the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in
Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at
Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior
officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military
correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by
purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS
lame. (1.) The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D.
41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in
Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of
his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Acts 18:2).
In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was
supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned
During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the
Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod
Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed" (12:2).
He died A.D. 54.
(2.) Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase
the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius
(Acts 21:31-40; 22:28; 23:26).
daffodil, a Roman whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:11). He is supposed
to have been the private secretary of the emperor Claudius. This
is, however, quite uncertain.
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and
for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy",
i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the
emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The
word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows
his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius,
and the governor of such a province was called a "proconsul." He
is spoken of by his contemporaries as "sweet Gallio," and is
described as a most popular and affectionate man. When the Jews
brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading
"men to worship God contrary to the law" (18:13), he refused to
listen to them, and "drave them from the judgment seat" (18:16).
a female Christian mentioned in 2 Tim. 4:21. It is a conjecture
having some probability that she was a British maiden, the
daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed
the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that
she was the wife of Pudens.
Herod Arippa II.
the son of Herod Agrippa I. and Cypros. The emperor Claudius
made him tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with
the title of king (Acts 25:13; 26:2, 7). He enlarged the city of
Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero. It
was before him and his sister that Paul made his defence at
Caesarea (Acts 25:12-27). He died at Rome A.D. 100, in the third
year of the emperor Trajan.
the title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In
the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as
sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive
proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to
Caesar (Matt. 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of
appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New
Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22),
Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Phil. 4:22).
a scarcity of provisions (1 Kings 17). There were frequent
dearths in Israel. In the days of Abram there was a "famine
in the land" (Gen. 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (47:4,
13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth
1:1), and of the kings (2 Sam. 21:1; 1 Kings 18:2; 2 Kings 4:38;
In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in
Israel (Acts 11:28) in the fourth year of the reign of the
emperor Claudius (A.D. 44 and 45).
i.e., as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only
mentioned in Luke 3:1. He was the stepson of Augustus, whom he
succeeded on the throne, A.D. 14. He was noted for his vicious
and infamous life. In the fifteenth year of his reign John the
Baptist entered on his public ministry, and under him also our
Lord taught and suffered. He died A.D. 37. He is frequently
referred to simply as "Caesar" (Matt. 22:17, 21; Mark 12:14, 16,
17; Luke 20:22, 24, 25; 23:2; John 19:12, 15).
son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, A.D. 27. He was the
brother of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius (A.D. 48)
invested him with the office of superintendent of the Temple of
Jerusalem, and made him governor (A.D. 50) of Chalcis. He was
afterwards raised to the rank of king, and made governor over
the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Acts 25:13; 26:2, 7). It
was before him that Paul delivered (A.D. 59) his speech recorded
in Acts 26. His private life was very profligate. He died (the
last of his race) at Rome, at the age of about seventy years,
a "prudent man" (R.V., "man of understanding"), the deputy
(R.V., "proconsul") of Cyprus (Acts 13:6-13). He became a
convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on
his first mission to the heathen.
A remarkable memorial of this proconsul was recently (1887)
discovered at Rome. On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is
found, among others, as having been appointed (A.D. 47) one of
the curators of the banks and the channel of the river Tiber.
After serving his three years as proconsul at Cyprus, he
returned to Rome, where he held the office referred to. As he is
not saluted in Paul's letter to the Romans, he probably died
before it was written.
eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul
met on his first visit to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Along with his
wife Priscilla he had fled from Rome in consequence of a decree
(A.D. 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city.
Paul sojourned with him at Corinth, and they wrought together at
their common trade, making Cilician hair-cloth for tents. On
Paul's departure from Corinth after eighteen months, Aquila and
his wife accompanied him to Ephesus, where they remained, while
he proceeded to Syria (Acts 18:18, 26). When they became
Christians we are not informed, but in Ephesus they were (1 Cor.
16:19) Paul's "helpers in Christ Jesus." We find them afterwards
at Rome (Rom. 16:3), interesting themselves still in the cause
of Christ. They are referred to some years after this as being
at Ephesus (2 Tim. 4:19). This is the last notice we have of
reward of God. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh at the
census at Sinai (Num. 1:10; 2:20; 7:54, 59).
(2.) The son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of the famous rabbi
Hillel. He was a Pharisse, and therefore the opponent of the
party of the Sadducees. He was noted for his learning, and was
president of the Sanhedrim during the regins of Tiberius,
Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, about eighteen
years before the destruction of Jerusalem.
When the apostles were brought before the council, charged
with preaching the resurrection of Jesus, as a zealous Pharisee
Gamaliel councelled moderation and calmness. By a reference to
well-known events, he advised them to "refrain from these men."
If their work or counsel was of man, it would come to nothing;
but if it was of God, they could not destroy it, and therefore
ought to be on their guard lest they should be "found fighting
against God" (Acts 5:34-40). Paul was one of his disciples
Herod Agrippa I.
son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great.
He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias
II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his
grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the
apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison
(Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1-19). On the second day of a festival held
in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great
theatre of Caesarea. "The king came in clothed in magnificent
robes, of which silver was the costly brilliant material. It was
early in the day, and the sun's rays fell on the king, so that
the eyes of the beholders were dazzled with the brightness which
surrounded him. Voices here and there from the crowd exclaimed
that it was the apparition of something divine. And when he
spoke and made an oration to them, they gave a shout, saying,
'It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.' But in the midst
of this idolatrous ostentation an angel of God suddenly smote
him. He was carried out of the theatre a dying man." He died
(A.D. 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his
grandfather (Acts. 12:21-23), in the fifty-fourth year of his
age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king
over the whole of Israel. After his death his kingdom came
under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Israel was now
fully incorporated with the empire.
(Palestinae), a city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the
great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of
Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon. It
was built by Herod the Great (B.C. 10), who named it after
Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos =
"Augustus"), on the site of an old town called "Strato's Tower."
It was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea, the seat of
the governors or procurators, and the headquarters of the Roman
troops. It was the great Gentile city of Israel, with a
spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings
of great splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the
West. Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the
instrumentality of Peter (Acts 10:1, 24), and thus for the first
time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles. Philip the
evangelist resided here with his four daughters (21:8). From
this place Saul sailed for his native Tarsus when forced to flee
from Jerusalem (9:30), and here he landed when returning from
his second missionary journey (18:22). He remained as a prisoner
here for two years before his voyage to Rome (Acts 24:27; 25:1,
4, 6, 13). Here on a "set day," when games were celebrated in
the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa I.
appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the
idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an angel,
and carried out a dying man. He was "eaten of worms" (12:19-23),
thus perishing by the same loathsome disease as his granfather,
Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient name Kaiseriyeh,
but is now desolate. "The present inhabitants of the ruins are
snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals." It is
described as the most desolate city of all Israel.