the apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth (Ps.
19:6), and the changes of the wind (Eccl. 1:6). In Job 22:14,
"in the circuit of heaven" (R.V. marg., "on the vault of
heaven") means the "arch of heaven," which seems to be bent over
smelting-shop, "a workshop for the refining and smelting of
metals", a small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile
from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and
Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great
famine," when the "heaven was shut up three years and six
months" (Luke 4:26; 1 Kings 17:10). It is called Sarepta in the
New Testament (Luke 4:26).
(1.) In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word
"adamah'". In Gen. 9:20 "husbandman" is literally "man of the
ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth (Ex. 20:24).
Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (2 Kings 5:17),
under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of
the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own
(2). As the rendering of "'erets", it means the whole world
(Gen. 1:2); the land as opposed to the sea (1:10). "Erets" also
denotes a country (21:32); a plot of ground (23:15); the ground
on which a man stands (33:3); the inhabitants of the earth (6:1;
11:1); all the world except Israel (2 Chr. 13:9). In the New
Testament "the earth" denotes the land of Judea (Matt. 23:35);
also things carnal in contrast with things heavenly (John 3:31;
Col. 3:1, 2).
This expression occurs in the Old Testament only in Dan. 12:2
(R.V., "everlasting life").
It occurs frequently in the New Testament (Matt. 7:14; 18:8,
9; Luke 10:28; compare 18:18). It comprises the whole future of
the redeemed (Luke 16:9), and is opposed to "eternal punishment"
(Matt. 19:29; 25:46). It is the final reward and glory into
which the children of God enter (1 Tim. 6:12, 19; Rom. 6:22;
Gal. 6:8; 1 Tim. 1:16; Rom. 5:21); their Sabbath of rest (Heb.
4:9; compare 12:22).
The newness of life which the believer derives from Christ
(Rom. 6:4) is the very essence of salvation, and hence the life
of glory or the eternal life must also be theirs (Rom. 6:8; 2
Tim. 2:11, 12; Rom. 5:17, 21; 8:30; Eph. 2:5, 6). It is the
"gift of God in Jesus Christ our Lord" (Rom. 6:23). The life the
faithful have here on earth (John 3:36; 5:24; 6:47, 53-58) is
inseparably connected with the eternal life beyond, the endless
life of the future, the happy future of the saints in heaven
(Matt. 19:16, 29; 25:46).
connected with a throne (2 Chr. 9:18). Jehovah symbolically
dwelt in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark of
the covenant. The ark was his footstool (1 Chr. 28:2; Ps. 99:5;
132:7). And as heaven is God's throne, so the earth is his
footstool (Ps. 110:1; Isa. 66:1; Matt. 5:35).
Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (i.e., "the Lord's
house"), which was used by ancient authors for the place of
In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word
ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew "kahal" of the Old
Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character
of which can only be known from the connection in which the word
is found. There is no clear instance of its being used for a
place of meeting or of worship, although in post-apostolic times
it early received this meaning. Nor is this word ever used to
denote the inhabitants of a country united in the same
profession, as when we say the "Church of England," the "Church
of Scotland," etc.
We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the
New Testament: (1.) It is translated "assembly" in the ordinary
classical sense (Acts 19:32, 39, 41).
(2.) It denotes the whole body of the redeemed, all those whom
the Father has given to Christ, the invisible catholic church
(Eph. 5:23, 25, 27, 29; Heb. 12:23).
(3.) A few Christians associated together in observing the
ordinances of the gospel are an ecclesia (Rom. 16:5; Col. 4:15).
(4.) All the Christians in a particular city, whether they
assembled together in one place or in several places for
religious worship, were an ecclesia. Thus all the disciples in
Antioch, forming several congregations, were one church (Acts
13:1); so also we read of the "church of God at Corinth" (1 Cor.
1:2), "the church at Jerusalem" (Acts 8:1), "the church of
Ephesus" (Rev. 2:1), etc.
(5.) The whole body of professing Christians throughout the
world (1 Cor. 15:9; Gal. 1:13; Matt. 16:18) are the church of
The church visible "consists of all those throughout the world
that profess the true religion, together with their children."
It is called "visible" because its members are known and its
assemblies are public. Here there is a mixture of "wheat and
chaff," of saints and sinners. "God has commanded his people to
organize themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical
communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges,
ordinances, and discipline, for the great purpose of giving
visibility to his kingdom, of making known the gospel of that
kingdom, and of gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of
these distinct organized communities which is faithful to the
great King is an integral part of the visible church, and all
together constitute the catholic or universal visible church." A
credible profession of the true religion constitutes a person a
member of this church. This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose
character and progress are set forth in the parables recorded in
The children of all who thus profess the true religion are
members of the visible church along with their parents. Children
are included in every covenant God ever made with man. They go
along with their parents (Gen. 9:9-17; 12:1-3; 17:7; Ex. 20:5;
Deut. 29:10-13). Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the
beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same
great principle. "The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed
the promises were made] is unto you, and to your children" (Acts
2:38, 39). The children of believing parents are "holy", i.e.,
are "saints", a title which designates the members of the
Christian church (1 Cor. 7:14). (See BAPTISM T0000435.)
The church invisible "consists of the whole number of the
elect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under
Christ, the head thereof." This is a pure society, the church in
which Christ dwells. It is the body of Christ. it is called
"invisible" because the greater part of those who constitute it
are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and also because its
members still on earth cannot certainly be distinguished. The
qualifications of membership in it are internal and are hidden.
It is unseen except by Him who "searches the heart." "The Lord
knoweth them that are his" (2 Tim. 2:19).
The church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises
appertaining to Christ's kingdom belong, is a spiritual body
consisting of all true believers, i.e., the church invisible.
(1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth. We
sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New
Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old
Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isa.
49:13-23; 60:1-14). When the Jews are at length restored, they
will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again into
"their own olive tree" (Rom. 11:18-24; compare Eph. 2:11-22). The
apostles did not set up a new organization. Under their ministry
disciples were "added" to the "church" already existing (Acts
(2.) Its universality. It is the "catholic" church; not
confined to any particular country or outward organization, but
comprehending all believers throughout the whole world.
(3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the
end of the world. It can never be destroyed. It is an
(Luke 22:20), rather "New Covenant," in contrast to the old
covenant of works, which is superseded. "The covenant of grace
is called new; it succeeds to the old broken covenant of works.
It is ever fresh, flourishing, and excellent; and under the
gospel it is dispensed in a more clear, spiritual, extensive,
and powerful manner than of old" (Brown of Haddington). Hence is
derived the name given to the latter portion of the Bible. (See
Kingdom of God
(Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, 15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ"
(Matt. 13:41; 20:21) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" (Eph. 5:5)
= "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom" (Matt. 8:12;
13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 13:41), all
denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1)
Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2)
the blessings and advantages of all kinds that flow from this
rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken collectively, or
(1.) Definitions. The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to
indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24).
According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens,
(a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" (Gen. 2:19; 7:3,
23; Ps. 8:8, etc.), "the eagles of heaven" (Lam. 4:19), etc.
(b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29).
(c) "The heaven of heavens," or "the third heaven" (Deut.
10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; Ps. 115:16; 148:4; 2 Cor. 12:2).
(2.) Meaning of words in the original,
(a) The usual Hebrew word for "heavens" is "shamayim", a
plural form meaning "heights," "elevations" (Gen. 1:1; 2:1).
(b) The Hebrew word "marom" is also used (Ps. 68:18; 93:4;
102:19, etc.) as equivalent to "shamayim", "high places,"
(c) Heb. galgal, literally a "wheel," is rendered "heaven" in
Ps. 77:18 (R.V., "whirlwind").
(d) Heb. shahak, rendered "sky" (Deut. 33:26; Job 37:18; Ps.
18:11), plural "clouds" (Job 35:5; 36:28; Ps. 68:34, marg.
"heavens"), means probably the firmament.
(e) Heb. rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered
"firmamentum" in the Vulgate, whence our "firmament" (Gen. 1:6;
Deut. 33:26, etc.), regarded as a solid expanse.
(3.) Metaphorical meaning of term. Isa. 14:13, 14; "doors of
heaven" (Ps. 78:23); heaven "shut" (1 Kings 8:35); "opened"
(Ezek. 1:1). (See 1 Chr. 21:16.)
(4.) Spiritual meaning. The place of the everlasting
blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits.
(a) Christ calls it his "Father's house" (John 14:2).
(b) It is called "paradise" (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev.
(c) "The heavenly Jerusalem" (Gal. 4: 26; Heb. 12:22; Rev.
(d) The "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 25:1; James 2:5).
(e) The "eternal kingdom" (2 Pet. 1:11).
(f) The "eternal inheritance" (1 Pet. 1:4; Heb. 9:15).
(g) The "better country" (Heb. 11:14, 16).
(h) The blessed are said to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob," and to be "in Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22; Matt. 8:11);
to "reign with Christ" (2 Tim. 2:12); and to enjoy "rest" (Heb.
In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the
possession of "life everlasting," "an eternal weight of glory"
(2 Cor. 4:17), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a
deliverance from all evils (2 Cor. 5:1, 2) and from the society
of the wicked (2 Tim. 4:18), bliss without termination, the
"fulness of joy" for ever (Luke 20:36; 2 Cor. 4:16, 18; 1 Pet.
1:4; 5:10; 1 John 3:2). The believer's heaven is not only a
state of everlasting blessedness, but also a "place", a place
"prepared" for them (John 14:2).
The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry
firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of Job, which is the
oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations
are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning
star" (Rev. 2:28; compare Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and
"Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job
9:9; 38:31), "the crooked serpent," Draco (Job 26:13), the
Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11). The stars
were called "the host of heaven" (Isa. 40:26; Jer. 33:22).
The oldest divisions of time were mainly based on the
observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, the
"ordinances of heaven" (Gen. 1:14-18; Job 38:33; Jer. 31:35;
33:25). Such observations led to the division of the year into
months and the mapping out of the appearances of the stars into
twelve portions, which received from the Greeks the name of the
"zodiac." The word "Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32) means, as the margin
notes, "the twelve signs" of the zodiac. Astronomical
observations were also necessary among the Jews in order to the
fixing of the proper time for sacred ceremonies, the "new
moons," the "passover," etc. Many allusions are found to the
display of God's wisdom and power as seen in the starry heavens
(Ps. 8; 19:1-6; Isa. 51:6, etc.)
occurs twelve times in the New Testament (Heb. 9:15, etc.) as
the rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times
rendered "covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in
the Revised Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by
testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by
which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is
divided. (See BIBLE T0000580.)
is said to be the oldest extant vellum manuscript. It and the
Codex Sinaiticus are the two oldest uncial manuscripts. They
were probably written in the fourth century. The Vaticanus was
placed in the Vatican Library at Rome by Pope Nicolas V. in
1448, its previous history being unknown. It originally
consisted in all probability of a complete copy of the
Septuagint and of the New Testament. It is now imperfect, and
consists of 759 thin, delicate leaves, of which the New
Testament fills 142. Like the Sinaiticus, it is of the greatest
value to Biblical scholars in aiding in the formation of a
correct text of the New Testament. It is referred to by critics
as Codex B.
a Persian word (Assyr, sivanu, "bricks"), used after the
Captivity as the name of the third month of the Jewish year,
extending from the new moon in June to the new moon in July
from the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are
not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament
was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into
chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When
Luke (20:37) refers to Ex. 3:6, he quotes from "Moses at the
bush", i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the
bush. So also Mark (2:26) refers to 1 Sam. 21:1-6, in the words,
"in the days of Abiathar;" and Paul (Rom. 11:2) refers to 1
Kings ch. 17-19, in the words, "in Elias", i.e., in the portion
of the history regarding Elias.
In general, the New Testament writers quote from the
Septuagint (q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then
in common use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these
quotations are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g.,
the quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or
the Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances.
Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety
instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the
quotations (in over eighty instances).
Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew
text (Matt. 4:15, 16; John 19:37; 1 Cor. 15:54). Besides the
quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions,
more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New
Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as
well as historical facts recorded in the Old.
There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct
quotations from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear
and certain case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).
Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there
are in Paul's writings three quotations from certain Greek
poets, Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12. These quotations
are memorials of his early classical education.
frequently mentioned both in the Old and New Testaments. Dogs
were used by the Hebrews as a watch for their houses (Isa.
56:10), and for guarding their flocks (Job 30:1). There were
also then as now troops of semi-wild dogs that wandered about
devouring dead bodies and the offal of the streets (1 Kings
14:11; 16:4; 21:19, 23; 22:38; Ps. 59:6, 14).
As the dog was an unclean animal, the terms "dog," "dog's
head," "dead dog," were used as terms of reproach or of
humiliation (1 Sam. 24:14; 2 Sam. 3:8; 9:8; 16:9). Paul calls
false apostles "dogs" (Phil. 3:2). Those who are shut out of the
kingdom of heaven are also so designated (Rev. 22:15).
Persecutors are called "dogs" (Ps. 22:16). Hazael's words, "Thy
servant which is but a dog" (2 Kings 8:13), are spoken in mock
humility=impossible that one so contemptible as he should attain
to such power.
large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the
ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7, 13; 8:12; 9:1, 15,
17, 19, 21). It included the days extending from the new moon of
our March to the new moon of April. The name was first used
after the Captivity. When the season was backward, and the lambs
not yet of a paschal size, or the barley not forward enough for
abib, then a month called Veadar, i.e., a second Adar, was
(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word "goyim" denoted generally
all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; compare Gal. 3:8). The
Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner
from the other "goyim". They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23;
26:14-45; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites,
Hittites, etc., were the "goyim", the heathen, with whom the
Jews were forbidden to be associated in any way (Josh. 23:7; 1
Kings 11:2). The practice of idolatry was the characteristic of
these nations, and hence the word came to designate idolaters
(Ps. 106:47; Jer. 46:28; Lam. 1:3; Isa. 36:18), the wicked (Ps.
9:5, 15, 17).
The corresponding Greek word in the New Testament, "ethne",
has similar shades of meaning. In Acts 22:21, Gal. 3:14, it
denotes the people of the earth generally; and in Matt. 6:7, an
idolater. In modern usage the word denotes all nations that are
strangers to revealed religion.
the title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In
the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as
sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive
proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to
Caesar (Matt. 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of
appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New
Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22),
Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Phil. 4:22).
Heb. nophek (Ex. 28:18; 39:11); i.e., the "glowing stone",
probably the carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of
the high priest. It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the
foundations of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone
in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live
Heb. terumah, (Ex. 29:27) means simply an offering, a present,
including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present.
This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis
attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the
heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a
motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which
consisted in a repeated movement in a horizontal direction, a
"wave offering to the Lord as ruler of earth, a heave offering
to the Lord as ruler of heaven." The right shoulder, which fell
to the priests in presenting thank offerings, was called the
heave shoulder (Lev. 7:34; Num. 6:20). The first fruits offered
in harvest-time (Num. 15:20, 21) were heave offerings.
a name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person
clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence
(Gen. 50:7). It also denoted a political office (Num. 22:7). The
"elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of
authority. Moses opened his commission to them (Ex. 3:16). They
attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy of them
attended on him at the giving of the law (Ex. 24:1). Seventy
also were selected from the whole number to bear with Moses the
burden of the people (Num. 11:16, 17). The "elder" is the
keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the
patriarchal system exists. At the present day this is the case
among the Arabs, where the sheik (i.e., "the old man") is the
highest authority in the tribe. The body of the "elders" of
Israel were the representatives of the people from the very
first, and were recognized as such by Moses. All down through
the history of the Jews we find mention made of the elders as
exercising authority among the people. They appear as governors
(Deut. 31:28), as local magistrates (16:18), administering
justice (19:12). They were men of extensive influence (1 Sam.
30:26-31). In New Testament times they also appear taking an
active part in public affairs (Matt. 16:21; 21:23; 26:59).
The Jewish eldership was transferred from the old dispensation
to the new. "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere
recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and
apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new
and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from
the earlies times. In other words, the office of elder was the
only permanent essential office of the church under either
The "elders" of the New Testament church were the "pastors"
(Eph. 4:11), "bishops or overseers" (Acts 20:28), "leaders" and
"rulers" (Heb. 13:7; 1 Thess. 5:12) of the flock. Everywhere in
the New Testament bishop and presbyter are titles given to one
and the same officer of the Christian church. He who is called
presbyter or elder on account of his age or gravity is also
called bishop or overseer with reference to the duty that lay
upon him (Titus 1:5-7; Acts 20:17-28; Phil. 1:1).
as used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse
(Luke 12: 24), and hence a place of privacy and retirement
(Matt. 6:6; Luke 12:3).
Proverbs, Book of
a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range
of subjects presented in a poetic form. This book sets forth the
"philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the
Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses
upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence
and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the
Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is
thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined,
discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human
character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary
to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's Jewish Church).
As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon
gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human
experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the
tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the
material of his own experience. Towards the close of the book,
indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to
have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by
other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc.)
This book is usually divided into three parts: (1.) Consisting
of ch. 1-9, which contain an exhibition of wisdom as the highest
(2.) Consisting of ch. 10-24.
(3.) Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of
Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29).
These are followed by two supplements, (1) "The words of Agur"
(ch. 30); and (2) "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31).
Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and
those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1
Kings 4:32). In the New Testament there are thirty-five direct
quotations from this book or allusions to it.
new, a city in the valley of Judah (Josh. 15:37).
(Neh. 6:15), the name of the sixth month of the ecclesiastical
year, and the twelfth of the civil year. It began with the new
moon of our August and September, and consisted of twenty-nine
This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a
reed or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to
keep straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or
measured. It came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote
that they contained the authoritative rule of faith and
practice, the standard of doctrine and duty. A book is said to
be of canonical authority when it has a right to take a place
with the other books which contain a revelation of the Divine
will. Such a right does not arise from any ecclesiastical
authority, but from the evidence of the inspired authorship of
the book. The canonical (i.e., the inspired) books of the Old
and New Testaments, are a complete rule, and the only rule, of
faith and practice. They contain the whole supernatural
revelation of God to men. The New Testament Canon was formed
gradually under divine guidance. The different books as they
were written came into the possession of the Christian
associations which began to be formed soon after the day of
Pentecost; and thus slowly the canon increased till all the
books were gathered together into one collection containing the
whole of the twenty-seven New Testament inspired books.
Historical evidence shows that from about the middle of the
second century this New Testament collection was substantially
such as we now possess. Each book contained in it is proved to
have, on its own ground, a right to its place; and thus the
whole is of divine authority.
The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament
writers. Their evidence is conclusive. The quotations in the New
from the Old are very numerous, and the references are much more
numerous. These quotations and references by our Lord and the
apostles most clearly imply the existence at that time of a
well-known and publicly acknowledged collection of Hebrew
writings under the designation of "The Scriptures;" "The Law and
the Prophets and the Psalms;" "Moses and the Prophets," etc. The
appeals to these books, moreover, show that they were regarded
as of divine authority, finally deciding all questions of which
they treat; and that the whole collection so recognized
consisted only of the thirty-nine books which we now posses.
Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic the canon of the
Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint Version (q.v.) also contained
every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. As to
the time at which the Old Testament canon was closed, there are
many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah,
immediately after the return from Babylonian exile. (See BIBLE
T0000580, EZRA T0001294, QUOTATIONS T0003039.)
usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet,
is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New
Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of
St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr.
Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained
forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in
the university library of Leipsic, under the title of the Codex
Frederico-Augustanus, after his royal patron the king of Saxony.
In the year referred to (1859) the emperor of Russia sent him to
prosecute his search for MSS., which he was convinced were still
to be found in the Sinai convent. The story of his finding the
manuscript of the New Testament has all the interest of a
romance. He reached the convent on 31st January; but his
inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On the 4th February he had
resolved to return home without having gained his object. "On
that day, when walking with the provisor of the convent, he
spoke with much regret of his ill-success. Returning from their
promenade, Tischendorf accompanied the monk to his room, and
there had displayed to him what his companion called a copy of
the LXX., which he, the ghostly brother, owned. The MS. was
wrapped up in a piece of cloth, and on its being unrolled, to
the surprise and delight of the critic the very document
presented itself which he had given up all hope of seeing. His
object had been to complete the fragmentary LXX. of 1844, which
he had declared to be the most ancient of all Greek codices on
vellum that are extant; but he found not only that, but a copy
of the Greek New Testament attached, of the same age, and
perfectly complete, not wanting a single page or paragraph."
This precious fragment, after some negotiations, he obtained
possession of, and conveyed it to the Emperor Alexander, who
fully appreciated its importance, and caused it to be published
as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly
the ancient handwriting. The entire codex consists of 346 1/2
folios. Of these 199 belong to the Old Testament and 147 1/2 to
the New, along with two ancient documents called the Epistle of
Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. The books of the New
Testament stand thus: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul,
the Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, the Apocalypse
of John. It is shown by Tischendorf that this codex was written
in the fourth century, and is thus of about the same age as the
Vatican codex; but while the latter wants the greater part of
Matthew and sundry leaves here and there besides, the Sinaiticus
is the only copy of the New Testament in uncial characters which
is complete. Thus it is the oldest extant MS. copy of the New
Testament. Both the Vatican and the Sinai codices were probably
written in Egypt. (See VATICANUS T0003766.)
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are
the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7);
they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 9); they warn of
danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the
commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they
associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and
forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with
the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from
justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially
as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
new, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah (Josh.
rest, (Heb. Noah) the grandson of Methuselah (Gen. 5:25-29), who
was for two hundred and fifty years contemporary with Adam, and
the son of Lamech, who was about fifty years old at the time of
Adam's death. This patriarch is rightly regarded as the
connecting link between the old and the new world. He is the
second great progenitor of the human family.
The words of his father Lamech at his birth (Gen. 5:29) have
been regarded as in a sense prophetical, designating Noah as a
type of Him who is the true "rest and comfort" of men under the
burden of life (Matt.11:28).
He lived five hundred years, and then there were born unto him
three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Gen. 5:32). He was a "just
man and perfect in his generation," and "walked with God" (compare
Ezek. 14:14,20). But now the descendants of Cain and of Seth
began to intermarry, and then there sprang up a race
distinguished for their ungodliness. Men became more and more
corrupt, and God determined to sweep the earth of its wicked
population (Gen. 6:7). But with Noah God entered into a
covenant, with a promise of deliverance from the threatened
deluge (18). He was accordingly commanded to build an ark
(6:14-16) for the saving of himself and his house. An interval
of one hundred and twenty years elapsed while the ark was being
built (6:3), during which Noah bore constant testimony against
the unbelief and wickedness of that generation (1 Pet. 3:18-20;
2 Pet. 2:5).
When the ark of "gopher-wood" (mentioned only here) was at
length completed according to the command of the Lord, the
living creatures that were to be preserved entered into it; and
then Noah and his wife and sons and daughters-in-law entered it,
and the "Lord shut him in" (Gen.7:16). The judgment-threatened
now fell on the guilty world, "the world that then was, being
overflowed with water, perished" (2 Pet. 3:6). The ark floated
on the waters for one hundred and fifty days, and then rested on
the mountains of Ararat (Gen. 8:3,4); but not for a considerable
time after this was divine permission given him to leave the
ark, so that he and his family were a whole year shut up within
it (Gen. 6-14).
On leaving the ark Noah's first act was to erect an altar, the
first of which there is any mention, and offer the sacrifices of
adoring thanks and praise to God, who entered into a covenant
with him, the first covenant between God and man, granting him
possession of the earth by a new and special charter, which
remains in force to the present time (Gen. 8:21-9:17). As a sign
and witness of this covenant, the rainbow was adopted and set
apart by God, as a sure pledge that never again would the earth
be destroyed by a flood.
But, alas! Noah after this fell into grievous sin (Gen. 9:21);
and the conduct of Ham on this sad occasion led to the memorable
prediction regarding his three sons and their descendants. Noah
"lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years, and he
died" (28:29). (See DELUGE T0001011).
Noah, motion, (Heb. No'ah) one of the five daughters of
Zelophehad (Num.26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Josh. 17:3).
Bible, the English form of the Greek name "Biblia", meaning
"books," the name which in the fifth century began to be given
to the entire collection of sacred books, the "Library of Divine
Revelation." The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came
gradually into use in our English language. The Bible consists
of sixty-six different books, composed by many different
writers, in three different languages, under different
circumstances; writers of almost every social rank, statesmen
and peasants, kings, herdsmen, fishermen, priests,
tax-gatherers, tentmakers; educated and uneducated, Jews and
Gentiles; most of them unknown to each other, and writing at
various periods during the space of about 1600 years: and yet,
after all, it is only one book dealing with only one subject in
its numberless aspects and relations, the subject of man's
It is divided into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine
books, and the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books. The
names given to the Old in the writings of the New are "the
scriptures" (Matt. 21:42), "scripture" (2 Pet. 1:20), "the holy
scriptures" (Rom. 1:2), "the law" (John 12:34), "the law of
Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (Luke 24:44), "the law and
the prophets" (Matt. 5:17), "the old covenant" (2 Cor. 3:14,
R.V.). There is a break of 400 years between the Old Testament
and the New. (See APOCRYPHA T0000263.)
The Old Testament is divided into three parts:, 1. The Law
(Torah), consisting of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses.
2. The Prophets, consisting of (1) the former, namely, Joshua,
Judges, the Books of Samuel, and the Books of Kings; (2) the
latter, namely, the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and
Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets. 3. The Hagiographa, or
holy writings, including the rest of the books. These were
ranked in three divisions:, (1) The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job,
distinguished by the Hebrew name, a word formed of the initial
letters of these books, "emeth", meaning truth. (2) Canticles,
Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, called the five
rolls, as being written for the synagogue use on five separate
rolls. (3) Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles.
Between the Old and the New Testament no addition was made to
the revelation God had already given. The period of New
Testament revelation, extending over a century, began with the
appearance of John the Baptist.
The New Testament consists of (1) the historical books, viz.,
the Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles; (2) the Epistles; and
(3) the book of prophecy, the Revelation.
The division of the Bible into chapters and verses is
altogether of human invention, designed to facilitate reference
to it. The ancient Jews divided the Old Testament into certain
sections for use in the synagogue service, and then at a later
period, in the ninth century A.D., into verses. Our modern
system of chapters for all the books of the Bible was introduced
by Cardinal Hugo about the middle of the thirteenth century (he
died 1263). The system of verses for the New Testament was
introduced by Stephens in 1551, and generally adopted, although
neither Tyndale's nor Coverdale's English translation of the
Bible has verses. The division is not always wisely made, yet it
is very useful. (See VERSION T0003768.)
a public civil officer invested with authority. The Hebrew
shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having authority in the
land (Deut. 1:16, 17). In Judg. 18:7 the word "magistrate"
(A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version "possessing
authority", i.e., having power to do them harm by invasion. In
the time of Ezra (9:2) and Nehemiah (2:16; 4:14; 13:11) the
Jewish magistrates were called "seganim", properly meaning
"nobles." In the New Testament the Greek word "archon", rendered
"magistrate" (Luke 12:58; Titus 3:1), means one first in power,
and hence a prince, as in Matt. 20:25, 1 Cor. 2:6, 8. This term
is used of the Messiah, "Prince of the kings of the earth" (Rev.
1:5). In Acts 16:20, 22, 35, 36, 38, the Greek term "strategos",
rendered "magistrate," properly signifies the leader of an army,
a general, one having military authority. The "strategoi" were
the duumviri, the two praetors appointed to preside over the
administration of justice in the colonies of the Romans. They
were attended by the sergeants (properly lictors or "rod
beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in
2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament.
Tents were in primitive times the common dwellings of men.
Houses were afterwards built, the walls of which were frequently
of mud (Job 24:16; Matt. 6:19, 20) or of sun-dried bricks.
God "dwells in light" (1 Tim. 6:16; 1 John 1:7), in heaven
(Ps. 123:1), in his church (Ps. 9:11; 1 John 4:12). Christ dwelt
on earth in the days of his humiliation (John 1:14). He now
dwells in the hearts of his people (Eph. 3:17-19). The Holy
Spirit dwells in believers (1 Cor. 3:16; 2 Tim. 1:14). We are
exhorted to "let the word of God dwell in us richly" (Col. 3:16;
Dwell deep occurs only in Jer. 49:8, and refers to the custom
of seeking refuge from impending danger, in retiring to the
recesses of rocks and caverns, or to remote places in the
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally
means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia)
is used by classical writers with reference to the changes
produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is
equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In
Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as
a passing from death to life (1 John 3:14); becoming a new
creature in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17); being born again (John
3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom. 12:2); a resurrection from the
dead (Eph. 2:6); a being quickened (2:1, 5).
This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not
with man but with God (John 1:12, 13; 1 John 2:29; 5:1, 4).
As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting
of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation
of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses
The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in
Scripture (John 3:3; Rom. 7:18; 8:7-9; 1 Cor. 2:14; Eph. 2:1;
The Israelites had to take possession of the Promised Land by
conquest. They had to engage in a long and bloody war before the
Canaanite tribes were finally subdued. Except in the case of
Jericho and Ai, the war did not become aggressive till after the
death of Joshua. Till then the attack was always first made by
the Canaanites. Now the measure of the iniquity of the
Canaanites was full, and Israel was employed by God to sweep
them away from off the face of the earth. In entering on this
new stage of the war, the tribe of Judah, according to divine
direction, took the lead.
In the days of Saul and David the people of Israel engaged in
many wars with the nations around, and after the division of the
kingdom into two they often warred with each other. They had to
defend themselves also against the inroads of the Egyptians, the
Assyrians, and the Babylonians. The whole history of Israel from
first to last presents but few periods of peace.
The Christian life is represented as a warfare, and the
Christian graces are also represented under the figure of pieces
of armour (Eph. 6:11-17; 1 Thess. 5:8; 2 Tim. 2:3, 4). The final
blessedness of believers is attained as the fruit of victory
New Moon, Feast of
Special services were appointed for the commencement of a month
(Num. 28:11-15; 10:10). (See FESTIVALS T0001325.)
the Greek form of Elijah (Matt. 11:14; 16:14, etc.), which the
Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament. (See
the post-biblical name of the month which was the eighth of the
sacred and the second of the civil year of the Jews. It began
with the new moon of our November. It is once called Bul (1
Kings 6:38). Assyrian, Arah Samna, "eighth month,"
New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). It is
probably identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit
the Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized
Version of the New Testament (Matt. 3:3; 4:14), but in the
Revised Version always "Isaiah."
(id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51, A.V.,
"Lord," R.V., "Rabboni;" John 20:16). It was the most honourable
of all the titles.
the eleventh month of the Hebrew year, extending from the new
moon of February to that of March (Zech. 1:7). Assyrian sabatu,
"storm." (See MONTH T0002592.)
to be treated with kindness (Ex. 22:22; Deut. 14:29; 16:11, 14;
24:17, 19-21; 26:12; 27:19, etc.). In the New Testament the same
tender regard for them is inculcated (Acts 6:1-6; 1 Tim. 5:3-16)
dry, an irregular and ill-defined district in Asia Minor. It was
divided into two parts, the Greater Phrygia on the south, and
the Lesser Phrygia on the west. It is the Greater Phrygia that
is spoken of in the New Testament. The towns of Antioch in
Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea
were situated in it.
(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only
in the New Testament (Matt. 10:25; 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22). It is
probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning
"the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or
the capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence
of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on
their first missionary tour (Acts 13:6). It is new Paphos which
is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8
miles north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.
(2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; Dan. 2:4), more correctly rendered
"Aramaic," including both the Syriac and the Chaldee languages.
In the New Testament there are several Syriac words, such as
"Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" (Mark 15:34; Matt. 27:46 gives
the Heb. form, "Eli, Eli"), "Raca" (Matt. 5:22), "Ephphatha"
(Mark 7:34), "Maran-atha" (1 Cor. 16:22).
A Syriac version of the Old Testament, containing all the
canonical books, along with some apocryphal books (called the
Peshitto, i.e., simple translation, and not a paraphrase), was
made early in the second century, and is therefore the first
Christian translation of the Old Testament. It was made directly
from the original, and not from the LXX. Version. The New
Testament was also translated from Greek into Syriac about the
same time. It is noticeable that this version does not contain
the Second and Third Epistles of John, 2 Peter, Jude, and the
Apocalypse. These were, however, translated subsequently and
placed in the version. (See VERSION T0003768.)
(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head (1 Sam. 17:5,
38). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Eph.
6:17; 1 Thess. 5:8). (See ARMS T0000315.)
Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the
feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4;
This word is used of the deliverance of the Israelites from the
Egyptians (Ex. 14:13), and of deliverance generally from evil or
danger. In the New Testament it is specially used with reference
to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin
wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Heb. 2:3).
(See REDEMPTION T0003084; REGENERATION T0003091.)
something hidden, a town of Benjamin (Ezra 2:27), east of Bethel
and south of Migron, on the road to Jerusalem (Isa. 10:28). It
lay on the line of march of an invading army from the north, on
the north side of the steep and precipitous Wady es-Suweinit
("valley of the little thorn-tree" or "the acacia"), and now
bears the name of Mukhmas. This wady is called "the passage of
Michmash" (1 Sam. 13:23). Immediately facing Mukhmas, on the
opposite side of the ravine, is the modern representative of
Geba, and behind this again are Ramah and Gibeah.
This was the scene of a great battle fought between the army
of Saul and the Philistines, who were utterly routed and pursued
for some 16 miles towards Philistia as far as the valley of
Aijalon. "The freedom of Benjamin secured at Michmash led
through long years of conflict to the freedom of all its kindred
tribes." The power of Benjamin and its king now steadily
increased. A new spirit and a new hope were now at work in
Israel. (See SAUL T0003230.)
first used of the tabernacle, which is called "the temple of the
Lord" (1 Sam. 1:9). In the New Testament the word is used
figuratively of Christ's human body (John 2:19, 21). Believers
are called "the temple of God" (1 Cor. 3:16, 17). The Church is
designated "an holy temple in the Lord" (Eph. 2:21). Heaven is
also called a temple (Rev. 7:5). We read also of the heathen
"temple of the great goddess Diana" (Acts 19:27).
This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house
erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It
is called "the temple" (1 Kings 6:17); "the temple [R.V.,
'house'] of the Lord" (2 Kings 11:10); "thy holy temple" (Ps.
79:1); "the house of the Lord" (2 Chr. 23:5, 12); "the house of
the God of Jacob" (Isa. 2:3); "the house of my glory" (60:7); an
"house of prayer" (56:7; Matt. 21:13); "an house of sacrifice"
(2 Chr. 7:12); "the house of their sanctuary" (2 Chr. 36:17);
"the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isa. 2:2); "our holy and our
beautiful house" (64:11); "the holy mount" (27:13); "the palace
for the Lord God" (1 Chr. 29:1); "the tabernacle of witness" (2
Chr. 24:6); "Zion" (Ps. 74:2; 84:7). Christ calls it "my
Father's house" (John 2:16).
This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New
Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6), and in each case is
followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father."
It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It
has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into
European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."
was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by
the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. Till then the
New Testament economy did not exist. John's baptism bound its
subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ. It was
not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John
baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24; 19:7).
invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection
of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which
we usually call the Old Testament (2 Tim. 3:15, 16; John 20:9;
Gal. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:20). It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate
his revealed will. From time to time he raised up men to commit
to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave. The
"Scripture," or collection of sacred writings, was thus enlarged
from time to time as God saw necessary. We have now a completed
"Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments. The Old
Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same
as that which we now possess under that name. He placed the seal
of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all
equally given by inspiration (Matt. 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Luke
16:29, 31). (See BIBLE T0000580; CANON T0000714.)
Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.)
Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isa. 5:14, elsewhere
"statute." (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jer. 13:25, elsewhere "garment."
(c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Ex. 26:2,
8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Lev. 19:35; 1 Chr. 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jer.
30:11, elsewhere "judgment." (f) Mithkoneth and token, Ezek.
45:11. (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus
rendered (Matt. 7:2; 23:32; Mark 4:24).
(2.) Those which are definite. (a) 'Eyphah, Deut. 25:14, 15,
usually "ephah." (b) Ammah, Jer. 51:13, usually "cubit." (c)
Kor, 1 Kings 4:22, elsewhere "cor;" Greek koros, Luke 16:7. (d)
Seah, Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam. 25:18, a seah; Greek saton, Matt. 13:33;
Luke 13:21. (e) Shalish, "a great measure," Isa. 40:12;
literally a third, i.e., of an ephah. (f) In New Testament
batos, Luke 16:6, the Hebrew "bath;" and choinix, Rev. 6:6, the
choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius.
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations
except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and
more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it
acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of
In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning
literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1, 3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14),
generally denotes any non-Jewish nation.
Tongues, Confusion of
at Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their
division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to
prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language"
(Gen. 11:1-8), and they were scattered over the whole earth.
Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one
speech." (See SHINAR T0003389.)
the valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and
Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of
Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13, translate "of the
cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of
the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the
cedars which grew there. John 18:1, "Cedron," only here in New
Testament. (See KIDRON T0002187.)
hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which
found a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old
Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made
from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to
be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word.
(1.) They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers,
who frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles
confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which
was the same in all respects as we now have it.
(2.) These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and
during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after
which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the
(3.) The contents of the books themselves show that they were
no part of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of
fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the
Maccabees (q.v.), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the
Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit,
The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive
literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic
origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard.
The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an
early time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by
the ancient Hebrews into 54 "parshioth" or sections, one of
which was read in the synagogue every Sabbath day (Acts. 13:15).
These sections were afterwards divided into 669 "sidrim" or
orders of unequal length. The Prophets were divided in somewhat
the same manner into "haphtaroth" or passages.
In the early Latin and Greek versions of the Bible, similar
divisions of the several books were made. The New Testament
books were also divided into portions of various lengths under
different names, such as titles and heads or chapters.
In modern times this ancient example was imitated, and many
attempts of the kind were made before the existing division into
chapters was fixed. The Latin Bible published by Cardinal Hugo
of St. Cher in A.D. 1240 is generally regarded as the first
Bible that was divided into our present chapters, although it
appears that some of the chapters were fixed as early as A.D.
1059. This division into chapters came gradually to be adopted
in the published editions of the Hebrew, with some few
variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other
the tiara of a king (Ezek. 21:26; Isa. 28:5; 62:3); the turban
(Job 29:14). In the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn
between the diadem as a badge of royalty (Rev. 12:3; 13:1;
19:12) and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life.
It is not known what the ancient Jewish "diadem" was. It was the
mark of Oriental sovereigns. (See CROWN T0000929.)
Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two
sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for
two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is
"tsippor", which properly denotes the whole family of small
birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The
Greek word of the New Testament is "strouthion" (Matt.
10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.
the apostolic letters. The New Testament contains twenty-one in
all. They are divided into two classes. (1.) Paul's Epistles,
fourteen in number, including Hebrews. These are not arranged in
the New Testament in the order of time as to their composition,
but rather according to the rank of the cities or places to
which they were sent. Who arranged them after this manner is
unknown. Paul's letters were, as a rule, dictated to an
amanuensis, a fact which accounts for some of their
peculiarities. He authenticated them, however, by adding a few
words in his own hand at the close. (See GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO
The epistles to Timothy and Titus are styled the Pastoral
(2.) The Catholic or General Epistles, so called because they
are not addressed to any particular church or city or
individual, but to Christians in general, or to Christians in
several countries. Of these, three are written by John, two by
Peter, and one each by James and Jude.
It is an interesting and instructive fact that a large portion
of the New Testament is taken up with epistles. The doctrines of
Christianity are thus not set forth in any formal treatise, but
mainly in a collection of letters. "Christianity was the first
great missionary religion. It was the first to break the bonds
of race and aim at embracing all mankind. But this necessarily
involved a change in the mode in which it was presented. The
prophet of the Old Testament, if he had anything to communicate,
either appeared in person or sent messengers to speak for him by
word of mouth. The narrow limits of Israel made direct
personal communication easy. But the case was different when the
Christian Church came to consist of a number of scattered parts,
stretching from Mesopotamia in the east to Rome or even Spain in
the far west. It was only natural that the apostle by whom the
greater number of these communities had been founded should seek
to communicate with them by letter."
The first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the
first-born of man and animals.
The law required, (1.) That on the morrow after the Passover
Sabbath a sheaf of new corn should be waved by the priest before
the altar (Lev. 23:5, 6, 10, 12; 2:12).
(2.) That at the feast of Pentecost two loaves of leavened
bread, made from the new flour, were to be waved in like manner
(Lev. 23:15, 17; Num. 28:26).
(3.) The feast of Tabernacles was an acknowledgement that the
fruits of the harvest were from the Lord (Ex. 23:16; 34:22).
(4.) Every individual, besides, was required to consecrate to
God a portion of the first-fruits of the land (Ex. 22:29; 23:19;
34:26; Num. 15:20, 21).
(5.) The law enjoined that no fruit was to be gathered from
newly-planted fruit-trees for the first three years, and that
the first-fruits of the fourth year were to be consecrated to
the Lord (Lev. 19:23-25). Jeremiah (2:3) alludes to the
ordinance of "first-fruits," and hence he must have been
acquainted with the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers,
where the laws regarding it are recorded.
the holy writings, a term which came early into use in the
Christian church to denote the third division of the Old
Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e.,
"Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and
Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews
classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the
Kethubim, or Writings. (See BIBLE T0000580.)
In the New Testament (Luke 24:44) we find three corresponding
divisions, viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or
service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were
thus consecrated (Ex. 13:2, 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews
devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of
war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, 29). According to the Mosaic law
the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God.
In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated
to the Lord (1 Pet. 2:9).
the red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and
Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking
toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7; 18:17. It was nearly
half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name
of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place
referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke
10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and
carriages for the first time have come along this road from
i.e., "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament (Acts 2:1;
20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). The festival so named is first spoken of in
Ex. 23:16 as "the feast of harvest," and again in Ex. 34:22 as
"the day of the firstfruits" (Num. 28:26). From the sixteenth of
the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven
complete weeks, i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and
this feast was held on the fiftieth day. The manner in which it
was to be kept is described in Lev. 23:15-19; Num. 28:27-29.
Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion, every one
was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a free-will offering"
(Deut. 16:9-11). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate
the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature
was the offering of "two leavened loaves" made from the new corn
of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved
before the Lord as a thank offering.
The day of Pentecost is noted in the Christian Church as the
day on which the Spirit descended upon the apostles, and on
which, under Peter's preaching, so many thousands were converted
in Jerusalem (Acts 2).
the name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to
the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names
by which the disciples were known among themselves were
"brethren," "the faithful," "elect," "saints," "believers." But
as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name
"Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted. This
name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26;
26:28; 1 Pet. 4:16).
a small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle (1 Sam.
17:40); "a shepherd's bag."
In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr. pera, which
was a bag carried by travellers and shepherds, generally made of
skin (Matt. 10:10; Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; 10:4). The name "scrip"
is meant to denote that the bag was intended to hold scraps,
fragments, as if scraped off from larger articles, trifles.
a method of taking away life practised among the Egyptians (Gen.
40:17-19). There are instances of this mode of punishment also
among the Hebrews (2 Sam. 4:8; 20:21,22; 2 Kings 10:6-8). It is
also mentioned in the New Testament (Matt. 14:8-12; Acts 12:2).
(Heb. mashiah), in all the thirty-nine instances of its
occurring in the Old Testament, is rendered by the LXX.
"Christos." It means anointed. Thus priests (Ex. 28:41; 40:15;
Num. 3:3), prophets (1 Kings 19:16), and kings (1 Sam. 9:16;
16:3; 2 Sam. 12:7) were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to
their respective offices. The great Messiah is anointed "above
his fellows" (Ps. 45:7); i.e., he embraces in himself all the
three offices. The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in
the New Testament, in John 1:41 and 4:25 (R.V., "Messiah"), and
in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the
Hebrew, occurs only twice (Dan 9:25, 26; R.V., "the anointed
The first great promise (Gen. 3:15) contains in it the germ of
all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the
coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on
earth. The prophecies became more definite and fuller as the
ages rolled on; the light shone more and more unto the perfect
day. Different periods of prophetic revelation have been pointed
out, (1) the patriarchal; (2) the Mosaic; (3) the period of
David; (4) the period of prophetism, i.e., of those prophets
whose works form a part of the Old Testament canon. The
expectations of the Jews were thus kept alive from generation to
generation, till the "fulness of the times," when Messiah came,
"made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were
under the law." In him all these ancient prophecies have their
fulfilment. Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the great
Deliverer who was to come. (Compare Matt. 26:54; Mark 9:12; Luke
18:31; 22:37; John 5:39; Acts 2; 16:31; 26:22, 23.)
Heb. demeshek, "damask," silk cloth manufactured at Damascus,
Amos 3:12. A.V., "in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a
couch;" R.V., "in the corner of a couch, and on the silken
cushions of a bed" (marg., "in Damascus on a bed").
Heb. meshi, (Ezek. 16:10, 13, rendered "silk"). In Gen. 41:42
(marg. A.V.), Prov. 31:22 (R.V., "fine linen"), the word "silk"
ought to be "fine linen."
Silk was common in New Testament times (Rev. 18:12).
(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of
the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Ex.
28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev.
21:18, 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11).
It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).
new city, a town in Thrace at which Paul first landed in Europe
(Acts 16:11). It was the sea-port of the inland town of
Philippi, which was distant about 10 miles. From this port Paul
embarked on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 20:6). It is
identified with the modern Turco-Grecian Kavalla.
(1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; 30:29). The Hebrew word
halil, so rendered, means "bored through," and is the name given
to various kinds of wind instruments, as the fife, flute,
Pan-pipes, etc. In Amos 6:5 this word is rendered "instrument of
music." This instrument is mentioned also in the New Testament
(Matt. 11:17; 1 Cor. 14:7). It is still used in Israel, and
is, as in ancient times, made of different materials, as reed,
copper, bronze, etc.
applied in the New Testament to the traditions and speculations,
"cunningly devised fables", of the Jews on religious questions
(1 Tim. 1:4; 4:7; 2 Tim. 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Pet. 1:16). In such
passages the word means anything false and unreal. But the word
is used as almost equivalent to parable. Thus we have (1) the
fable of Jotham, in which the trees are spoken of as choosing a
king (Judg. 9:8-15); and (2) that of the cedars of Lebanon and
the thistle as Jehoash's answer to Amaziah (2 Kings 14:9).
The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity, although no special
mention is made of it in the Old Testament. The Hebrews probably
learned it from the Egyptians (see Ex. 26:1; 28:5-8), who
brought it to great perfection. In New Testament times Thyatira
was famed for its dyers (Acts 16:14). (See COLOUR T0000868.)
the lovable; my delight, the wife of Elimelech, and mother of
Mahlon and Chilion, and mother-in-law of Ruth (1:2, 20, 21;
2:1). Elimelech and his wife left the district of
Bethlehem-Judah, and found a new home in the uplands of Moab. In
course of time he died, as also his two sons Mahlon and Chilion,
who had married women of Moab, and three widows were left
mourning the loss of their husbands. Naomi longs to return now
to her own land, to Bethlehem. One of her widowed
daughters-in-law, Ruth, accompanies her, and is at length
married to Boaz (q.v.).
(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an
umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively
cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25,
27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, where
our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who
were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin,"
while they omitted the weightier matters of the law." "It is
used as a spice, both bruised, to mix with bread, and also
boiled, in the various messes and stews which compose an
Oriental banquet." Tristram, Natural History.
a scarcity of provisions (1 Kings 17). There were frequent
dearths in Israel. In the days of Abram there was a "famine
in the land" (Gen. 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (47:4,
13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth
1:1), and of the kings (2 Sam. 21:1; 1 Kings 18:2; 2 Kings 4:38;
In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in
Israel (Acts 11:28) in the fourth year of the reign of the
emperor Claudius (A.D. 44 and 45).
the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense
the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon
heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more
special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine
grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things
pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak
of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (16:19-34), of Paul
(9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (8:26-40), of Cornelius
(10), of Lydia (16:13-15), and others. (See REGENERATION
Ezra, Book of
This book is the record of events occurring at the close of the
Babylonian exile. It was at one time included in Nehemiah, the
Jews regarding them as one volume. The two are still
distinguished in the Vulgate version as I. and II. Esdras. It
consists of two principal divisions:
(1.) The history of the first return of exiles, in the first
year of Cyrus (B.C. 536), till the completion and dedication of
the new temple, in the sixth year of Darius Hystapes (B.C. 515),
ch. 1-6. From the close of the sixth to the opening of the
seventh chapter there is a blank in the history of about sixty
(2.) The history of the second return under Ezra, in the
seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and of the events that
took place at Jerusalem after Ezra's arrival there (7-10).
The book thus contains memorabilia connected with the Jews,
from the decree of Cyrus (B.C. 536) to the reformation by Ezra
(B.C. 456), extending over a period of about eighty years.
There is no quotation from this book in the New Testament, but
there never has been any doubt about its being canonical. Ezra
was probably the author of this book, at least of the greater
part of it (compare 7:27, 28; 8:1, etc.), as he was also of the
Books of Chronicles, the close of which forms the opening
passage of Ezra.
a judge. (1.) The fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah,
Rachel's maid (Gen. 30:6, "God hath judged me", Heb. dananni).
The blessing pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall
judge his people" (49:16), probably in allusion to the judgeship
of Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan.
The tribe of Dan had their place in the march through the
wilderness on the north side of the tabernacle (Num. 2:25, 31;
10:25). It was the last of the tribes to receive a portion in
the Land of Promise. Its position and extent are described in
The territory of Dan extended from the west of that of Ephraim
and Benjamin to the sea. It was a small territory, but was very
fertile. It included in it, among others, the cities of Lydda,
Ekron, and Joppa, which formed its northern boundary. But this
district was too limited. "Squeezed into the narrow strip
between the mountains and the sea, its energies were great
beyond its numbers." Being pressed by the Amorites and the
Philistines, whom they were unable to conquer, they longed for a
wider space. They accordingly sent out five spies from two of
their towns, who went north to the sources of the Jordan, and
brought back a favourable report regarding that region. "Arise,"
they said, "be not slothful to go, and to possess the land," for
it is "a place where there is no want of any thing that is in
the earth" (Judg. 18:10). On receiving this report, 600 Danites
girded on their weapons of war, and taking with them their wives
and their children, marched to the foot of Hermon, and fought
against Leshem, and took it from the Sidonians, and dwelt
therein, and changed the name of the conquered town to Dan
(Josh. 19:47). This new city of Dan became to them a new home,
and was wont to be spoken of as the northern limit of Israel,
the length of which came to be denoted by the expression "from
Dan to Beersheba", i.e., about 144 miles.
"But like Lot under a similar temptation, they seem to have
succumbed to the evil influences around them, and to have sunk
down into a condition of semi-heathenism from which they never
emerged. The mounds of ruins which mark the site of the city
show that it covered a considerable extent of ground. But there
remains no record of any noble deed wrought by the degenerate
tribe. Their name disappears from the roll-book of the natural
and the spiritual Israel.", Manning's Those Holy Fields.
This old border city was originally called Laish. Its modern
name is Tell el-Kady, "Hill of the Judge." It stands about four
miles below Caesarea Philippi, in the midst of a region of
surpassing richness and beauty.
(2.) This name occurs in Ezek 27:19, Authorize Version; but
the words there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised
Version, "Vedan," an Arabian city, from which various kinds of
merchandise were brought to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been
the city of Aden in Arabia. (See MAHANEH-DAN T0002375.)
one who farmed the taxes (e.g., Zacchaeus, Luke 19:2) to be
levied from a town or district, and thus undertook to pay to the
supreme government a certain amount. In order to collect the
taxes, the publicans employed subordinates (5:27; 15:1; 18:10),
who, for their own ends, were often guilty of extortion and
peculation. In New Testament times these taxes were paid to the
Romans, and hence were regarded by the Jews as a very heavy
burden, and hence also the collectors of taxes, who were
frequently Jews, were hated, and were usually spoken of in very
opprobrious terms. Jesus was accused of being a "friend of
publicans and sinners" (Luke 7:34).
is used in the LXX. for "stranger" (1 Chr. 22:2), i.e., a comer
to Israel; a sojourner in the land (Ex. 12:48; 20:10; 22:21),
and in the New Testament for a convert to Judaism. There were
such converts from early times (Isa. 56:3; Neh. 10:28; Esther
8:17). The law of Moses made specific regulations regarding the
admission into the Jewish church of such as were not born
Israelites (Ex. 20:10; 23:12; 12:19, 48; Deut. 5:14; 16:11, 14,
etc.). The Kenites, the Gibeonites, the Cherethites, and the
Pelethites were thus admitted to the privileges of Israelites.
Thus also we hear of individual proselytes who rose to positions
of prominence in Israel, as of Doeg the Edomite, Uriah the
Hittite, Araunah the Jebusite, Zelek the Ammonite, Ithmah and
Ebedmelech the Ethiopians.
In the time of Solomon there were one hundred and fifty-three
thousand six hundred strangers in the land of Israel (1 Chr.
22:2; 2 Chr. 2:17, 18). And the prophets speak of the time as
coming when the strangers shall share in all the privileges of
Israel (Ezek. 47:22; Isa. 2:2; 11:10; 56:3-6; Micah 4:1).
Accordingly, in New Testament times, we read of proselytes in
the synagogues, (Acts 10:2, 7; 13:42, 43, 50; 17:4; 18:7; Luke
7:5). The "religious proselytes" here spoken of were proselytes
of righteousness, as distinguished from proselytes of the gate.
The distinction between "proselytes of the gate" (Ex. 20:10)
and "proselytes of righteousness" originated only with the
rabbis. According to them, the "proselytes of the gate" (half
proselytes) were not required to be circumcised nor to comply
with the Mosaic ceremonial law. They were bound only to conform
to the so-called seven precepts of Noah, viz., to abstain from
idolatry, blasphemy, bloodshed, uncleaness, the eating of blood,
theft, and to yield obedience to the authorities. Besides these
laws, however, they were required to abstain from work on the
Sabbath, and to refrain from the use of leavened bread during
the time of the Passover.
The "proselytes of righteousness", religious or devout
proselytes (Acts 13:43), were bound to all the doctrines and
precepts of the Jewish economy, and were members of the
synagogue in full communion.
The name "proselyte" occurs in the New Testament only in Matt.
23:15; Acts 2:10; 6:5; 13:43. The name by which they are
commonly designated is that of "devout men," or men "fearing
God" or "worshipping God."
In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2 Sam. 16:23, to
denote the most holy place in the temple (1 Kings 6:5, 19-23;
8:6). In 2 Sam. 16:23 it means the Word of God. A man inquired
"at the oracle of God" by means of the Urim and Thummim in the
breastplate on the high priest's ephod. In the New Testament it
is used only in the plural, and always denotes the Word of God
(Rom. 3:2; Heb. 5:12, etc.). The Scriptures are called "living
oracles" (compare Heb. 4:12) because of their quickening power
Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, as one of the precious stones in
the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is
derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first
discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an
agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian
ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew
"nophekh", translated "emerald" (Ex. 28:18; 39:11; Ezek. 27:16;
28:13). It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX., and "carbunculus"
in the Vulgate. (See CARBUNCLE T0000721.)
a town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New
Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in
healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of
Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old
Testament (1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the
Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of
Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint
of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.
the Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of
the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings
(Matt. 8:16; 10:1; 12:43-45) at enmity with God, and as having a
certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev. 16:14). They recognize
our Lord as the Son of God (Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong
to the number of those angels that "kept not their first
estate," "unclean spirits," "fallen angels," the angels of the
devil (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7-9). They are the "principalities
and powers" against which we must "wrestle" (Eph. 6:12).
Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed
between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The former is (1) a Greek
by race (Acts 16:1-3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14), or (2) a Gentile as
opposed to a Jew (Rom. 2:9, 10). The latter, meaning properly
"one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew
who dwelt in Israel.
The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting
the heathen Greeks of that city, as rendered in the Revised
Version according to the reading of the best manuscripts
one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest
(Ex. 28:19; 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
(Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power
of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and
hence its Greek name formed from "a", "privative," and "methuo",
"to get drunk." Its Jewish name, "ahlamah'", was derived by the
rabbins from the Hebrew word "halam", "to dream," from its
supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.
It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark
purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different
parts of Europe.
involves more than a mere moral reformation of character,
brought about by the power of the truth: it is the work of the
Holy Spirit bringing the whole nature more and more under the
influences of the new gracious principles implanted in the soul
in regeneration. In other words, sanctification is the carrying
on to perfection the work begun in regeneration, and it extends
to the whole man (Rom. 6:13; 2 Cor. 4:6; Col. 3:10; 1 John 4:7;
1 Cor. 6:19). It is the special office of the Holy Spirit in the
plan of redemption to carry on this work (1 Cor. 6:11; 2 Thess.
2:13). Faith is instrumental in securing sanctification,
inasmuch as it (1) secures union to Christ (Gal. 2:20), and (2)
brings the believer into living contact with the truth, whereby
he is led to yield obedience "to the commands, trembling at the
threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life
and that which is to come."
Perfect sanctification is not attainable in this life (1 Kings
8:46; Prov. 20:9; Eccl. 7:20; James 3:2; 1 John 1:8). See Paul's
account of himself in Rom. 7:14-25; Phil. 3:12-14; and 1 Tim.
1:15; also the confessions of David (Ps. 19:12, 13; 51), of
Moses (90:8), of Job (42:5, 6), and of Daniel (9:3-20). "The
more holy a man is, the more humble, self-renouncing,
self-abhorring, and the more sensitive to every sin he becomes,
and the more closely he clings to Christ. The moral
imperfections which cling to him he feels to be sins, which he
laments and strives to overcome. Believers find that their life
is a constant warfare, and they need to take the kingdom of
heaven by storm, and watch while they pray. They are always
subject to the constant chastisement of their Father's loving
hand, which can only be designed to correct their imperfections
and to confirm their graces. And it has been notoriously the
fact that the best Christians have been those who have been the
least prone to claim the attainment of perfection for
themselves.", Hodge's Outlines.
in the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence
used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2;
1 Cor. 1:17, 18; Gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18). The word is
also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38;
16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).
The forms in which the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of
cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the
projecting beam, was placed the "title." (See CRUCIFIXION
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great
(B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of
Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a
flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc
signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that
on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him
to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a
new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and
borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman
army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the
embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek
letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and
Omega. (See A T0000001.)
Host of heaven
The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the
Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deut. 4:19; 2
Kings 17:16; 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts 7:42).
Queen of heaven
(Jer. 7:18; 44:17, 25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as
the receptive power in nature.
Son of man
(1.) Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their
weakness and frailty (Job 25:6; Ps. 8:4; 144:3; 146:3; Isa.
(2.) It is a title frequently given to the prophet Ezekiel,
probably to remind him of his human weakness.
(3.) In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a
distinctive title of the Saviour. In the Old Testament it is
used only in Ps. 80:17 and Dan. 7:13 with this application. It
denotes the true humanity of our Lord. He had a true body (Heb.
2:14; Luke 24:39) and a rational soul. He was perfect man.
(Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community
(Num. 15:15). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and
upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in
the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Ex.
12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1-3), admitted to the privileges of
citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Ex.
12:19; Num. 9:14; 15:15). The congregation were summonded
together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met at
the door of the tabernacle (Num. 10:3). These assemblies were
convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious
services (Ex. 12:27; Num. 25:6; Joel 2:15), or of receiving new
commandments (Ex. 19:7, 8). The elders, who were summonded by
the sound of one trumpet (Num. 10:4), represented on various
occasions the whole congregation (Ex. 3:16; 12:21; 17:5; 24:1).
After the conquest of Canaan, the people were assembled only
on occasions of the highest national importance (Judg. 20; 2
Chr. 30:5; 34:29; 1 Sam. 10:17; 2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Kings 12:20; 2
Kings 11:19; 21:24; 23:30). In subsequent times the congregation
was represented by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue,
applied in the Septuagint version exclusively to the
congregation, came to be used to denote the places of worship
established by the Jews. (See CHURCH T0000828.)
In Acts 13:43, where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it
is the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (q.v.) in ver. 42,
and is so rendered in ver. 43 in R.V.