the capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence
of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on
their first missionary tour (Acts 13:6). It is new Paphos which
is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8
miles north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.
"the chief man of the island" of Malta (Acts 28:7), who
courteously entertained Paul and his shipwrecked companions for
three days, till they found a more permanent place of residence;
for they remained on the island for three months, till the
stormy season had passed. The word here rendered "chief man"
(protos) is supposed by some to be properly a Maltese term, the
official title of the governor.
a small rocky and barren island, one of the group called the
"Sporades," in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned in Scripture only
in Rev. 1:9. It was on this island, to which John was banished
by the emperor Domitian (A.D. 95), that he received from God the
wondrous revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally
invested it with the deepest interest for all time. It is now
called Patmo. (See JOHN T0002088.)
(Acts 27:28), an island in the Mediterranean, the modern Malta.
Here the ship in which Paul was being conveyed a prisoner to
Rome was wrecked. The bay in which it was wrecked now bears the
name of "St. Paul's Bay", "a certain creek with a shore." It is
about 2 miles deep and 1 broad, and the whole physical condition
of the scene answers the description of the shipwreck given in
Acts 28. It was originally colonized by Phoenicians
("barbarians," 28:2). It came into the possession of the Greeks
(B.C. 736), from whom it was taken by the Carthaginians (B.C.
528). In B.C. 242 it was conquered by the Romans, and was
governed by a Roman propraetor at the time of the shipwreck
(Acts 28:7). Since 1800, when the French garrison surrendered to
the English force, it has been a British dependency. The island
is about 17 miles long and 9 wide, and about 60 in
circumference. After a stay of three months on this island,
during which the "barbarians" showed them no little kindness,
Julius procured for himself and his company a passage in another
Alexandrian corn-ship which had wintered in the island, in which
they proceeded on their voyage to Rome (Acts 28:13, 14).
a city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still
found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of "Fair Havens."
a small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul
on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:16). It is about 7 miles long and
3 broad. It is now called Gozzo (R.V., "Cauda").
now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the
Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one
time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred
cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's
quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his
epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts,
slow bellies" (Titus 1:12). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on
the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). The island was visited by Paul
on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left
Titus (1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was
the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.
wandering, (Ezek. 27:8), a small island and city on the coast of
Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre.
The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written
Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.
an island in the AEgean Sea, which Paul passed on his voyage
from Assos to Miletus (Acts 20:15), on his third missionary
journey. It is about 27 miles long and 20 broad, and lies about
42 miles south-west of Smyrna.
mentioned in Acts 20:15, an island in the Aegean Sea, about 5
miles distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the
shelter of which Paul and his companions anchored for a night
when on his third missionary return journey. It is now called
a rose, an island to the south of the western extremity of Asia
Minor, between Coos and Patara, about 46 miles long and 18 miles
broad. Here the apostle probably landed on his way from Greece
to Syria (Acts 21:1), on returning from his third missionary
(written Cos in the R.V.), a small island, one of the Sporades
in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of
Caria. Paul on his return from his third missionary journey,
passed the night here after sailing from Miletus (Acts 21:1). It
is now called Stanchio.
an island in the AEgean Sea, off the coast of Thracia, about 32
miles distant. This Thracian Samos was passed by Paul on his
voyage from Troas to Neapolis (Acts 16:11) on his first
missionary journey. It is about 8 miles long and 6 miles broad.
Its modern name is Samothraki.
a wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the
island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh.
It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts
21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2)
and Myra (27:5).
the chief city of the island of Lesbos, on its east coast, in
the AEgean Sea. Paul, during his third missionary journey,
touched at this place on his way from Corinth to Judea (Acts
20:14), and here tarried for a night. It lies between Assos and
Chios. It is now under the Turkish rule, and bears the name of
a sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia,
on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither
on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, 14), a
distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas
by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles
leaders, a race descended from Javan (Gen. 10:4). They are known
in profane history as the Dardani, originally inhabiting
Illyricum. They were a semi-Pelasgic race, and in the
ethnographical table (Gen. 10) they are grouped with the Chittim
(q.v.). In 1 Chr. 1:7, they are called Rodanim. The LXX. and the
Samaritan Version also read Rhodii, whence some have concluded
that the Rhodians, the inhabitants of the island of Rhodes, are
(Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual
signification (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12, 15, compare Jer. 47:4), but more
frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa.
20:6, R.V.," coastland;" 23:2, 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, 7).
(See CHITTIM T0000811.) The shores of the Mediterranean are
called the "islands of the sea" (Isa. 11:11), or the "isles of
the Gentiles" (Gen. 10:5), and sometimes simply "isles" (Ps.
72:10); Ezek. 26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan. 11:18).
one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles
long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian
coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament (Num. 24:24).
The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros, from the cyprus,
i.e., the henna (see CAMPHIRE T0000701), which grew on this
island. It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In B.C. 477
it fell under the dominion of the Greeks; and became a Roman
province B.C. 58. In ancient times it was a centre of great
commercial activity. Corn and wine and oil were produced here in
the greatest perfection. It was rich also in timber and in
It is first mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 4:36) as the
native place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul's first
missionary labors (13:4-13), when he and Barnabas and John Mark
were sent forth by the church of Antioch. It was afterwards
visited by Barnabas and Mark alone (15:39). Mnason, an "old
disciple," probaly one of the converts of the day of Pentecost
belonging to this island, is mentioned (21:16). It is also
mentioned in connection with the voyages of Paul (Acts 21:3;
27:4). After being under the Turks for three hundred years, it
was given up to the British Government in 1878.
stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30
miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of
Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the
extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over
by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New
Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the
Israelites (Deut. 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the
Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space
of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive.
Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without
cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron;
the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by
ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having
been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have
more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken
possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace.
Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect,
as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs
unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These
ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest
specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant
Cities). (See BASHAN T0000461.)
a "prudent man" (R.V., "man of understanding"), the deputy
(R.V., "proconsul") of Cyprus (Acts 13:6-13). He became a
convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on
his first mission to the heathen.
A remarkable memorial of this proconsul was recently (1887)
discovered at Rome. On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is
found, among others, as having been appointed (A.D. 47) one of
the curators of the banks and the channel of the river Tiber.
After serving his three years as proconsul at Cyprus, he
returned to Rome, where he held the office referred to. As he is
not saluted in Paul's letter to the Romans, he probably died
before it was written.
(Heb. copher), mentioned in Cant. 1:14 (R.V., "henna-flowers");
4:13 (R.V., "henna"), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of
Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous
flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum. From its leaves is
made the peculiar auburn dye with which Eastern women stain
their nails and the palms of their hands. It is found only at
Engedi, on the shore of the Dead Sea. It is known to botanists
by the name Lawsonia alba or inermis, a kind of privet, which
grows 6 or 8 feet high. The margin of the Authorized Version of
the passages above referred to has "or cypress," not with
reference to the conifer so called, but to the circumstance that
one of the most highly appreciated species of this plant grew in
the island of Cyprus.
(Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17), Heb. shalak, "plunging," or "darting
down," (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean"
birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a
"plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas
of Israel. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered
"gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is
the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of
Israel as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley
during several months of the year. But there is no reason to
depart from the ordinary rendering.
In Isa. 34:11, Zeph. 2:14 (but in R.V., "pelican") the Hebrew
word rendered by this name is "ka'ath". It is translated
"pelican" (q.v.) in Ps. 102:6. The word literally means the
"vomiter," and the pelican is so called from its vomiting the
shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See
derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called
"Cyprian brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra
8:27. Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly
rendered "brass," and sometimes "steel" (2 Sam. 22:35; Jer.
15:12). The "bow of steel" (Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34) should have
been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the R.V.). The vessels
of "fine copper" of Ezra 8:27 were probably similar to those of
"bright brass" mentioned in 1 Kings 7:45; Dan. 10:6.
Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron (Gen.
4:22). Hiram was noted as a worker in brass (1 Kings 7:14).
Copper abounded in Israel (Deut. 8:9; Isa. 60:17; 1 Chr.
22:3, 14). All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle and the temple
were made of it (Lev. 6:28; Num. 16:39; 2 Chr. 4:16; Ezra 8:27);
also weapons of war (1 Sam. 17:5, 6, 38; 2 Sam. 21:16). Iron is
mentioned only four times (Gen. 4:22; Lev. 26:19; Num. 31:22;
35:16) in the first four books of Moses, while copper (rendered
"brass") is mentioned forty times. (See BRASS T0000641.)
We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a "coppersmith" of
Ephesus (2 Tim. 4:14).
a rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles,
in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon
was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more
illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was
gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the
first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and
they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring
islands of the AEgean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of
Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in
Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at
Gadeira (Cadiz)" (Driver's Isaiah). In the time of David a
friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the
Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings (2 Sam.
5:11; 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chr. 2:3).
Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the
mainland, called "Old Tyre," and the city, built on a small,
rocky island about half-a-mile distant from the shore. It was a
place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was
assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and
by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586-573) for thirteen years, apparently
without success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander
the Great, after a siege of seven months, but continued to
maintain much of its commercial importance till the Christian
era. It is referred to in Matt. 11:21 and Acts 12:20. In A.D.
1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate
ruin ever since.
"The purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account
of the durability of its beautiful tints, and its manufacture
proved a source of abundant wealth to the inhabitants of that
Both Tyre and Sidon "were crowded with glass-shops, dyeing and
weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the
least important class were those who were celebrated for the
engraving of precious stones." (2 Chr. 2:7,14).
The wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently
denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted
(Isa. 23:1; Jer. 25:22; Ezek. 26; 28:1-19; Amos 1:9, 10; Zech.
Here a church was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and
Paul, on his return from his third missionary journey spent a
week in intercourse with the disciples there (Acts 21:4). Here
the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They all,
with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea-shore.
The sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38
miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea (Acts 21:5-8).
"It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1500, and
claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded about
B.C. 2700. It had two ports still existing, and was of
commercial importance in all ages, with colonies at Carthage
(about B.C. 850) and all over the Mediterranean. It was often
attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken by Alexander the Great
after a terrible siege in B.C. 332. It is now a town of 3,000
inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short
Phoenician text of the fourth century B.C. is the only monument