kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of
king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31), also
of king Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:18).
able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of
King Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:3).
Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of
King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).
eager, the father of Meshullemeth, the wife of king Manasseh (2
Kings 21:19) and mother of king Amon.
a servant of the king; probably an official title, an Ethiopian,
"one of the eunuchs which was in the king's house;" i.e., in the
palace of Zedekiah, king of Judah. He interceded with the king
in Jeremiah's behalf, and was the means of saving him from death
by famine (Jer. 38:7-13: compare 39:15-18).
the standing title of the Syrian kings, meaning "the son of
Hadad." (See HADADEZER T0001569.)
(1.) The king of Syria whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to
invade Israel (1 Kings 15:18).
(2.) Son of the preceding, also king of Syria. He was long
engaged in war against Israel. He was murdered probably by
Hazael, by whom he was succeeded (2 Kings 8:7-15), after a reign
of some thirty years.
(3.) King of Damascus, and successor of his father Hazael on
the throne of Syria (2 Kings 13:3, 4). His misfortunes in war
are noticed by Amos (1:4).
(god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria.
He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then
fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).
i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian
Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah,
king of Judah (Jer. 37:5 44:30; Ezek. 29:6, 7).
a king of Hamath, who sent "Joram his son unto King David to
salute him," when he "heard that David had smitten all the host
of Hadadezer" (2 Sam. 8:9, 10). Called Tou (1 Chr. 18:9, 10).
dweller in the desert. (1.) One of the sons of Joktan, and
founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 10:29). (2.) King of Edom,
succeeded Bela (Gen. 36:33, 34). (3.) A Canaanite king (Josh.
11:1) who joined the confederacy against Joshua.
Adar the king. (1.) An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by
the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:31), and brought by
the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son of
Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).
whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the
father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).
(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag
(1 Chr. 12:3).
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1 Kings 22:26).
(4.) King of Judah (2 Kings 11:2; 12:19, 20). (See JEHOASH
(5.) King of Israel (2 Kings 13:9, 12, 13, 25). (See JEHOASH
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:8.
(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David
and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:28).
(1.) An Assyrian king. It has been a question whether he was
identical with Tiglath-pileser III. (q.v.), or was his
predecessor. The weight of evidence is certainly in favour of
their identity. Pul was the throne-name he bore in Babylonia as
king of Babylon, and Tiglath-pileser the throne-name he bore as
king of Assyria. He was the founder of what is called the second
Assyrian empire. He consolidated and organized his conquests on
a large scale. He subdued Northern Syria and Hamath, and the
kings of Syria rendered him homage and paid him tribute. His
ambition was to found in Western Asia a kingdom which should
embrace the whole civilized world, having Nineveh as its centre.
Menahem, king of Israel, gave him the enormous tribute of a
thousand talents of silver, "that his hand might be with him" (2
Kings 15:19; 1 Chr. 5:26). The fact that this tribute could be
paid showed the wealthy condition of the little kingdom of
Israel even in this age of disorder and misgovernment. Having
reduced Syria, he turned his arms against Babylon, which he
subdued. The Babylonian king was slain, and Babylon and other
Chaldean cities were taken, and Pul assumed the title of "King
of Sumer [i.e., Shinar] and Accad." He was succeeded by
(2.) A geographical name in Isa. 66:19. Probably = Phut (Gen.
10:6; Jer. 46:9, R.V. "Put;" Ezek. 27:10).
the work of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites whom David
appointed as porter for the ark (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with
Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne (2 Chr. 23:1).
(3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz,
killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of
Israel (2 Chr. 28:7).
(4.) One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple (2
Chr. 34:8). He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the
Authorized Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of
(5.) The father of the priest Zephaniah (Jer. 21:1; 37:3).
(6.) The father of the false prophet Zedekiah (Jer. 29:21).
Maase'iah, refuge is Jehovah, a priest, the father of Neriah
(Jer. 32:12; 51:59).
possessor. (1.) A grandson of Jonathan (1 Chr. 8:35; 9:42).
(2.) The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings
16; Isa. 7-9; 2 Chr. 28). He gave himself up to a life of
wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and
warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help
against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who
threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria,
to the great injury of his kingdom and his own humilating
subjection to the Assyrians (2 Kings 16:7, 9; 15:29). He also
introduced among his people many heathen and idolatrous customs
(Isa. 8:19; 38:8; 2 Kings 23:12). He died at the age of
thirty-five years, after reigning sixteen years (B.C. 740-724),
and was succeeded by his son Hezekiah. Because of his wickedness
he was "not brought into the sepulchre of the kings."
built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a
small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from
Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also
Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer. 48:31,
36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE
STONE T0002586), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel,
and fought successfully for the independence of his kingdom.
After this Jehoram, king of Israel, in seeking to regain his
supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance with Jehoshaphat,
king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three kings led
their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge
in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then
took his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and
offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in
the sight of the allied armies. "There was great indignation
against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to
their own land." The invaders evacuated the land of Moab, and
Mesha achieved the independence of his country (2 Kings
is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with
authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one
kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, 24), whom Joshua subdued.
Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New
Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1 Pet. 2:13,
17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called
a king (Matt. 14:9; Mark 6:22).
This title is applied to God (1 Tim. 1:17), and to Christ, the
Son of God (1 Tim. 6:15, 16; Matt. 27:11). The people of God are
also called "kings" (Dan. 7:22, 27; Matt. 19:28; Rev. 1:6,
etc.). Death is called the "king of terrors" (Job 18:14).
Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation (1 Sam. 8:7;
Isa. 33:22). But there came a time in the history of that people
when a king was demanded, that they might be like other nations
(1 Sam. 8:5). The prophet Samuel remonstrated with them, but the
people cried out, "Nay, but we will have a king over us." The
misconduct of Samuel's sons was the immediate cause of this
The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name
of the people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and
partly as representatives of Jehovah, the true King of Israel (1
Sam. 10:1). The limits of the king's power were prescribed (1
Sam. 10:25). The officers of his court were, (1) the recorder or
remembrancer (2 Sam. 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3); (2) the scribe (2 Sam.
8:17; 20:25); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward
(Isa. 22:15); (4) the "king's friend," a confidential companion
(1 Kings 4:5); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe (2 Kings 22:14);
(6) captain of the bodyguard (2 Sam. 20:23); (7) officers over
the king's treasures, etc. (1 Chr. 27:25-31); (8)
commander-in-chief of the army (1 Chr. 27:34); (9) the royal
counsellor (1 Chr. 27:32; 2 Sam. 16:20-23).
(For catalogue of kings of Israel and Judah see chronological
table in Appendix.)
an Assyrian king (Hos. 10:14), identified with Shalmaneser II.
(Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne
of Assyria (B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea, the king of
Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute.
Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian
conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which,
after a siege of three years, was taken (2 Kings 17:3-5; 18:9)
by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had broken out in
Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant
throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a king
of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as
the lord is my light. (1.) A high priest in the time of Ahaz (2
Kings 16:10-16), at whose bidding he constructed an idolatrous
altar like one the king had seen at Damascus, to be set up
instead of the brazen altar.
(2.) One of the priests who stood at the right hand of Ezra's
pulpit when he read and expounded the law (Neh. 8:4).
(3.) A prophet of Kirjath-jearim in the reign of Jehoiakim,
king of Judah (Jer. 26:20-23). He fled into Egypt from the
cruelty of the king, but having been brought back he was
beheaded and his body "cast into the graves of the common
king of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of
Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of
the plain (Gen. 14:1, 4). It is now found that Amraphel (or
Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on
recently-discovered monuments. (See CHEDORLAOMER T0000781).
After defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one
rule, and made Babylon his capital.
noble, a descendant of king Saul (1 Chr. 8:37; 9:43, 44).
the mother of King Joash (2 Kings 12:1; 2 Chr. 24:1).
mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2
good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria (1 Kings
a little bird, the father of Balak, king of Moab (Num. 22:2, 4).
prince, son of Eliadah. Abandoning the service of Hadadezer, the
king of Zobah, on the occasion of his being defeated by David,
he became the "captain over a band" of marauders, and took
Damascus, and became king of Syria (1 Kings 11:23-25; 2 Sam.
8:3-8). For centuries after this the Syrians were the foes of
Israel. He "became an adversary to Israel all the days of
Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel by
Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:7).
sight; aspect, the father of Jeroboam, the king of Israel (1
Kings 11:26, etc.).
stricken, mother of Jeroboam, the first king of the ten tribes
(1 Kings 11:26).
an Egyptian king, the son and successor of Psammetichus (B.C.
610-594), the contemporary of Josiah, king of Judah. For some
reason he proclaimed war against the king of Assyria. He led
forth a powerful army and marched northward, but was met by the
king of Judah at Megiddo, who refused him a passage through his
territory. Here a fierce battle was fought and Josiah was slain
(2 Chr. 35:20-24). Possibly, as some suppose, Necho may have
brought his army by sea to some port to the north of Dor (compare
Josh. 11:2; 12:23), a Phoenician town at no great distance from
Megiddo. After this battle Necho marched on to Carchemish
(q.v.), where he met and conquered the Assyrian army, and thus
all the Syrian provinces, including Israel, came under his
On his return march he deposed Jehoahaz, who had succeeded his
father Josiah, and made Eliakim, Josiah's eldest son, whose name
he changed into Jehoiakim, king. Jehoahaz he carried down into
Egypt, where he died (2 Kings 23:31; 2 Chr. 36:1-4). Four years
after this conquest Necho again marched to the Euphrates; but
here he was met and his army routed by the Chaldeans (B.C. 606)
under Nebuchadnezzar, who drove the Egyptians back, and took
from them all the territory they had conquered, from the
Euphrates unto the "river of Egypt" (Jer. 46:2; 2 Kings 24:7,
8). Soon after this Necho died, and was succeeded by his son,
Psammetichus II. (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR T0002684.)
king, the second of Micah's four sons (1 Chr. 8:35), and thus
grandson of Mephibosheth.
friendly, one who maintained true allegiance to king David (1
Kings 1:8) when Adonijah rebelled.
an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and
Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is
mentioned in connection with Joseph's history (Gen. 40:1-21;
41:9). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court (2
Kings 18:17). Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia
(Neh. 1:11). We read also of Solomon's cup-bearers (1 Kings
10:5; 2 Chr. 9:4).
splendid. (1.) The king of Lachish, who joined in the
confederacy against Joshua (Josh. 10:3), and was defeated and
slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king
of Gezer. Called also Horam (Josh. 10:33).
(2.) One of the sons of David (2 Sam. 5:15), born in
(3.) A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum (Josh. 19:12);
now Yafa, 2 miles south-west of Nazareth.
Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of the sons of
Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 6:21), probably
the same as Ethan (42).
(3.) The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to
King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37).
(4.) Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the
state archives under King Josiah (2 Chr. 34:8).
The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing."
From Isa. 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted
by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of
Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same
Hebrew word is used in Deut. 27:2-4, and is there rendered
"plaster." Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains
conforting, the son of Gadi, and successor of Shallum, king of
Israel, whom he slew. After a reign of about ten years (B.C.
771-760) he died, leaving the throne to his son Pekahiah. His
reign was one of cruelty and oppression (2 Kings 15:14-22).
During his reign, Pul (q.v.), king of Assyria, came with a
powerful force against Israel, but was induced to retire by a
gift from Menahem of 1,000 talents of silver.
firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (q.v.) in an
invasion of the kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 15:37; 16:5-9; Isa.
7:1-8). Ahaz induced Tiglath-pileser III. to attack Damascus,
and this caused Rezin to withdraw for the purpose of defending
his own kingdom. Damascus was taken, and Rezin was slain in
battle by the Assyrian king, and his people carried into
captivity, B.C. 732 (2 Kings 16:9).
a company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in
Samaria (Ezra 5:6; 6:6).
vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad,
king of Syria (1 Kings 15:18).
brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isa.
14:12) to denote his glory.
son of wickedness, a king of Gomorrah whom Abraham succoured in
the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).
chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20). Such persons
generally had great influence with their masters.
my king. (1.) The son of Addi, and father of Neri (Luke 3:28).
(2.) Luke 3:24.
held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed
the counsels of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness
the ways of his father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from
under his authority (2 Kings 3:5-7). He united with Jehoshaphat
in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which
proved a failure (2 Chr. 20:35-37). His messengers, sent to
consult the god of Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects
of a fall from the roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the
way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king that he would
never rise from his bed (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:18).
(2.) The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah.
Called Jehoahaz (2 Chr. 21:17; 25:23), and Azariah (2 Chr.
22:6). Guided by his idolatrous mother Athaliah, his reign was
disastrous (2 Kings 8:24-29; 9:29). He joined his uncle Jehoram,
king of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of
Damascus; but was wounded at the pass of Gur when attempting to
escape, and had strength only to reach Megiddo, where he died (2
Kings 9:22-28). He reigned only one year.
compressed, the father of Achish, king of Gath (1 Sam. 27:2).
Called also Maachah (1 Kings 2:39).
copper, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, and the wife of
Jehoiakin (2 Kings 24:8), king of Judah.
salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards
called Joshua (Num. 13:8, 16; Deut. 32:44).
(2.) 1 Chr. 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time.
(3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew
his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the
throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2
Kings 17:1, 2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the
Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish
Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised
to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon,
who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the
Euphrates, B.C. 720 (2 Kings 17:5, 6; 18:9-12). No more is heard
of Hoshea. He disappeared like "foam upon the water" (Hos. 10:7;
possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of
Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).
servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of
the harem of king Ahasuerus (Esther 2:14).
flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was
of the Egyptian. (1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by
Balaam (Num. 24:7). He lived at the time of the Exodus.
(2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared
unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul
ordered, in retributive justice (Judg. 1), to be brought out and
cut in pieces (1 Sam. 15:8-33. Compare Ex. 17:11; Num. 14:45).
the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The
king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He
was probably the Smerdis of profane history.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C.
458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years
(B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years
later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.
he has given a son, the father of the Babylonian king (2 Kings
20:12; Isa. 39:1) Merodach-baladan (q.v.).
(a Persian word meaning "ass-driver"), one of the seven eunuchs
or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10; 7:9).
cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with
his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).
God has gratified me, or is gracious. (1.) One of the sons of
Heman (1 Chr. 25:4, 25). (2.) A prophet who was sent to rebuke
king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king of
Syria, against Judah (2 Chr. 16:1-10). He was probably the
father of the prophet Jehu (1 Kings 16:7). (3.) Probably a
brother of Nehemiah (Neh. 1:2; 7:2), who reported to him the
melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards appointed
him to have charge of the city gates.
a word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under
the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all
things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the
people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public
and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the
medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly,
not of an earthly, king. They were Jehovah's own subjects, ruled
directly by him (compare 1 Sam. 8:6-9).
the last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty.
He was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the
throne about B.C. 692, having been previously king of Ethiopia
(2 Kings 19:9; Isa. 37:9), which with Egypt now formed one
nation. He was a great warrior, and but little is known of him.
The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under
Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who
afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning
open-eyed, the son of Remaliah a captain in the army of
Pekahiah, king of Israel, whom he slew, with the aid of a band
of Gileadites, and succeeded (B.C. 758) on the throne (2 Kings
15:25). Seventeen years after this he entered into an alliance
with Rezin, king of Syria, and took part with him in besieging
Jerusalem (2 Kings 15:37; 16:5). But Tiglath-pilser, who was in
alliance with Ahaz, king of Judah, came up against Pekah, and
carried away captive many of the inhabitants of his kingdom (2
Kings 15:29). This was the beginning of the "Captivity." Soon
after this Pekah was put to death by Hoshea, the son of Elah,
who usurped the throne (2 Kings 15:30; 16:1-9. Compare Isa. 7:16;
8:4; 9:12). He is supposed by some to have been the "shephard"
mentioned in Zech. 11:16.
lord of justice or righteousness, was king in Jerusalem at the
time when the Israelites invaded Israel (Josh. 10:1,3). He
formed a confederacy with the other Canaanite kings against
the Israelites, but was utterly routed by Joshua when he was
engaged in besieging the Gibeonites. The history of this victory
and of the treatment of the five confederated kings is recorded
in Josh. 10:1-27. (Compare Deut. 21:23). Among the Tell Amarna
tablets (see EGYPT T0001137) are some very interesting letters
from Adoni-zedec to the King of Egypt. These illustrate in a
very remarkable manner the history recorded in Josh. 10, and
indeed throw light on the wars of conquest generally, so that
they may be read as a kind of commentary on the book of Joshua.
Here the conquering career of the Abiri (i.e., Hebrews) is
graphically described: "Behold, I say that the land of the king
my lord is ruined", "The wars are mighty against me", "The
Hebrew chiefs plunder all the king's lands", "Behold, I the
chief of the Amorites am breaking to pieces." Then he implores
the king of Egypt to send soldiers to help him, directing that
the army should come by sea to Ascalon or Gaza, and thence march
to Wru-sa-lim (Jerusalem) by the valley of Elah.
robbers' den, an Edomitish city, the capital of king Bela (Gen.
36:32). It is probably the modern Dibdiba, a little NE
Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron who joined the league against
Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated (Josh. 10:3, 5, 16-27).
deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18, 19).
(2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1
dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov.
31:1-9). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis
identified him with Solomon.
gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion
of the four kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2, 8, 17, 21).
the king of Babylon who sent a friendly deputation to Hezekiah
(2 Kings 20:12). In Isa. 39:1 he is called Merodach-baladan
man of Baal, the fourth son of king Saul (1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). He
is also called Ish-bosheth (q.v.), 2 Sam. 2:8.
a whelp, a place near Ibleam where Jehu's servants overtook and
mortally wounded king Ahaziah (2 Kings 9:27); an ascent from the
plain of Jezreel.
mentioned only in Gen. 14:17; 2 Sam. 18:18, the name given to
"the valley of Shaveh," where the king of Sodom met Abram.
water of gold, the father of Matred (Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:50),
and grandfather of Mehetabel, wife of Hadar, the last king of
the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and
Bernice. The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of
the territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias,
with the title of king ("king Herod"), and finally of that of
Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he
became ruler over the whole of Israel. He was a persecutor of
the early Christians. He slew James, and imprisoned Peter (Acts
12:1-4). He died at Caesarea, being "eaten of worms" (Acts
12:23), A.D. 44. (Compare Josephus, Ant. xix. 8.)
David at the cave of Adullam thus addressed his persecutor Saul
(1 Sam. 24:14): "After whom is the king of Israel come out?
after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea?" He
thus speaks of himself as the poor, contemptible object of the
monarch's pursuit, a "worthy object truly for an expedition of
the king of Israel with his picked troops!" This insect is in
Eastern language the popular emblem of insignificance. In 1 Sam.
26:20 the LXX. read "come out to seek my life" instead of "to
seek a flea."
Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian god. (1.) An Edomite king
who defeated the Midianites (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chr. 1:46).
(2.) Another Edomite king (1 Chr. 1:50, 51), called also Hadar
(Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:51).
(3.) One of "the king's seed in Edom." He fled into Egypt,
where he married the sister of Pharaoh's wife (1 Kings
11:14-22). He became one of Solomon's adversaries.
Hadad, sharp, (a different name in Hebrew from the preceding),
one of the sons of Ishmael (1 Chr. 1:30). Called also Hadar
is exalted. (1.) The son of Tou, king of Hamath, sent by his
father to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer, king
of Syria (1 Chr. 18:10; called Joram 2 Sam. 8:10).
(2.) The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe
(Gen. 10:27; 1 Chr. 1:21).
(3.) One who was "over the tribute;" i.e., "over the levy." He
was stoned by the Israelites after they had revolted from
Rehoboam (2 Chr. 10:18). Called also Adoram (2 Sam. 20:24) and
Adoniram (1 Kings 4:6).
destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented
by the locusts (Rev. 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the
Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).
divided, one of the mysterious words "written over against the
candlestick upon the plaster of the wall" of king Belshazzar's
palace (Dan. 5:28). (See MENE T0002481.)
like a wild ass, a king of Jarmuth, a royal city of the
Canaanites, who was conquered and put to death by Joshua (10:3,
angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the
Philistine kings. (1.) The king with whom David sought refuge
when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10-15). He is called Abimelech
in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably this same king
to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of
600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on
war against the surrounding tribes (1 Sam. 27:5-12). Achish had
great confidence in the valour and fidelity of David (1 Sam.
28:1,2), but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit
him to go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts (1 Sam.
29:2-11). David remained with Achish a year and four months.
(2.) Another king of Gath, probably grandson of the foregoing,
to whom the two servants of Shimei fled. This led Shimei to go
to Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon
put him to death (1 Kings 2:39-46).
In the Old Testament the Hebrew word "tsir", meaning "one who
goes on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17;
Isa. 18:2; Jer. 49:14; Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of
"melits", meaning "an interpreter," in 2 Chr. 32:31; and of
"malak", a "messenger," in 2 Chr. 35:21; Isa. 30:4; 33:7; Ezek.
17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those
who are appointed by God to declare his will (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph.
The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had
recourse to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract
alliances (Josh. 9:4), to solicit favours (Num. 20:14), to
remonstrate when wrong was done (Judg. 11:12), to condole with a
young king on the death of his father (2 Sam. 10:2), and to
congratulate a king on his accession to the throne (1 Kings
To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who sent
him (2 Sam. 10:5).
blessed. (1.) The secretary of the prophet Jeremiah (32:12;
36:4). He was of the tribe of Judah (51:59). To him Jeremiah
dictated his prophecies regarding the invasion of the
Babylonians and the Captivity. These he read to the people from
a window in the temple in the fourth year of the reign of
Jehoiakim, king of Judah (Jer. 36). He afterwards read them
before the counsellors of the king at a private interview; and
then to the king himself, who, after hearing a part of the roll,
cut it with a penknife, and threw it into the fire of his winter
parlour, where he was sitting.
During the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, he was the
keeper of the deed of purchase Jeremiah had made of the
territory of Hanameel (Jer. 32:12). Being accused by his enemies
of favouring the Chaldeans, he was cast, with Jeremiah, into
prison, where he remained till the capture of Jerusalem (B.C.
586). He probably died in Babylon.
(2.) Neh. 3:20; 10:6; 11:5.
Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the
king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation
immediately following Joshua (Judg. 3:8). We learn from the
Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Israel had been invaded by the
forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V., "Mesopotamia") more than once,
long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written
the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan. It is
mentioned among the countries which took part in the attack upon
Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the Twentieth Dynasty),
but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been
conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually
enter Egypt. As the reign of Rameses III. corresponds with the
Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the
Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by
Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of
Egypt, so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have
been considered to be attacking Egypt.
he whom Jehovah has set up, the second son of Josiah, and
eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven years
(B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.).
On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz
(=Shallum, Jer. 22:11), who favoured the Chaldeans against the
Egyptians, was made king by the people; but the king of Egypt,
Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and deposed Jehoahaz (2 Kings
23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12), setting Eliakim on the throne in his
stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim.
After this the king of Egypt took no part in Jewish politics,
having been defeated by the Chaldeans at Carchemish (2 Kings
24:7; Jer. 46:2). Israel was now invaded and conquered by
Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim was taken prisoner and carried captive
to Babylon (2 Chr. 36:6, 7). It was at this time that Daniel
also and his three companions were taken captive to Babylon
(Dan. 1:1, 2).
Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated
him as a vassal king. In the year after this, Jeremiah caused
his prophecies to be read by Baruch in the court of the temple.
Jehoiakim, hearing of this, had them also read in the royal
palace before himself. The words displeased him, and taking the
roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it in pieces and threw it
into the fire (Jer. 36:23). During his disastrous reign there
was a return to the old idolatry and corruption of the days of
After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld
his tribute and threw off the yoke (2 Kings 24:1), hoping to
make himself independent. Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of
Chaldeans, Syrians, and Ammonites (2 Kings 24:2) to chastise his
rebellious vassal. They cruelly harassed the whole country
(compare Jer. 49:1-6). The king came to a violent death, and his
body having been thrown over the wall of Jerusalem, to convince
the beseieging army that he was dead, after having been dragged
away, was buried beyond the gates of Jerusalem "with the burial
of an ass," B.C. 599 (Jer. 22:18, 19; 36:30). Nebuchadnezzar
placed his son Jehoiachin on the throne, wishing still to retain
the kingdom of Judah as tributary to him.
Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated
Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo (2 Kings 12:21). He is
called also Zabad (2 Chr. 24:26).
one of the branches of the king of Persia's revenues (Ezra 4:13;
7:24), probably a tax levied from those who used the bridges and
fords and highways.
king of the Ammonites at the time of the Babylonian captivity
(Jer. 40:14). He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah who had been
appointed governor over the cities of Judah.
confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which
yielded much spoil of brass to David (2 Sam. 8:8). In 1 Chr.
18:8 it is called Tibhath.
probably the same as Lud (2) (compare Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11).
They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as
mercenaries of the king of Egypt.
king of help, one of the four sons of Saul (1 Chr. 8:33). He
perished along with his father in the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam.
(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many
centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the
Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and
in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty
which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Israel. The kings
of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once
South Arabic and Hebrew. The most famous king of the dynasty was
Khammu-rabi, who united Babylonia under one rule, and made
Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne, the country
was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into
two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of
Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku
("the servant of the moon-god"), the son of an Elamite prince,
Kudur-Mabug, who is entitled "the father of the land of the
Amorites." A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the
enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar ("the servant of the
goddess Lagamar") or Chedorlaomer, Eri-Aku or Arioch, and
Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read
Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in
overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia.
Assur-bani-pal, the last of the Assyrian conquerors, mentions in
two inscriptions that he took Susa 1635 years after
Kedor-nakhunta, king of Elam, had conquered Babylonia. It was in
the year B.C. 660 that Assur-bani-pal took Susa.
Herod Agrippa I.
son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great.
He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias
II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his
grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the
apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison
(Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1-19). On the second day of a festival held
in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great
theatre of Caesarea. "The king came in clothed in magnificent
robes, of which silver was the costly brilliant material. It was
early in the day, and the sun's rays fell on the king, so that
the eyes of the beholders were dazzled with the brightness which
surrounded him. Voices here and there from the crowd exclaimed
that it was the apparition of something divine. And when he
spoke and made an oration to them, they gave a shout, saying,
'It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.' But in the midst
of this idolatrous ostentation an angel of God suddenly smote
him. He was carried out of the theatre a dying man." He died
(A.D. 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his
grandfather (Acts. 12:21-23), in the fifty-fourth year of his
age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king
over the whole of Israel. After his death his kingdom came
under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Israel was now
fully incorporated with the empire.
Jehovah is he. (1.) The son of Obed, and father of Azariah (1
(2.) One of the Benjamite slingers that joined David at Ziklag
(1 Chr. 12:3).
(3.) The son of Hanani, a prophet of Judah (1 Kings 16:1, 7; 2
Chr. 19:2; 20:34), who pronounced the sentence of God against
Baasha, the king of Israel.
(4.) King of Israel, the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 9:2), and
grandson of Nimshi. The story of his exaltation to the throne is
deeply interesting. During the progress of a war against the
Syrians, who were becoming more and more troublesome to Israel,
in a battle at Ramoth-gilead Jehoram, the king of Israel, had
been wounded; and leaving his army there, had returned to
Jezreel, whither his ally, Ahaziah, king of Judah, had also gone
on a visit of sympathy with him (2 Kings 8:28, 29). The
commanders, being left in charge of the conduct of the war, met
in council; and while engaged in their deliberations, a
messenger from Elisha appeared in the camp, and taking Jehu from
the council, led him into a secret chamber, and there anointed
him king over Israel, and immediately retired and disappeared (2
Kings 9:5, 6). On being interrogated by his companions as to the
object of this mysterious visitor, he informed them of what had
been done, when immediately, with the utmost enthusiasm, they
blew their trumpets and proclaimed him king (2 Kings 9:11-14).
He then with a chosen band set forth with all speed to Jezreel,
where, with his own hand, he slew Jehoram, shooting him through
the heart with an arrow (9:24). The king of Judah, when trying
to escape, was fatally wounded by one of Jehu's soldiers at
Beth-gan. On entering the city, Jehu commanded the eunchs of the
royal palace to cast down Jezebel into the street, where her
mangled body was trodden under foot by the horses. Jehu was now
master of Jezreel, whence he communicated with the persons in
authority in Samaria the capital, commanding them to appear
before him on the morrow with the heads of all the royal princes
of Samaria. Accordingly on the morrow seventy heads were piled
up in two heaps at his gate. At "the shearing-house" (2 Kings
10:12-14) other forty-two connected with the house of Ahab were
put to death (2 Kings 10:14). As Jehu rode on toward Samaria, he
met Jehonadab (q.v.), whom he took into his chariot, and they
entered the capital together. By a cunning stratagem he cut off
all the worshippers of Baal found in Samaria (2 Kings 10:19-25),
and destroyed the temple of the idol (2 Kings 10:27).
Notwithstanding all this apparent zeal for the worship of
Jehovah, Jehu yet tolerated the worship of the golden calves at
Dan and Bethel. For this the divine displeasure rested upon him,
and his kingdom suffered disaster in war with the Syrians (2
Kings 10:29-33). He died after a reign of twenty-eight years
(B.C. 884-856), and was buried in Samaria (10:34-36). "He was
one of those decisive, terrible, and ambitious, yet prudent,
calculating, and passionless men whom God from time to time
raises up to change the fate of empires and execute his
judgments on the earth." He was the first Jewish king who came
in contact with the Assyrian power in the time of Shalmaneser
Chronicles of king David
(1 Chr. 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public
sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles
derived information on various public matters.
friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled
Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zech. 7:2) to make
inquiries at the temple.
Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his
father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over
Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 26:25).
(3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people
in Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).
(4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother
Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C.
896-884 (2 Kings 1:17; 3:1). His first work was to reduce to
subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their independence in
the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted
Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the
king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated army (2
Kings 3:1-19), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged
the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory.
The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and
their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final
stand. The Israelites refrained from pressing their victory
further, and returned to their own land.
Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke
out between the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way
brought that war to a bloodless close (2 Kings 6:23). But
Jehoram, becoming confident in his own power, sank into
idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another Syrian
invasion, which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria
(2 Kings 6:24-33). By a remarkable providential interposition
the city was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were
put to flight (2 Kings 7:6-15).
Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and
obliged to return to Jezreel (2 Kings 8:29; 9:14, 15), and soon
after the army proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and
revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram (2 Kings 9). Jehoram
was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the piece of ground
at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died
(2 Kings 9:21-29).
(5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of
Judah. He reigned eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of
Judah, having been previously for some years associated with his
father (2 Chr. 21:5, 20; 2 Kings 8:16). His wife was Athaliah,
the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was
married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross
idolatry, and brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger of
Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the
Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and
carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his
children, except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful
malady, and was refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings (2
Kings 8:16-24; 2 Chr. 21).
father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings
of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called
Abijah (1 Kings 15:1,7,8). (See ABIJAH T0000036, 5.)
strife, a Canaanite city in the north of Israel (Josh.
11:1; 12:19), whose king was slain by Joshua; perhaps the ruin
Madin, near Hattin, some 5 miles west of Tiberias.
There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.)
The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was
probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history,
the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, probably the Cambyses of
profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529).
(3.) The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book
of Esther. He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and
Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia." This was in all probability
the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius
(B.C. 485). In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name
Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years
(B.C. 486-465). He invaded Greece with an army, it is said, of
more than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom returned with
him. Leonidas, with his famous 300, arrested his progress at the
Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by
Themistocles at Salamis. It was after his return from this
invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen.
soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other
kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been
reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).
salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of
prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of
Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar,
rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of
Israel; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the
localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.); by
passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled 'the land', and
7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as 'our' king."
The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is
indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1:1, 2). He is the only
prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was
brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of
Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1 Kings 11:20.