1 Kings 8; 2 Chr. 6, 7). The feast of
dedication, which lasted seven days, followed by the feast of
tabernacles, marked a new era in the history of Israel. On the
eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the
vast assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes
filled with joy and gladness, "Had Solomon done no other service
beyond the building of the temple, he would still have
influenced the religious life of his people down to the latest
days. It was to them a perpetual reminder and visible symbol of
God's presence and protection, a strong bulwark of all the
sacred traditions of the law, a witness to duty, an impulse to
historic study, an inspiration of sacred song."
The temple consisted of, (1.) The oracle or most holy place (1
Kings 6:19; 8:6), called also the "inner house" (6:27), and the
"holiest of all" (Heb. 9:3). It was 20 cubits in length,
breadth, and height. It was floored and wainscotted with cedar
(1 Kings 6:16), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold
(6:20, 21, 30). There was a two-leaved door between it and the
holy place overlaid with gold (2 Chr. 4:22); also a veil of blue
purple and crimson and fine linen (2 Chr. 3:14; compare Ex.
26:33). It had no windows (1 Kings 8:12). It was indeed the
dwelling-place of God. (2.) The holy place (q.v.), 1 Kings
8:8-10, called also the "greater house" (2 Chr. 3:5) and the
"temple" (1 Kings 6:17). (3.) The porch or entrance before the
temple on the east (1 Kings 6:3; 2 Chr. 3:4; 29:7). In the porch
stood the two pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings
11:14; 23:3). (4.) The chambers, which were built about the
temple on the southern, western, and northern sides (1 Kings
6:5-10). These formed a part of the building.
Round about the building were, (1.) The court of the priests
(2 Chr. 4:9), called the "inner court" (1 Kings 6:36). It
contained the altar of burnt-offering (2 Chr. 15:8), the brazen
sea (4:2-5, 10), and ten lavers (1 Kings 7:38, 39). (2.) The
great court, which surrounded the whole temple (2 Chr. 4:9).
Here the people assembled to worship God (Jer. 19:14; 26:2).
This temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during
the course of its history, (1) 1 Kings 14:25, 26; (2) 2 Kings
14:14; (3) 2 Kings 16:8, 17, 18; (4) 2 Kings 18:15, 16. At last
it was pillaged and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:13;
2 Chr. 36:7). He burned the temple, and carried all its
treasures with him to Babylon (2 Kings 25:9-17; 2 Chr. 36:19;
Isa. 64:11). These sacred vessels were at length, at the close
of the Captivity, restored to the Jews by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11).