the red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and
Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking
toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7; 18:17. It was nearly
half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name
of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place
referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke
10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and
carriages for the first time have come along this road from
hot baths, a village "three-score furlongs" from jerusalem,
where our Lord had an interview with two of his disciples on the
day of his resurrection (Luke 24:13). This has been identified
with the modern el-Kubeibeh, lying over 7 miles north-west of
Jerusalem. This name, el-Kubeibeh, meaning "little dome," is
derived from the remains of the Crusaders' church yet to be
found there. Others have identified it with the modern Khurbet
Khamasa i.e., "the ruins of Khamasa", about 8 miles south-west
of Jerusalem, where there are ruins also of a Crusaders' church.
Its site, however has been much disputed.
house of the unripe fig, a village on the Mount of Olives, on
the road from Jerusalem to Jericho (Matt. 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke
19:29), and very close to Bethany. It was the limit of a
Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem, i.e., 2,000 cubits. It has
been identified with the modern Kefr-et-Tur.
(1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1
(2.) One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after
the return from Babylon (Neh. 3:10).
(3.) Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the
priests (1 Chr. 24:7).
(4.) A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile (1 Chr. 9:10).
reminding, or remembrancer, a Christian of Jerusalem with whom
Paul lodged (Acts 21:16). He was apparently a native of Cyprus,
like Barnabas (11:19, 20), and was well known to the Christians
of Caesarea (4:36). He was an "old disciple" (R.V., "early
disciple"), i.e., he had become a Christian in the beginning of
the formation of the Church in Jerusalem.
"the captain of the guard," in rank next to the king, who
appears prominent in directing affairs at the capture of
Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:8-20; Jer. 39:11; 40:2-5). He showed
kindness toward Jeremiah, as commanded by Nebuchadnezzar (40:1).
Five years after this he again came to Jerusalem and carried
captive seven hundred and forty-five more Jews.
a lowing, a place near Jerusalem, mentioned only in Jer. 31:39.
splendour, one of David's sons, born at Jerusalem (1 Chr. 3:7).
opened, a fountain and a stream issuing from it on the border
between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:8, 9; 18:15). It has been
identified with 'Ain Lifta, a spring about 2 1/2 miles
north-west of Jerusalem. Others, however, have identified it
with 'Ain' Atan, on the south-west of Bethlehem, whence water is
conveyed through "Pilate's aqueduct" to the Haram area at
judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of
Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7).
silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo
resided (Ezra 8:17); otherwise unknown.
work of Jehovah, one of the priests resident at Jerusalem at the
Captivity (1 Chr. 9:12).
honouring, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem (Acts 6:5).
Nothing further is known of him.
eloquent, a Levitical musician (Neh. 12:36) who took part in the
dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.
pure, one whose "sons" returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem
(Ezra 2:9; Neh. 7:14). (See ZABBAI T0003852.)
high place, a city of the priests, first mentioned in the
history of David's wanderings (1 Sam. 21:1). Here the tabernacle
was then standing, and here Ahimelech the priest resided. (See
AHIMELECH T0000143.) From Isa. 10:28-32 it seems to have been
near Jerusalem. It has been identified by some with el-Isawiyeh,
one mile and a half to the NE of Jerusalem. But
according to Isa. 10:28-32 it was on the south of Geba, on the
road to Jerusalem, and within sight of the city. This
identification does not meet these conditions, and hence others
(as Dean Stanley) think that it was the northern summit of Mount
Olivet, the place where David "worshipped God" when fleeing from
Absalom (2 Sam. 15:32), or more probably (Conder) that it was
the same as Mizpeh (q.v.), Judg. 20:1; Josh. 18:26; 1 Sam. 7:16,
at Nebi Samwil, about 5 miles north-west of Jerusalem.
After being supplied with the sacred loaves of showbread, and
girding on the sword of Goliath, which was brought forth from
behind the ephod, David fled from Nob and sought refuge at the
court of Achish, the king of Gath, where he was cast into
prison. (Compare titles of Ps. 34 and 56.)
lurking-place, one of the chief of the Nethinim, whose
descendants returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:47).
zeal of Jehovah, (Neh. 3:8) "of the goldsmiths," one whose son
helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem.
copper, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, and the wife of
Jehoiakin (2 Kings 24:8), king of Judah.
peace, commonly supposed to be another name of Jerusalem (Gen.
14:18; Ps. 76:2; Heb. 7:1, 2).
a Persian governor of Samaria, who joined others in the attempt
to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7).
the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The
king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He
was probably the Smerdis of profane history.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C.
458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years
(B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years
later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.
the son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem
and do the work of the temple (Neh. 11:13).
the black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below
the eastern wall of Jerusalem (John 18:1). (See KIDRON
tower of the flock, a place 2 miles south of Jerusalem, near the
Bethlehem road (Gen. 35:21). (See EDAR T0001126.)
a town of Benjamin, in the "plain of Ono" (1 Chr. 8:12; Ezra
2:33); now Kefr 'Ana, 5 miles north of Lydda, and about 30 miles
north-west of Jerusalem. Not succeeding in their attempts to
deter Nehemiah from rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, Sanballat
and Tobiah resorted to strategem, and pretending to wish a
conference with him, they invited him to meet them at Ono. Four
times they made the request, and every time Nehemiah refused to
come. Their object was to take him prisoner.
sunny; height, one of the eminences on which Jerusalem was
built. It was surrounded on all sides, except the north, by deep
valleys, that of the Tyropoeon (q.v.) separating it from Moriah
(q.v.), which it surpasses in height by 105 feet. It was the
south-eastern hill of Jerusalem.
When David took it from the Jebusites (Josh. 15:63; 2 Sam.
5:7) he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became "the
city of David" (1 Kings 8:1; 2 Kings 19:21, 31; 1 Chr. 11:5). In
the later books of the Old Testament this name was sometimes
used (Ps. 87:2; 149:2; Isa. 33:14; Joel 2:1) to denote Jerusalem
in general, and sometimes God's chosen Israel (Ps. 51:18; 87:5).
In the New Testament (see SION T0003448) it is used sometimes
to denote the Church of God (Heb. 12:22), and sometimes the
heavenly city (Rev. 14:1).
Obadiah, Book of
consists of one chapter, "concerning Edom," its impending doom
(1:1-16), and the restoration of Israel (1:17-21). This is the
shortest book of the Old Testament.
There are on record the account of four captures of Jerusalem,
(1) by Shishak in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:25); (2) by
the Philistines and Arabians in the reign of Jehoram (2 Chr.
21:16); (3) by Joash, the king of Israel, in the reign of
Amaziah (2 Kings 14:13); and (4) by the Babylonians, when
Jerusalem was taken and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586).
Obadiah (1:11-14) speaks of this capture as a thing past. He
sees the calamity as having already come on Jerusalem, and the
Edomites as joining their forces with those of the Chaldeans in
bringing about the degradation and ruin of Israel. We do not
indeed read that the Edomites actually took part with the
Chaldeans, but the probabilities are that they did so, and this
explains the words of Obadiah in denouncing against Edom the
judgments of God. The date of his prophecies was thus in or
about the year of the destruction of Jerusalem.
Edom is the type of Israel's and of God's last foe (Isa.
63:1-4). These will finally all be vanquished, and the kingdom
will be the Lord's (compare Ps. 22:28).
bitterness; i.e., "perfect grief", a place not far from
Jerusalem; mentioned in connection with the invasion of the
Assyrian army (Micah 1:12).
one of the gates in the north wall of Jerusalem, so called
because built by the Jebusites (Neh. 3:6; 12:39).
one of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to
Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" (Zech. 7:2).
hill of the wood, a place in Babylon from which some captive
Jews returned to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61).
governor of Moab, a person whose descendants returned from the
Captivity and assisted in rebuilding Jerusalem (Ezra 2:6; 8:4;
one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 32;
12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.
captor, son of Nahash of Rabbah, the Ammonite. He showed
kindness to David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim (2
Shaveh, Valley of
valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale"
(q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).
wanderer; pure. (1.) Ezra 10:28.
(2.) The father of Baruch, who "earnestly repaired" part of
the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:20; marg., "Zaccai").
bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were
loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem (Jer.
40:8, 13, 15, 16).
sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe
of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judg. 1:31). It was known
to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from
Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B.C. 100. Here
Paul landed on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). During
the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and
subsequently, on account of its being occupied by the Knights
Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was called St. Jean d'Acre, or
quick, "the Archite," "the king's friend" (1 Chr. 27:33). When
David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of
Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met
Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of
counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the
ranks of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:32, 37; 16:16-18). It was by his
advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after
David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it
gave David time to muster his forces.
Tiberias, Sea of
called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the
Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth.
John (21:1) is the only evangelist who so designates this lake.
His doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote
after the other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the
taking of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Tiberias had by this time become
an important city, having been spared by the Romans, and made
the capital of the province when Jerusalem was destroyed. It
thus naturally gave its name to the lake.
God has graciously given, a tower in the wall of Jerusalem (Neh.
3:1; 12:39). It is mentioned also in Jer. 31:38; Zech. 14:10.
a gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge,
leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28; Jer. 31:40).
Ephraim, Gate of
one of the gates of Jerusalem (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 25:23), on
the side of the city looking toward Ephraim, the north side.
whom God has graciously given, the cousin of Jeremiah, to whom
he sold the field he possessed in Anathoth, before the siege of
Jerusalem (Jer. 32:6-12).
city, a city belonging to Benjamin (Josh. 18:28), the modern
Kuriet el-'Enab, i.e., "city of grapes", about 7 1/2 miles
west-north-west of Jerusalem.
a town in the "plain" of Judah. It has been identified with Beit
Nuzib, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem, in the Wady Sur
chief of the Heads, one of the three officers whom Sennacherib
sent from Lachish with a threatening message to Jerusalem (2
Kings 18:17; Jer. 39:3, 13).
Shalim, Land of
land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem
(1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan
whom the Lord sets up, one of those "which came with Zerubbabel"
(Ezra 2:13). His "children," or retainers, to the number of 666,
came up to Jerusalem (8:13).
heaps, (1 Sam. 25:44; Isa. 10:30). The native place of Phalti,
to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin,
to the north of Jerusalem.
Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to
Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision (Ezek. 48:35). It was
a type of the gospel Church.
Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version,
"The LORD our righteousness," a title given to the Messiah (Jer.
23:6, marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, marg.).
David, City of
(1.) David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion.
He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1 Chr.
11:7). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and
royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem
generally (1 Kings 3:1; 8:1), It was on the south-west side of
Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was
connected by a bridge over the Tyropoeon valley.
(2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4, 11),
because it was David's birthplace and early home (1 Sam.
(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source
of living water. Israel was a "land of brooks of water, of
fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills"
(Deut. 8:7; 11:11).
These fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are
remarkable for their abundance and their beauty, especially on
the west of Jordan. All the perennial rivers and streams of the
country are supplied from fountains, and depend comparatively
little on surface water. "Israel is a country of mountains
and hills, and it abounds in fountains of water. The murmur of
these waters is heard in every dell, and the luxuriant foliage
which surrounds them is seen in every plain." Besides its
rain-water, its cisterns and fountains, Jerusalem had also an
abundant supply of water in the magnificent reservoir called
"Solomon's Pools" (q.v.), at the head of the Urtas valley,
whence it was conveyed to the city by subterrean channels some
10 miles in length. These have all been long ago destroyed, so
that no water from the "Pools" now reaches Jerusalem. Only one
fountain has been discovered at Jerusalem, the so-called
"Virgins's Fountains," in the valley of Kidron; and only one
well (Heb. beer), the Bir Eyub, also in the valley of Kidron,
south of the King's Gardens, which has been dug through the
solid rock. The inhabitants of Jerusalem are now mainly
dependent on the winter rains, which they store in cisterns.
(See WELL T0003803.)
friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled
Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zech. 7:2) to make
inquiries at the temple.
thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the
council at Jerusalem (Acts 5:36). He headed an insurrection
against the Roman authority. Beyond this nothing is known of
oppressed. (1.) A Levite porter (1 Chr. 9:17; Neh. 11:19).
(2.) One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel to
Jerusalem (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45); probably the same as (1).
the easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor.
Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1 Pet.
1:1). On the day of Pentecost there were Cappadocians at
Jerusalem (Acts 2:9).
an adversary. (1.) A son of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:24).
(2.) One of the chiefs sent by Ezra to bring up the priests to
Jerusalem (Ezra 8:16).
(3.) Ezra 10:18.
(Neh. 2:13), a gate of ancient Jerusalem, on the south-west
quarter. "The gate outside of which lay the piles of sweepings
and offscourings of the streets," in the valley of Tophet.
(Heb. always with the article, "the" Millo). (1.) Probably the
Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled
in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north
as its outermost defence. It is always rendered Akra i.e., "the
citadel", in the LXX. It was already existing when David
conquered Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:9). He extended it to the right
and left, thus completing the defence of the city. It was
rebuilt by Solomon (1 Kings 9:15, 24; 11:27) and repaired by
Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:5).
(2.) In Judg. 9:6, 20 it is the name of a rampart in Shechem,
probably the "tower of Shechem" (9:46, 49).
Nehemiah, Book of
The author of this book was no doubt Nehemiah himself. There are
portions of the book written in the first person (ch. 1-7;
12:27-47, and 13). But there are also portions of it in which
Nehemiah is spoken of in the third person (ch. 8; 9; 10). It is
supposed that these portions may have been written by Ezra; of
this, however, there is no distinct evidence. These portions had
their place assigned them in the book, there can be no doubt, by
Nehemiah. He was the responsible author of the whole book, with
the exception of ch. 12:11, 22, 23.
The date at which the book was written was probably about B.C.
431-430, when Nehemiah had returned the second time to Jerusalem
after his visit to Persia.
The book, which may historically be regarded as a continuation
of the book of Ezra, consists of four parts. (1.) An account of
the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register
Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon (ch.
1-7). (2.) An account of the state of religion among the Jews
during this time (8-10). (3.) Increase of the inhabitants of
Jerusalem; the census of the adult male population, and names of
the chiefs, together with lists of priests and Levites
(11-12:1-26). (4.) Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the
arrangement of the temple officers, and the reforms carried out
by Nehemiah (12:27-ch. 13).
This book closes the history of the Old Testament. Malachi the
prophet was contemporary with Nehemiah.
protected by Jehovah, the name of a town in the tribe of
Benjamin between Nob and Hazor (Neh. 11:32). It is probably the
modern Beit Hanina, a small village 3 miles north of Jerusalem.
Baale of Judah
lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David
brought the ark into Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2). Elsewhere (1 Chr.
13:6) called Kirjath-jearim. (See BAALAH T0000383.)
dwellers in tents, (Vulg. and LXX., "troglodites;" i.e.,
cave-dwellers in the hills along the Red Sea). Shiskak's army,
with which he marched against Jerusalem, was composed partly of
this tribe (2 Chr. 12:3).
scabby; itch. (1.) One of David's warriors (2 Sam. 23:38), an
(2.) A hill near Jerusalem (Jer. 31:39), probably the hill of
lepers, and consequently a place outside the boundary of the
cisterns, (rendered "pits," Jer. 14:3; "locusts," Isa. 33:4), a
small place north of Jerusalem, whose inhabitants fled at the
approach of the Assyrian army (Isa. 10:31). It is probably the
Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the
sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His "course" went up
from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
adorer of Nebo, or Nebo saves me, the "Rabsaris," or chief
chamberlain, of the court of Babylon. He was one of those whom
the king sent to release Jeremiah from prison in Jerusalem (Jer.
the heifer, a town in Benjamin (Josh. 18:23), supposed to be
identical with the ruins called Far'ah, about 6 miles NE
of Jerusalem, in the Wady Far'ah, which is a branch of the Wady
Tower of the furnaces
(Neh. 3:11; 12:38), a tower at the north-western angle of the
second wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its
contiguity to the "bakers' street" (Jer. 37:21).
flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in
connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at
Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7; 9:4, 5; 10:12).
(Zech. 14:5) should perhaps be rendered "very near" = "the way
of escape shall be made easy." If a proper name, it may denote
some place near the western extremity of the valley here spoken
of near Jerusalem.
common in later times among the Jews in Israel (Matt. 23:37;
Luke 13:34). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only
mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord's
lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem.
mortar, a place in or near Jerusalem inhabited by silver
merchants (Zeph. 1:11). It has been conjectured that it was the
"Phoenician quarter" of the city, where the traders of that
nation resided, after the Oriental custom.
rebellions. (1.) Father of Amariah, a high priest of the line of
Eleazar (1 Chr. 6:6, 7, 52).
(2.) Neh. 12:15, a priest who went to Jerusalem with
Zerubbabel. He is called Meremoth in Neh. 12:3.
exaltations, heights, a priest who returned from Babylon with
Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:3), to whom were sent the sacred vessels
(Ezra 8:33) belonging to the temple. He took part in rebuilding
the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:4).
fruitful, an ancient town on the northern frontier of Israel,
35 miles NE of Baalbec, and 10 or 12 south of Lake Homs,
on the eastern bank of the Orontes, in a wide and fertile plain.
Here Nebuchadnezzar had his head-quarters in his campaign
against Jerusalem, and here also Necho fixed his camp after he
had routed Josiah's army at Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29-35; 25:6, 20,
21; Jer. 39:5; 52:10). It was on the great caravan road from
Israel to Carchemish, on the Euphrates. It is described (Num.
34:11) as "on the eastern side of Ain." A place still called el
Ain, i.e., "the fountain", is found in such a position about 10
miles distant. (See JERUSALEM T0002043.)
my tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied
symbolically to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship
of the true God and given herself up to the idolatries of
foreign nations. (Ezek. 23:4, 11, 22, 36, 44).
Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus
did not speak Hebrew (Acts 6:1; 9:29), nor join in the Hebrew
services of the Jews in Israel, but had synagogues of their
own in Jerusalem. Joel 3:6 =Greeks.
fountain of gardens. (1.) A town in the plains of Judah (Josh.
15:34), north-west of Jerusalem, between Zanoah and Tappuah. It
is the modern Umm Jina.
(2.) A city on the border of Machar (Josh. 19:21), allotted to
the Gershonite Levites (21:29). It is identified with the modern
Jenin, a large and prosperous town of about 4,000 inhabitants,
situated 15 miles south of Mount Tabor, through which the road
from Jezreel to Samaria and Jerusalem passes. When Ahaziah, king
of Judah, attempted to escape from Jehu, he "fled by the way of
the garden house" i.e., by way of En-gannim. Here he was
overtaken by Jehu and wounded in his chariot, and turned aside
and fled to Megiddo, a distance of about 20 miles, to die there.
pitching of tents; fastening down, a town of Judah, about 12
miles south of Jerusalem, and visible from the city. From this
place Joab procured a "wise woman," who pretended to be in great
affliction, and skilfully made her case known to David. Her
address to the king was in the form of an apologue, similar to
that of Nathan (2 Sam. 12:1-6). The object of Joab was, by the
intervention of this woman, to induce David to bring back
Absalom to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 14:2, 4, 9).
This was also the birthplace of the prophet Amos (1:1).
It is now the village of Teku'a, on the top of a hill among
ruins, 5 miles south of Bethlehem, and close to Beth-haccerem
wells, one of the four cities of the Hivites which entered by
fraud into a league with Joshua. It belonged to Benjamin (Josh.
18:25). It has by some been identified with el-Bireh on the way
to Nablus, 10 miles north of Jerusalem.
dart, the name of the threshing-floor at which the death of
Uzzah took place (1 Chr. 13:9). In the parallel passage in
Samuel (2 Sam. 6:6) it is called "Nachon's threshing-floor." It
was a place not far north-west from Jerusalem.
a spot near Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17; Isa. 36:2; 7:3), on the
side of the highway west of the city, not far distant from the
"upper pool" at the head of the valley of Hinnom. Here the
fullers pursued their occupation.
or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of
Israel, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from
Babylon (Neh. 2:19; 6:1, 2). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah
in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem.
founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent from the valley of the
Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of
Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2 Chr. 20:16, 20). It
corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah.
were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9). Parthia lay
on the east of Media and south of Hyrcania, which separated it
from the Caspian Sea. It corresponded with the western half of
the modern Khorasan, and now forms a part of Persia.
strengh, a garden in which Manasseh and Amon were buried (2
Kings 21:18, 26). It was probably near the king's palace in
Jerusalem, or may have formed part of the palace grounds.
Manasseh may probably have acquired it from some one of this
called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God," the "holy
city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy;" once
"the city of Judah" (2 Chr. 25:28). This name is in the original
in the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or
"foundation of peace." The dual form probably refers to the two
mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as
some suppose, to the two parts of the city, the "upper" and the
"lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain city enthroned on a
mountain fastness" (compare Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2; 76:1, 2;
122:3). It stands on the edge of one of the highest table-lands
in Israel, and is surrounded on the south-eastern, the
southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines.
It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen.
14:18; compare Ps. 76:2). When first mentioned under the name
Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its king (Josh. 10:1). It is
afterwards named among the cities of Benjamin (Judg. 19:10; 1
Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided between
Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city was taken
and set on fire by the men of Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the
Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it. The city is not
again mentioned till we are told that David brought the head of
Goliath thither (1 Sam. 17:54). David afterwards led his forces
against the Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove
them out, fixing his own dwelling on Zion, which he called "the
city of David" (2 Sam. 5:5-9; 1 Chr. 11:4-8). Here he built an
altar to the Lord on the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite
(2 Sam. 24:15-25), and thither he brought up the ark of the
covenant and placed it in the new tabernacle which he had
prepared for it. Jerusalem now became the capital of the
After the death of David, Solomon built the temple, a house
for the name of the Lord, on Mount Moriah (B.C. 1010). He also
greatly strengthened and adorned the city, and it became the
great centre of all the civil and religious affairs of the
nation (Deut. 12:5; compare 12:14; 14:23; 16:11-16; Ps. 122).
After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the
throne of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, Jerusalem became the
capital of the kingdom of the two tribes. It was subsequently
often taken and retaken by the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by
the kings of Israel (2 Kings 14:13, 14; 18:15, 16; 23:33-35;
24:14; 2 Chr. 12:9; 26:9; 27:3, 4; 29:3; 32:30; 33:11), till
finally, for the abounding iniquities of the nation, after a
siege of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, its
walls razed to the ground, and its temple and palaces consumed
by fire, by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25; 2
Chr. 36; Jer. 39), B.C. 588. The desolation of the city and the
land was completed by the retreat of the principal Jews into
Egypt (Jer. 40-44), and by the final carrying captive into
Babylon of all that still remained in the land (52:3), so that
it was left without an inhabitant (B.C. 582). Compare the
predictions, Deut. 28; Lev. 26:14-39.
But the streets and walls of Jerusalem were again to be built,
in troublous times (Dan. 9:16, 19, 25), after a captivity of
seventy years. This restoration was begun B.C. 536, "in the
first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11). The Books of Ezra and
Nehemiah contain the history of the re-building of the city and
temple, and the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews,
consisting of a portion of all the tribes. The kingdom thus
constituted was for two centuries under the dominion of Persia,
till B.C. 331; and thereafter, for about a century and a half,
under the rulers of the Greek empire in Asia, till B.C. 167. For
a century the Jews maintained their independence under native
rulers, the Asmonean princes. At the close of this period they
fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his family, but
practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction of
Jerusalem, A.D. 70. The city was then laid in ruins.
The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the
immense beds of rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the
ancient city; and whilst it occupies certainly the same site,
there are no evidences that even the lines of its streets are
now what they were in the ancient city. Till A.D. 131 the Jews
who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted to the
Roman sway. But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to
hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city. The
Jews, however, took possession of it, having risen under the
leadership of one Bar-Chohaba (i.e., "the son of the star") in
revolt against the Romans. Some four years afterwards (A.D.
135), however, they were driven out of it with great slaughter,
and the city was again destroyed; and over its ruins was built a
Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it retained
till it fell under the dominion of the Mohammedans, when it was
called el-Khuds, i.e., "the holy."
In A.D. 326 Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, made a
pilgrimage to Jerusalem with the view of discovering the places
mentioned in the life of our Lord. She caused a church to be
built on what was then supposed to be the place of the nativity
at Bethlehem. Constantine, animated by her example, searched for
the holy sepulchre, and built over the supposed site a
magnificent church, which was completed and dedicated A.D. 335.
He relaxed the laws against the Jews till this time in force,
and permitted them once a year to visit the city and wail over
the desolation of "the holy and beautiful house."
In A.D. 614 the Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of
the emperor Heraclius, took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it
till A.D. 637, when it was taken by the Arabians under the
Khalif Omar. It remained in their possession till it passed, in
A.D. 960, under the dominion of the Fatimite khalifs of Egypt,
and in A.D. 1073 under the Turcomans. In A.D. 1099 the crusader
Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from the Moslems with great
slaughter, and was elected king of Jerusalem. He converted the
Mosque of Omar into a Christian cathedral. During the
eighty-eight years which followed, many churches and convents
were erected in the holy city. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre
was rebuilt during this period, and it alone remains to this
day. In A.D. 1187 the sultan Saladin wrested the city from the
Christians. From that time to the present day, with few
intervals, Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems.
It has, however, during that period been again and again taken
and retaken, demolished in great part and rebuilt, no city in
the world having passed through so many vicissitudes.
In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in
Jerusalem had a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what
are called the "holy places." In this dispute the emperor
Nicholas of Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis Napoleon,
the emperor of the French, with the Latins. This led the Turkish
authorities to settle the question in a way unsatisfactory to
Russia. Out of this there sprang the Crimean War, which was
protracted and sanguinary, but which had important consequences
in the way of breaking down the barriers of Turkish
Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a broad
mountain-ridge, which extends without interruption from the
plain of Esdraelon to a line drawn between the southern end of
the Dead Sea and the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean."
This high, uneven table-land is everywhere from 20 to 25
geographical miles in breadth. It was anciently known as the
mountains of Ephraim and Judah.
"Jerusalem is a city of contrasts, and differs widely from
Damascus, not merely because it is a stone town in mountains,
whilst the latter is a mud city in a plain, but because while in
Damascus Moslem religion and Oriental custom are unmixed with
any foreign element, in Jerusalem every form of religion, every
nationality of East and West, is represented at one time."
Jerusalem is first mentioned under that name in the Book of
Joshua, and the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets includes
six letters from its Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack
of the Abiri about B.C. 1480. The name is there spelt Uru-Salim
("city of peace"). Another monumental record in which the Holy
City is named is that of Sennacherib's attack in B.C. 702. The
"camp of the Assyrians" was still shown about A.D. 70, on the
flat ground to the north-west, included in the new quarter of
The city of David included both the upper city and Millo, and
was surrounded by a wall built by David and Solomon, who appear
to have restored the original Jebusite fortifications. The name
Zion (or Sion) appears to have been, like Ariel ("the hearth of
God"), a poetical term for Jerusalem, but in the Greek age was
more specially used of the Temple hill. The priests' quarter
grew up on Ophel, south of the Temple, where also was Solomon's
Palace outside the original city of David. The walls of the city
were extended by Jotham and Manasseh to include this suburb and
the Temple (2 Chr. 27:3; 33:14).
Jerusalem is now a town of some 50,000 inhabitants, with
ancient mediaeval walls, partly on the old lines, but extending
less far to the south. The traditional sites, as a rule, were
first shown in the 4th and later centuries A.D., and have no
authority. The results of excavation have, however, settled most
of the disputed questions, the limits of the Temple area, and
the course of the old walls having been traced.
village, one of the four cities of the Gibeonitish Hivites with
whom Joshua made a league (9:17). It belonged to Benjamin. It
has been identified with the modern Kefireh, on the west
confines of Benjamin, about 2 miles west of Ajalon and 11 from
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), one of
the Levite porters.
(2.) The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put
king Jehoash to death in Millo in Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:21).
(3.) 2 Chr. 17:18.
given of God. (1.) The son of Zuar, chief of the tribe of
Issachar at the Exodus (Num. 1:8; 2:5).
(2.) One of David's brothers (1 Chr. 2:14).
(3.) A priest who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:24).
(4.) A Levite (1 Chr. 24:6).
(5.) A temple porter, of the family of the Korhites (1 Chr.
(6.) One of the "princes" appointed by Jehoshaphat to teach
the law through the cities of Judah (2 Chr. 17:7).
(7.) A chief Levite in the time of Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9).
(8.) Ezra 10:22.
(9.) Neh. 12:21.
(10.) A priest's son who bore a trumpet at the dedication of
the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:36).
Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a
victory gained by David over the Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20; 1
Chr. 14:11). Called Mount Perazim (Isa. 28:21). It was near the
valley of Rephaim, west of Jerusalem. Identified with the modern
whom God cares for. (1.) One of David's sons born after his
establishment in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:16).
(2.) A mighty man of war, a Benjamite (2 Chr. 17:17).
(3.) An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that
troubled Solomon (1 Kings 11:23).
whom God has given. (1.) An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father
of Nehushta, who was the mother of king Jehoiachin (2 Kings
24:8). Probably the same who tried to prevent Jehoiakim from
burning the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies (Jer. 26:22; 36:12).
(2.) Ezra 8:16.
a Jewish mystical sect somewhat resembling the Pharisees. They
affected great purity. They originated about B.C. 100, and
disappeared from history after the destruction of Jerusalem.
They are not directly mentioned in Scripture, although they may
be referred to in Matt. 19:11, 12, Col. 2:8, 18, 23.
afficted. (1.) A Levite whom David appointed to take part in
bringing the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Obed-edom by
playing the psaltery on that occasion (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) A Levite who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity
(Ps. 42:7; marg. R.V., "cataracts"). If we regard this psalm as
descriptive of David's feelings when banished from Jerusalem by
the revolt of Absalom, this word may denote "waterfalls,"
inasmuch as Mahanaim, where he abode, was near the Jabbok, and
the region abounded with rapids and falls.