=Israel (q.v.), "the land of the Philistines" (Ps. 60:8;
87:4; 108:9). The word is supposed to mean "the land of
wanderers" or "of strangers."
Shalim, Land of
land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem
(1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan
Shual, The land of
land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin (1 Sam.
13:17); possibly the same as Shalim (9:4), in the neighbourhood
of Shaalabbin (Josh. 19:42).
(Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals (Lev. 11:29).
Land tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by
"land crocodile." The word, however, more probably denotes a
lizard, called by the modern Arabs "dhabb".
Shinar, The Land of
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;"
probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia,
extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel
was built (Gen. 11:1-6), and the city of Babylon. The name
occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar
was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the
land and made bricks and built cities. Then tribes of Semites
invaded the land and settled in it, and became its rulers. This
was followed in course of time by an Elamite invasion; from
which the land was finally delivered by Khammurabi, the son of
Amarpel ("Amraphel, king of Shinar," Gen. 14:1), who became the
founder of the new empire of Chaldea. (See AMRAPHEL T0000221.)
fertile land. (1.) The son of Aram, and grandson of Shem (Gen.
10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17).
(2.) One of the Horite "dukes" in the land of Edom (Gen.
(3.) The eldest son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:21,
a part, a mountain summit in the land of Moab, in the territory
of Reuben, where Balak offered up sacrifices (Num. 21:20;
23:14), and from which Moses viewed the promised land (Deut.
3:27). It is probably the modern Jebel Siaghah. (See NEBO
From the middle of May to about the middle of August the land of
Israel is dry. It is then the "drought of summer" (Gen.
31:40; Ps. 32:4), and the land suffers (Deut. 28:23: Ps. 102:4),
vegetation being preserved only by the dews (Hag. 1:11). (See
acacias, also called "Abel-shittim" (Num. 33:49), a plain or
valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped
after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of
their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two
spies (q.v.) "secretly" to "view" the land and Jericho (Josh.
Tob, The land of
a district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of
the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren
(Judg. 11:3, 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea,
between Syria and the land of Ammon (2 Sam. 10:6, 8). Its modern
name is Taiyibeh.
the seed of the father, or, according to others, the desirable
land, the eldest son of Lot (Gen. 19:37), of incestuous birth.
(2.) Used to denote the people of Moab (Num. 22:3-14; Judg.
3:30; 2 Sam. 8:2; Jer. 48:11, 13).
(3.) The land of Moab (Jer. 48:24), called also the "country
of Moab" (Ruth 1:2, 6; 2:6), on the east of Jordan and the Dead
Sea, and south of the Arnon (Num. 21:13, 26). In a wider sense
it included the whole region that had been occupied by the
Amorites. It bears the modern name of Kerak.
In the Plains of Moab, opposite Jericho (Num. 22:1; 26:63;
Josh. 13:32), the children of Israel had their last encampment
before they entered the land of Canaan. It was at that time in
the possession of the Amorites (Num. 21:22). "Moses went up from
the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of
Pisgah," and "died there in the land of Moab, according to the
word of the Lord" (Deut. 34:5, 6). "Surely if we had nothing
else to interest us in the land of Moab, the fact that it was
from the top of Pisgah, its noblest height, this mightiest of
the prophets looked out with eye undimmed upon the Promised
Land; that it was here on Nebo, its loftiest mountain, that he
died his solitary death; that it was here, in the valley over
against Beth-peor, he found his mysterious sepulchre, we have
enough to enshrine the memory in our hearts."
"the land of" (Gen. 47:11), was probably "the land of Goshen"
(q.v.) 45:10. After the Hebrews had built Rameses, one of the
"treasure cities," it came to be known as the "land" in which
that city was built.
The city bearing this name (Ex. 12:37) was probably identical
with Zoan, which Rameses II. ("son of the sun") rebuilt. It
became his special residence, and ranked next in importance and
magnificance to Thebes. Huge masses of bricks, made of Nile mud,
sun-dried, some of them mixed with stubble, possibly moulded by
Jewish hands, still mark the site of Rameses. This was the
general rendezvous of the Israelites before they began their
march out of Egypt. Called also Raamses (Ex. 1:11).
a species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour
of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev.
11:30, where the Hebrew word so translated is "coah" (R.V.,
"land crocodile"). In the same verse the Hebrew "tanshemeth",
rendered in Authorized Version "mole," is in Revised Version
"chameleon," which is the correct rendering. This animal is very
common in Egypt and in the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan
When the Israelites reached Kadesh for the first time, and were
encamped there, Moses selected twelve spies from among the
chiefs of the divisions of the tribes, and sent them forth to
spy the land of Canaan (Num. 13), and to bring back to him a
report of its actual condition. They at once proceeded on their
important errand, and went through the land as far north as the
district round Lake Merom. After about six weeks' absence they
returned. Their report was very discouraging, and the people
were greatly alarmed, and in a rebellious spirit proposed to
elect a new leader and return to Egypt. Only two of the spies,
Caleb and Joshua, showed themselves on this occasion
stout-hearted and faithful. All their appeals and remonstrances
were in vain. Moses announced that as a punishment for their
rebellion they must now wander in the wilderness till a new
generation should arise which would go up and posses the land.
The spies had been forty days absent on their expedition, and
for each day the Israelites were to be wanderers for a year in
the desert. (See ESHCOL T0001248.)
Two spies were sent by Joshua "secretly" i.e., unknown to the
people (Josh. 2:1), "to view the land and Jericho" after the
death of Moses, and just before the tribes under his leadership
were about to cross the Jordan. They learned from Rahab (q.v.),
in whose house they found a hiding-place, that terror had fallen
on all the inhabitants of the land because of the great things
they had heard that Jehovah had done for them (Ex. 15:14-16;
compare 23:27; Deut. 2:25; 11:25). As the result of their mission
they reported: "Truly Jehovah hath delivered into our hands all
the land; for even all the inhabitants of the country do faint
because of us."
hidden, one of the twelve spies sent out to explore the land of
Canaan (Num. 13:14).
deliverance of God, the prince of Issachar who assisted "to
divide the land by inheritance" (Num. 34:26).
regions beyond; i.e., on the east of Jordan, a mountain, or
rather a mountain-chain, over against Jericho, to the east and
south-east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab. From "the top
of Pisgah", i.e., Mount Nebo (q.v.), one of its summits, Moses
surveyed the Promised Land (Deut. 3:27; 32:49), and there he
died (34:1,5). The Israelites had one of their encampments in
the mountains of Abarim (Num. 33:47,48) after crossing the
a mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people
of the land" (Gen. 23:7); so Jacob to Esau (Gen. 33:3); and the
brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land (Gen.
43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of
adoration to idols (Josh. 23:7; 2 Kings 5:18; Judg. 2:19; Isa.
44:15), and to God (Josh. 5:14; Ps. 22:29; 72:9; Micah 6:6; Ps.
95:6; Eph. 3:14).
villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Canaanite nation
inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel.
"They were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time."
They were to be driven out of the land by the descendants of
Abraham (Gen. 15:20; Ex. 3:8, 17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11). They are
afterwards named among the conquered tribes (Josh. 24:11). Still
lingering in the land, however, they were reduced to servitude
by Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).
hidden, one of the spies sent to search the Promised Land. He
was of the tribe of Asher (Num. 13:13).
Sinim, The land of
(Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably
Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended.
fortunate, the representative of the tribe of Manasseh among the
twelve "spies" sent by Moses to spy the land (Num. 13:11).
middle land, the third "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), the name by
which the Medes are known on the Assyrian monuments.
witness, a word not found in the original Hebrew, nor in the
LXX. and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized
Version, also in the Revised Version, of Josh. 22:34. The words
are literally rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the
children of Gad named the altar. It is a witness between us that
Jehovah is God." This great altar stood probably on the east
side of the Jordan, in the land of Gilead, "over against the
land of Canaan." After the division of the Promised Land, the
tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh, on
returning to their own settlements on the east of Jordan (Josh.
22:1-6), erected a great altar, which they affirmed, in answer
to the challenge of the other tribes, was not for sacrifice, but
only as a witness ('Ed) or testimony to future generations that
they still retained the same interest in the nation as the other
Shalisha, Land of
probably the district of Baal-shalisha (2 Kings 4:42), lying
about 12 miles north of Lydda (1 Sam. 9:4).
married, is used in Isa. 62:4 metaphorically as the name of
Judea: "Thy land shall be married," i.e., favoured and blessed
of the Lord.
were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word
came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a
possession (Ps. 16:6).
plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the
original inhabitants (Gen. 14:5). Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon,
in the land of Moab.
every seventh year, during which the land, according to the law
of Moses, had to remain uncultivated (Lev. 25:2-7; compare Ex.
23:10, 11, 12; Lev. 26:34, 35). Whatever grew of itself during
that year was not for the owner of the land, but for the poor
and the stranger and the beasts of the field. All debts, except
those of foreigners, were to be remitted (Deut. 15:1-11). There
is little notice of the observance of this year in Biblical
history. It appears to have been much neglected (2 Chr. 36:20,
In land measure, a space of 50 cubits long by 50 broad. In
measure of capacity, a seah was a little over one peck. (See
(1.) The fourth son of Ham (Gen. 10:6). His descendants were
under a curse in consequence of the transgression of his father
(9:22-27). His eldest son, Zidon, was the father of the
Sidonians and Phoenicians. He had eleven sons, who were the
founders of as many tribes (10:15-18).
(2.) The country which derived its name from the preceding.
The name as first used by the Phoenicians denoted only the
maritime plain on which Sidon was built. But in the time of
Moses and Joshua it denoted the whole country to the west of the
Jordan and the Dead Sea (Deut. 11:30). In Josh. 5:12 the LXX.
read, "land of the Phoenicians," instead of "land of Canaan."
The name signifies "the lowlands," as distinguished from the
land of Gilead on the east of Jordan, which was a mountainous
district. The extent and boundaries of Canaan are fully set
forth in different parts of Scripture (Gen. 10:19; 17:8; Num.
13:29; 34:8). (See CANAANITES T0000705, PALESTINE T0002828.)
sickly, the elder of Elimelech the Bethlehemite's two sons by
Naomi. He married Ruth and died childless (Ruth 1:2, 5; 4:9,
10), in the land of Moab.
Zuph, Land of
(1 Sam. 9:5, 6), a district in which lay Samuel's city, Ramah.
It was probably so named after Elkanah's son, Zuph (1 Chr. 6:26,
probably the hilly region or upland wilderness on the north of
the desert of Paran forming the southern boundary of the
Promised Land (Deut. 33:2; Hab. 3:3).
prince, or summit, a place "in the land of Ephraim" (Judg.
12:15), now Fer'on, some 10 miles south-west of Shechem. This
was the home of Abdon the judge.
high land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2 Kings 19:37; in
Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country
in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea.
Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen. 8:4). It is
for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras,
the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the
name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia
are mentioned in Jer. 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some,
however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT
physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third
king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of
God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying
immoralities, out of the land (1 Kings 15:8-14). The Lord gave
him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him,
however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to
the Lord, but to the physicians" (compare Jer. 17:5). He died in
the forty-first year of his reign, greatly honoured by his
people (2 Chr. 16:1-13), and was succeeded by his son
whom God has loved, son of Chislon, and chief of the tribe of
Benjamin; one of those who were appointed to divide the Promised
Land among the tribes (Num. 34:21).
(god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria.
He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then
fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).
the inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an
African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chr. 12:3; 16:8). Their
territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the
originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan
inhabited by the Philistines (Ex. 15:14; Isa. 14:29, 31; Joel
3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth
(rendered "Philistia" in Ps. 60:8; 83:7; 87:4; 108:9) occurs in
the Old Testament.
Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to
denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general (Gen. 40:15). It is
also called "the holy land" (Zech. 2:12), the "land of Jehovah"
(Hos. 9:3; Ps. 85:1), the "land of promise" (Heb. 11:9), because
promised to Abraham (Gen. 12:7; 24:7), the "land of Canaan"
(Gen. 12:5), the "land of Israel" (1 Sam. 13:19), and the "land
of Judah" (Isa. 19:17).
The territory promised as an inheritance to the seed of
Abraham (Gen. 15:18-21; Num. 34:1-12) was bounded on the east by
the river Euphrates, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the
north by the "entrance of Hamath," and on the south by the
"river of Egypt." This extent of territory, about 60,000 square
miles, was at length conquered by David, and was ruled over also
by his son Solomon (2 Sam. 8; 1 Chr. 18; 1 Kings 4:1, 21). This
vast empire was the Promised Land; but Israel was only a part
of it, terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the
Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus
extending in all to about 144 miles in length. Its average
breadth was about 60 miles from the Mediterranean on the west to
beyond the Jordan. It has fittingly been designated "the least
of all lands." Western Israel, on the south of Gaza, is only
about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead
Sea, narrowing gradually toward the north, where it is only 20
miles from the sea-coast to the Jordan.
Israel, "set in the midst" (Ezek. 5:5) of all other lands,
is the most remarkable country on the face of the earth. No
single country of such an extent has so great a variety of
climate, and hence also of plant and animal life. Moses
describes it as "a good land, a land of brooks of water, of
fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a
land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and
pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey; a land wherein
thou shalt not eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack
any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose
hills thou mayest dig brass" (Deut. 8:7-9).
"In the time of Christ the country looked, in all probability,
much as now. The whole land consists of rounded limestone hills,
fretted into countless stony valleys, offering but rarely level
tracts, of which Esdraelon alone, below Nazareth, is large
enough to be seen on the map. The original woods had for ages
disappeared, though the slopes were dotted, as now, with figs,
olives, and other fruit-trees where there was any soil.
Permanent streams were even then unknown, the passing rush of
winter torrents being all that was seen among the hills. The
autumn and spring rains, caught in deep cisterns hewn out like
huge underground jars in the soft limestone, with artificial
mud-banked ponds still found near all villages, furnished water.
Hills now bare, or at best rough with stunted growth, were then
terraced, so as to grow vines, olives, and grain. To-day almost
desolate, the country then teemed with population. Wine-presses
cut in the rocks, endless terraces, and the ruins of old
vineyard towers are now found amidst solitudes overgrown for
ages with thorns and thistles, or with wild shrubs and poor
gnarled scrub" (Geikie's Life of Christ).
From an early period the land was inhabited by the descendants
of Canaan, who retained possession of the whole land "from Sidon
to Gaza" till the time of the conquest by Joshua, when it was
occupied by the twelve tribes. Two tribes and a half had their
allotments given them by Moses on the east of the Jordan (Deut.
3:12-20; compare Num. 1:17-46; Josh. 4:12-13). The remaining
tribes had their portion on the west of Jordan.
From the conquest till the time of Saul, about four hundred
years, the people were governed by judges. For a period of one
hundred and twenty years the kingdom retained its unity while it
was ruled by Saul and David and Solomon. On the death of
Solomon, his son Rehoboam ascended the throne; but his conduct
was such that ten of the tribes revolted, and formed an
independent monarchy, called the kingdom of Israel, or the
northern kingdom, the capital of which was first Shechem and
afterwards Samaria. This kingdom was destroyed. The Israelites
were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, B.C. 722,
after an independent existence of two hundred and fifty-three
years. The place of the captives carried away was supplied by
tribes brought from the east, and thus was formed the Samaritan
nation (2 Kings 17:24-29).
Nebuchadnezzar came up against the kingdom of the two tribes,
the kingdom of Judah, the capital of which was Jerusalem, one
hundred and thirty-four years after the overthrow of the kingdom
of Israel. He overthrew the city, plundered the temple, and
carried the people into captivity to Babylon (B.C. 587), where
they remained seventy years. At the close of the period of the
Captivity, they returned to their own land, under the edict of
Cyrus (Ezra 1:1-4). They rebuilt the city and temple, and
restored the old Jewish commonwealth.
For a while after the Restoration the Jews were ruled by
Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and afterwards by the high
priests, assisted by the Sanhedrin. After the death of Alexander
the Great at Babylon (B.C. 323), his vast empire was divided
between his four generals. Egypt, Arabia, Israel, and
Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took
possession of Israel in B.C. 320, and carried nearly one
hundred thousand of the inhabitants of Jerusalem into Egypt. He
made Alexandria the capital of his kingdom, and treated the Jews
with consideration, confirming them in the enjoyment of many
After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's
successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became
subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty
and opression of the successors of Antiochus at length led to
the revolt under the Maccabees (B.C. 163), when they threw off
the Syrian yoke.
In the year B.C. 68, Israel was reduced by Pompey the Great
to a Roman province. He laid the walls of the city in ruins, and
massacred some twelve thousand of the inhabitants. He left the
temple, however, unijured. About twenty-five years after this
the Jews revolted and cast off the Roman yoke. They were
however, subdued by Herod the Great (q.v.). The city and the
temple were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were put to
death. About B.C. 20, Herod proceeded to rebuild the city and
restore the ruined temple, which in about nine years and a half
was so far completed that the sacred services could be resumed
in it (compare John 2:20). He was succeeded by his son Archelaus,
who was deprived of his power, however, by Augustus, A.D. 6,
when Israel became a Roman province, ruled by Roman governors
or procurators. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these
procurators. He was appointed to his office A.D. 25.
Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great
comprehended the whole of the country originally divided among
the twelve tribes, which he divided into four provinces or
districts. This division was recognized so long as Israel was
under the Roman dominion. These four provinces were, (1) Judea,
the southern portion of the country; (2) Samaria, the middle
province, the northern boundary of which ran along the hills to
the south of the plain of Esdraelon; (3) Galilee, the northern
province; and (4) Peraea (a Greek name meaning the "opposite
country"), the country lying east of the Jordan and the Dead
Sea. This province was subdivided into these districts, (1)
Peraea proper, lying between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok; (2)
Galaaditis (Gilead); (3) Batanaea; (4) Gaulonitis (Jaulan); (5)
Ituraea or Auranitis, the ancient Bashan; (6) Trachonitis; (7)
Abilene; (8) Decapolis, i.e., the region of the ten cities. The
whole territory of Israel, including the portions alloted to
the trans-Jordan tribes, extended to about eleven thousand
square miles. Recent exploration has shown the territory on the
west of Jordan alone to be six thousand square miles in extent,
the size of the principality of Wales.
those who imitated the licentious wickedness of Sodom (Deut.
23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; Rom. 1:26, 27). Asa destroyed them "out of
the land" (1 Kings 15:12), as did also his son Jehoshaphat
Uz, The land of
where Job lived (1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21), probably somewhere
to the east or south-east of Israel and north of Edom. It is
mentioned in Scripture only in these three passages.
(1.) A district in Egypt where Jacob and his family settled, and
in which they remained till the Exodus (Gen. 45:10; 46:28, 29,
31, etc.). It is called "the land of Goshen" (47:27), and also
simply "Goshen" (46:28), and "the land of Rameses" (47:11; Ex.
12:37), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders;
also Zoan or Tanis (Ps. 78:12). It lay on the east of the Nile,
and apparently not far from the royal residence. It was "the
best of the land" (Gen. 47:6, 11), but is now a desert. It is
first mentioned in Joseph's message to his father. It has been
identified with the modern Wady Tumilat, lying between the
eastern part of the Delta and the west border of Israel. It
was a pastoral district, where some of the king's cattle were
kept (Gen. 47:6). The inhabitants were not exclusively
Israelites (Ex. 3:22; 11:2; 12:35, 36).
(2.) A district in Israel (Josh. 10:41; 11:16). It was a
part of the maritime plain of Judah, and lay between Gaza and
(3.) A town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:51).
a joyful shout or clangour of trumpets, the name of the great
semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews. It lasted for a year.
During this year the land was to be fallow, and the Israelites
were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the
fields (Lev. 25:11, 12). All landed property during that year
reverted to its original owner (13-34; 27:16-24), and all who
were slaves were set free (25:39-54), and all debts were
The return of the jubilee year was proclaimed by a blast of
trumpets which sounded throughout the land. There is no record
in Scripture of the actual observance of this festival, but
there are numerous allusions (Isa. 5:7, 8, 9, 10; 61:1, 2; Ezek.
7:12, 13; Neh. 5:1-19; 2 Chr. 36:21) which place it beyond a
doubt that it was observed.
The advantages of this institution were manifold. "1. It would
prevent the accumulation of land on the part of a few to the
detriment of the community at large. 2. It would render it
impossible for any one to be born to absolute poverty, since
every one had his hereditary land. 3. It would preclude those
inequalities which are produced by extremes of riches and
poverty, and which make one man domineer over another. 4. It
would utterly do away with slavery. 5. It would afford a fresh
opportunity to those who were reduced by adverse circumstances
to begin again their career of industry in the patrimony which
they had temporarily forfeited. 6. It would periodically rectify
the disorders which crept into the state in the course of time,
preclude the division of the people into nobles and plebeians,
and preserve the theocracy inviolate."
(Joel 2:20; Ezek. 47:18), the Dead Sea, which lay on the east
side of the Holy Land. The Mediterranean, which lay on the west,
was hence called the "great sea for the west border" (Num.
heard of God. (1.) The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in
the division of the land (Num. 34:20).
(2.) Used for "Samuel" (1 Chr. 6:33, R.V.).
(3.) A prince of the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2).
mighty one; God of Israel, the name which Jacob gave to the
alter which he erected on the piece of land where he pitched his
tent before Shechem, and which he afterwards purchased from the
sons of Hamor (Gen. 33:20).
(Matt. 22:5). Every Hebrew had a certain portion of land
assigned to him as a possession (Num. 26:33-56). In Egypt the
lands all belonged to the king, and the husbandmen were obliged
to give him a fifth part of the produce; so in Israel Jehovah
was the sole possessor of the soil, and the people held it by
direct tenure from him. By the enactment of Moses, the Hebrews
paid a tithe of the produce to Jehovah, which was assigned to
the priesthood. Military service when required was also to be
rendered by every Hebrew at his own expense. The occuptaion of a
husbandman was held in high honour (1 Sam. 11:5-7; 1 Kings
19:19; 2 Chr. 26:10). (See LAND LAWS (n/a); TITHE T0003681.)
This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land
residing in Israel. Such persons enjoyed many privileges in
common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The
relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws
(Deut. 23:3; 24:14-21; 25:5; 26:10-13). A special signification
is also sometimes attached to this word. In Gen. 23:4 it denotes
one resident in a foreign land; Ex. 23:9, one who is not a Jew;
Num. 3:10, one who is not of the family of Aaron; Ps. 69:8, an
alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase
strangers as slaves (Lev. 25:44, 45), and to take usury from
them (Deut. 23:20).
mountainous land, a province of Assyria (1 Chr. 5:26), between
the Tigris and the Euphrates, along the banks of the Khabur, to
which some of the Israelite captives were carried. It has not
been identified. Some think the word a variation of Haran.
helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor
(2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of
Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
interpretation of dreams, identified with Pitru, on the west
bank of the Euphrates, a few miles south of the Hittite capital
of Carchemish (Num. 22:5, "which is by the river of the land of
the children of [the god] Ammo"). (See BALAAM T0000421.)
heard. (1.) One of the spies sent out by Moses to search the
land (Num. 13:4). He represented the tribe of Reuben.
(2.) One of David's sons (1 Chr. 14:4; 3:5, "Shimea;" 2 Sam.
(3.) A Levite under Nehemiah (11:17).
the land of the newly inhabited, (2 Sam. 24:6). It is
conjectured that, instead of this word, the reading should be,
"the Hittites of Kadesh," the Hittite capital, on the Orontes.
It was apparently some region east of the Jordan and north of
fruitful. (1.) The second wife of Caleb, the son of Hezron,
mother of Hur, and grandmother of Caleb, who was one of those
that were sent to spy the land (1 Chr. 2:19, 50).
(2.) The ancient name of Bethlehem in Judah (Gen. 35:16, 19;
48:7). In Ruth 1:2 it is called "Bethlehem-Judah," but the
inhabitants are called "Ephrathites;" in Micah 5:2,
"Bethlehem-Ephratah;" in Matt. 2:6, "Bethlehem in the land of
Judah." In Ps. 132:6 it is mentioned as the place where David
spent his youth, and where he heard much of the ark, although he
never saw it till he found it long afterwards at Kirjath-jearim;
i.e., the "city of the wood," or the "forest-town" (1 Sam. 7:1;
compare 2 Sam. 6:3, 4).
or Hagarite. (1.) One of David's mighty men (1 Chr. 11:38), the
son of a foreigner.
(2.) Used of Jaziz (1 Chr. 27:31), who was over David's
flocks. "A Hagarite had charge of David's flocks, and an
Ishmaelite of his herds, because the animals were pastured in
districts where these nomadic people were accustomed to feed
(3.) In the reign of Saul a great war was waged between the
trans-Jordanic tribes and the Hagarites (1 Chr. 5), who were
overcome in battle. A great booty was captured by the two tribes
and a half, and they took possession of the land of the
Subsequently the "Hagarenes," still residing in the land on
the east of Jordan, entered into a conspiracy against Israel
(compare Ps. 83:6). They are distinguished from the Ishmaelites.
the waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the
Dead Sea (Num. 21:20; 23:28; 1 Sam. 23:19, 24); or rather not a
proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the
district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.
sacred land or high land, the name of a country on one of the
mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided (Gen.
8:4). The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range
of South Armenia. In 2 Kings 19:37, Isa. 37:38, the word is
rendered "Armenia" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised
Version, "Land of Ararat." In Jer. 51:27, the name denotes the
central or southern portion of Armenia. It is, however,
generally applied to a high and almost inaccessible mountain
which rises majestically from the plain of the Araxes. It has
two conical peaks, about 7 miles apart, the one 14,300 feet and
the other 10,300 feet above the level of the plain. Three
thousand feet of the summit of the higher of these peaks is
covered with perpetual snow. It is called Kuh-i-nuh, i.e.,
"Noah's mountain", by the Persians. This part of Armenia was
inhabited by a people who spoke a language unlike any other now
known, though it may have been related to the modern Georgian.
About B.C. 900 they borrowed the cuneiform characters of
Nineveh, and from this time we have inscriptions of a line of
kings who at times contended with Assyria. At the close of the
seventh century B.C. the kingdom of Ararat came to an end, and
the country was occupied by a people who are ancestors of the
Armenians of the present day.
stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30
miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of
Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the
extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over
by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New
Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the
Israelites (Deut. 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the
Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space
of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive.
Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without
cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron;
the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by
ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having
been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have
more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken
possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace.
Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect,
as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs
unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These
ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest
specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant
Cities). (See BASHAN T0000461.)
(1.) One of the sons of Ham (Gen. 10:6).
(2.) A land or people from among whom came a portion of the
mercenary troops of Egypt, Jer. 46:9 (A.V., "Libyans," but
correctly, R.V., "Put"); Ezek. 27:10; 30:5 (A.V., "Libya;" R.V.,
"Put"); 38:5; Nahum 3:9.
weepers, a place where the angel of the Lord reproved the
Israelites for entering into a league with the people of the
land. This caused them bitterly to weep, and hence the name of
the place (Judg. 2:1, 5). It lay probably at the head of one of
the valleys between Gilgal and Shiloh.
(1.) In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word
"adamah'". In Gen. 9:20 "husbandman" is literally "man of the
ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth (Ex. 20:24).
Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (2 Kings 5:17),
under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of
the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own
(2). As the rendering of "'erets", it means the whole world
(Gen. 1:2); the land as opposed to the sea (1:10). "Erets" also
denotes a country (21:32); a plot of ground (23:15); the ground
on which a man stands (33:3); the inhabitants of the earth (6:1;
11:1); all the world except Israel (2 Chr. 13:9). In the New
Testament "the earth" denotes the land of Judea (Matt. 23:35);
also things carnal in contrast with things heavenly (John 3:31;
Col. 3:1, 2).
bunch; brave. (1.) A young Amoritish chief who joined Abraham in
the recovery of Lot from the hands of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13,
(2.) A valley in which the spies obtained a fine cluster of
grapes (Num. 13:23, 24; "the brook Eshcol," A.V.; "the valley of
Eshcol," R.V.), which they took back with them to the camp of
Israel as a specimen of the fruits of the Promised Land. On
their way back they explored the route which led into the south
(the Negeb) by the western edge of the mountains at Telilat
el-'Anab, i.e., "grape-mounds", near Beersheba. "In one of these
extensive valleys, perhaps in Wady Hanein, where miles of
grape-mounds even now meet the eye, they cut the gigantic
clusters of grapes, and gathered the pomegranates and figs, to
show how goodly was the land which the Lord had promised for
their inheritance.", Palmer's Desert of the Exodus.
Joel, Book of
Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to
that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem
(1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1, 12, 17, 20, 21).
He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C.
800), and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah.
The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great
public calamity then impending over the land, consisting of a
want of water and an extraordinary plague of locusts (1:1-2:11).
(2.) The prophet then calls on his countrymen to repent and to
turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive
(2:12-17), and foretelling the restoration of the land to its
accustomed fruitfulness (18-26). (3.) Then follows a Messianic
prophecy, quoted by Peter (Acts 2:39). (4.) Finally, the prophet
foretells portents and judgments as destined to fall on the
enemies of God (ch. 3, but in the Hebrew text 4).
servant of Jehovah. When Elah was murdered by Zimri at Tirzah (1
Kings 16:15-27), Omri, his captain, was made king (B.C. 931).
For four years there was continued opposition to his reign,
Tibni, another claimant to the throne, leading the opposing
party; but at the close of that period all his rivals were
defeated, and he became king of Israel, "Tibni died and Omri
reigned" (B.C. 927). By his vigour and power he gained great
eminence and consolidated the kingdom. He fixed his dynasty on
the throne so firmly that it continued during four succeeding
reigns. Tirza was for six years the seat of his government. He
then removed the capital to Samaria (q.v.), where he died, and
was succeeded by his son Ahab. "He wrought evil in the eyes of
the Lord, and did worse than all that were before him."
Beth-omri, "the house" or "city of Omri," is the name usually
found on Assyrian inscriptions for Samaria. In the stele of
Mesha (the "Moabite stone"), which was erected in Moab about
twenty or thirty years after Omri's death, it is recorded that
Omri oppressed Moab till Mesha delivered the land: "Omri, king
of Israel, oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was angry with
his land. His son succeeded him, and he also said, I will
oppress Moab" (compare 2 Kings 1:1; 3:4, 5). The "Moabite stone"
also records that "Omri took the land of Medeba, and occupied it
in his day and in the days of his son forty years."
holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on
the south-eastern border of Israel, about 165 miles from
Horeb. It lay in the "wilderness" or "desert of Zin" (Gen. 14:7;
Num. 13:3-26; 14:29-33; 20:1; 27:14), on the border of Edom
(20:16). From this place, in compliance with the desire of the
people, Moses sent forth "twelve spies" to spy the land. After
examining it in all its districts, the spies brought back an
evil report, Joshua and Caleb alone giving a good report of the
land (13:18-31). Influenced by the discouraging report, the
people abandoned all hope of entering into the Promised Land.
They remained a considerable time at Kadesh. (See HORMAH
T0001820; KORAH T0002222.) Because of their unbelief, they
were condemned by God to wander for thirty-eight years in the
wilderness. They took their journey from Kadesh into the deserts
of Paran, "by way of the Red Sea" (Deut. 2:1). (One theory is
that during these thirty-eight years they remained in and about
At the end of these years of wanderings, the tribes were a
second time gathered together at Kadesh. During their stay here
at this time Miriam died and was buried. Here the people
murmured for want of water, as their forefathers had done
formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their chidings,
"with his rod smote the rock twice," instead of "speaking to the
rock before their eyes," as the Lord had commanded him (compare
Num. 27:14; Deut. 9:23; Ps. 106:32, 33). Because of this act of
his, in which Aaron too was involved, neither of them was to be
permitted to set foot within the Promised Land (Num. 20:12, 24).
The king of Edom would not permit them to pass on through his
territory, and therefore they commenced an eastward march, and
"came unto Mount Hor" (20:22).
This place has been identified with 'Ain el-Kadeis, about 12
miles east-south-east of Beersheba. (See SPIES T0003493.)
brother of a gift = liberal. (1.) One of the three giant Anakim
brothers whom Caleb and the spies saw in Mount Hebron (Num.
13:22) when they went in to explore the land. They were
afterwards driven out and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).
(2.) One of the guardians of the temple after the Exile (1
The observance of birth-days was common in early times (Job 1:4,
13, 18). They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt
(Gen. 40:20). There is no recorded instance in Scripture of the
celebration of birth-days among the Jews. On the occasion of
Herod's birth-day John the Baptist was beheaded (Matt. 14:6).
the dual form of matzor, meaning a "mound" or "fortress," the
name of a people descended from Ham (Gen. 10:6, 13; 1 Chr. 1:8,
11). It was the name generally given by the Hebrews to the land
of Egypt (q.v.), and may denote the two Egypts, the Upper and
the Lower. The modern Arabic name for Egypt is Muzr.
firm, a descendant of Cush, the son of Ham. He was the first who
claimed to be a "mighty one in the earth." Babel was the
beginning of his kingdom, which he gradually enlarged (Gen.
10:8-10). The "land of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6) is a designation of
Assyria or of Shinar, which is a part of it.
the descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their
original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and
to have there sojourned for some time. They thence "spread to
the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge
of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later
became Israel, also to the north-west as far as the mountain
chain of Taurus. This group was very numerous, and broken up
into a great many peoples, as we can judge from the list of
nations (Gen. 10), the 'sons of Canaan.'" Six different tribes
are mentioned in Ex. 3:8, 17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11. In Ex. 13:5
the "Perizzites" are omitted. The "Girgashites" are mentioned in
addition to the foregoing in Deut. 7:1; Josh. 3:10.
The "Canaanites," as distinguished from the Amalekites, the
Anakim, and the Rephaim, were "dwellers in the lowlands" (Num.
13:29), the great plains and valleys, the richest and most
important parts of Israel. Tyre and Sidon, their famous
cities, were the centres of great commercial activity; and hence
the name "Canaanite" came to signify a "trader" or "merchant"
(Job 41:6; Prov. 31:24, lit. "Canaanites;" compare Zeph. 1:11;
Ezek. 17:4). The name "Canaanite" is also sometimes used to
designate the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land in general
(Gen. 12:6; Num. 21:3; Judg. 1:10).
The Israelites, when they were led to the Promised Land, were
commanded utterly to destroy the descendants of Canaan then
possessing it (Ex. 23:23; Num. 33:52, 53; Deut. 20:16, 17). This
was to be done "by little and little," lest the beasts of the
field should increase (Ex. 23:29; Deut. 7:22, 23). The history
of these wars of conquest is given in the Book of Joshua. The
extermination of these tribes, however, was never fully carried
out. Jerusalem was not taken till the time of David (2 Sam. 5:6,
7). In the days of Solomon bond-service was exacted from the
fragments of the tribes still remaining in the land (1 Kings
9:20, 21). Even after the return from captivity survivors of
five of the Canaanite tribes were still found in the land.
In the Tell-el-Amarna tablets Canaan is found under the forms
of Kinakhna and Kinakhkhi. Under the name of Kanana the
Canaanites appear on Egyptian monuments, wearing a coat of mail
and helmet, and distinguished by the use of spear and javelin
and the battle-axe. They were called Phoenicians by the Greeks
and Poeni by the Romans. By race the Canaanites were Semitic.
They were famous as merchants and seamen, as well as for their
artistic skill. The chief object of their worship was the
sun-god, who was addressed by the general name of Baal, "lord."
Each locality had its special Baal, and the various local Baals
were summed up under the name of Baalim, "lords."
(1.) The name of Esau (q.v.), Gen. 25:30, "Feed me, I pray thee,
with that same red pottage [Heb. haadom, haadom, i.e., 'the red
pottage, the red pottage'] ...Therefore was his name called
Edom", i.e., Red.
(2.) Idumea (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15). "The field of Edom"
(Gen. 32:3), "the land of Edom" (Gen. 36:16), was mountainous
(Obad. 1:8, 9, 19, 21). It was called the land, or "the mountain
of Seir," the rough hills on the east side of the Arabah. It
extended from the head of the Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf,
to the foot of the Dead Sea (1 Kings 9:26), and contained, among
other cities, the rock-hewn Sela (q.v.), generally known by the
Greek name Petra (2 Kings 14:7). It is a wild and rugged region,
traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old capital was Bozrah (Isa.
63:1). The early inhabitants of the land were Horites. They were
destroyed by the Edomites (Deut. 2:12), between whom and the
kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war (2 Kings 8:20;
2 Chr. 28:17).
At the time of the Exodus they churlishly refused permission
to the Israelites to pass through their land (Num. 20:14-21),
and ever afterwards maintained an attitude of hostility toward
them. They were conquered by David (2 Sam. 8:14; compare 1 Kings
9:26), and afterwards by Amaziah (2 Chr. 25:11, 12). But they
regained again their independence, and in later years, during
the decline of the Jewish kingdom (2 Kings 16:6; R.V. marg.,
"Edomites"), made war against Israel. They took part with the
Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards
they invaded and held possession of the south of Israel as
far as Hebron. At length, however, Edom fell under the growing
Chaldean power (Jer. 27:3, 6).
There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Jer.
49:7-18; Ezek. 25:13; 35:1-15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11; Obad.; Mal.
1:3, 4) which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present
desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the
inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people
for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly
disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In
Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles
assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds, and
beasts, and reptiles."
The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in
language to the Israelites. They dispossessed the Horites of
Mount Seir; though it is clear, from Gen. 36, that they
afterwards intermarried with the conquered population. Edomite
tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites
(Gen. 36:11), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged (Josh. 15:17).
The southern part of Edom was known as Teman.
(1.) The inhabitants of Geshur. They maintained friendly
relations with the Israelites on the east of Jordan (Josh. 12:5;
(2.) Another aboriginal people of Israel who inhabited the
south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Josh. 13:2 should be
"the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in ver. 11, 13,
but the tribe mentioned in 1 Sam. 27:8.
distribution, an Ammonitish town (Judg. 11:33) from which wheat
was exported to Tyre (Ezek. 27:17). It was probably somewhere in
the Mishor or table-land on the east of Jordan. There is a
gentle valley running for about 4 miles east of Dhiban called
Kurm Dhiban, "the vineyards of Dibon." Tristram supposes that
this may be the "vineyards" mentioned in Judg. (l.c.).
the descendants of Anak (Josh. 11:21; Num. 13:33; Deut. 9:2).
They dwelt in the south of Israel, in the neighbourhood of
Hebron (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 15:13). In the days of Abraham (Gen.
14:5, 6) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and
Moab, east of the Jordan. They were probably a remnant of the
original inhabitants of Israel before the Canaanites, a
Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the
Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings. Their formidable
warlike appearance, as described by the spies sent to search the
land, filled the Israelites with terror. They seem to have
identified them with the Nephilim, the "giants" (Gen. 6:4; Num.
13:33) of the antediluvian age. There were various tribes of
Anakim (Josh. 15:14). Joshua finally expelled them from the
land, except a remnant that found a refuge in the cities of
Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod (Josh. 11:22). The Philistine giants whom
David encountered (2 Sam. 21:15-22) were descendants of the
Anakim. (See GIANTS T0001474.)
the two heights of the Zophites or of the watchers (only in 1
Sam. 1:1), "in the land of Zuph" (9:5). Ramathaim is another
name for Ramah (4).
One of the Levitical families descended from Kohath, that of
Zuph or Zophai (1 Chr. 6:26, 35), had a district assigned to
them in Ephraim, which from this circumstance was called "the
land of Zuph," and hence the name of the town, "Zophim." It was
the birthplace of Samuel and the seat of his authority (1 Sam.
2:11; 7:17). It is frequently mentioned in the history of that
prophet and of David (15:34; 16:13; 19:18-23). Here Samuel died
and was buried (25:1).
This town has been identified with the modern Neby Samwil
("the prophet Samuel"), about 4 or 5 miles north-west of
Jerusalem. But there is no certainty as to its precise locality.
Some have supposed that it may be identical with Arimathea of
the New Testament. (See MIZPAH T0002579).
a dog. (1.) One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of
Judah. He is also called Chelubai (1 Chr. 2:9). His descendants
are enumerated (18-20, 42-49).
(2.) A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" (1 Chr. 2:50).
Some would read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list
in ver. 42-49] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the
firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc." Thus Hur would be the
name of the son and not the father of Caleb (ver. 19).
(3.) The son of Jephunneh (Num. 13:6; 32:12; Josh. 14:6, 14).
He was one of those whom Moses sent to search the land in the
second year after the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of
the tribe of Judah. He and Joshua the son of Nun were the only
two of the whole number who encouraged the people to go up and
possess the land, and they alone were spared when a plague broke
out in which the other ten spies perished (Num. 13; 14). All the
people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward,
perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we
have of Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he
came to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had
gained possession of the land, and reminded him of the promise
Moses had made to him, by virtue of which he claimed a certain
portion of the land of Kirjath-arba as his inheritance (Josh.
14:6-15; 15:13-15; 21:10-12; 1 Sam. 25:2,3; 30:14). He is called
a "Kenezite" in Josh. 14:6,14. This may simply mean "son of
Kenez" (Num. 32:12). Some, however, read "Jephunneh, the son of
Kenez," who was a descendant of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a
grandson of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5). This Caleb may possibly be
identical with (2).
(4.) Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south
country (1 Sam. 30:14) of Judah, the district between Hebron and
Carmel, which had been assigned to him. When he gave up the city
of Hebron to the priests as a city of refuge, he retained
possession of the surrounding country (Josh. 21:11,12; compare 1
The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Prov. 7:8).
"Corners" in Neh. 9:22 denotes the various districts of the
promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num. 24:17, the
"corners of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of
a field" (Lev. 19:9; 23:22) is its extreme part, which was not
to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the
"corners," i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers
running round the ears (Lev. 19:27; 21:5). The "four corners of
the earth" in Isa. 11:12 and Ezek. 7:2 denotes the whole land.
The "corners of the streets" mentioned in Matt. 6:5 means the
angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of
The corner gate of Jerusalem (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 26:9) was
on the north-west side of the city.
Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isa. 28:16), a block of great
importance in binding together the sides of a building. The
"head of the corner" (Ps. 118:22, 23) denotes the coping, the
"coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone of a building. But the
word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote some person of
rank and importance (Isa. 28:16). It is applied to our Lord, who
was set in highest honour (Matt. 21:42). He is also styled "the
chief corner stone" (Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6-8). When Zechariah
(10:4), speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the
corner," he is probably to be understood as ultimately referring
to the Messiah as the "corner stone." (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON'S
The plague (the ninth) of darkness in Egypt (Ex. 10:21) is
described as darkness "which may be felt." It covered "all the
land of Egypt," so that "they saw not one another." It did not
extend to the land of Goshen (ver. 23).
When Jesus hung upon the cross (Matt. 27:45; Luke 23:44), from
the "sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the
On Mount Sinai, Moses (Ex. 20:21) "drew near unto the thick
darkness where God was." This was the "thick cloud upon the
mount" in which Jehovah was when he spake unto Moses there. The
Lord dwelt in the cloud upon the mercy-seat (1 Kings 8:12), the
cloud of glory. When the psalmist (Ps. 97:2) describes the
inscrutable nature of God's workings among the sons of men, he
says, "Clouds and darkness are round about him." God dwells in
Darkness (Isa. 13:9, 10; Matt. 24:29) also is a symbol of the
judgments that attend on the coming of the Lord. It is a symbol
of misery and adversity (Job 18:6; Ps. 107:10; Isa. 8:22; Ezek.
30:18). The "day of darkness" in Joel 2:2, caused by clouds of
locusts, is a symbol of the obscurity which overhangs all divine
proceedings. "Works of darkness" are impure actions (Eph. 5:11).
"Outer darkness" refers to the darkness of the streets in the
East, which are never lighted up by any public or private lamps
after nightfall, in contrast with the blaze of cheerful light in
the house. It is also a symbol of ignorance (Isa. 9:2; 60:2;
Matt. 6:23) and of death (Job 10:21; 17:13).
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of
Canaan (Gen. 10:16), one of the original tribes inhabiting the
land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites (Gen. 15:21;
Deut. 7:1). They were a branch of the great family of the
Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly
known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of
opulent, the mountain district lying to the NE of
Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern
Kurdistan. The plain lying between these mountains and the
Tigris was called su-Edina, i.e., "the border of the plain."
This name was sometimes shortened into Suti and Su, and has been
regarded as = Shoa (Ezek. 23:23). Some think it denotes a place
in Babylon. (See PEKOD T0002883.)
In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin
[R.V. marg., 'the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son"
(compare Luke 1:31-35). The people of the land of Zidon are thus
referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin,
daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah
(18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible
scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge
containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin,
es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land
of Israel. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole
district, and hence the name (Num. 34:4). It is called
"Maaleh-acrabbim" in Josh. 15:3, and "the ascent of Akrabbim" in
occurs only in Gen. 2:12, where it designates a product of the
land of Havilah; and in Num. 11:7, where the manna is likened to
it in colour. It was probably an aromatic gum like balsam which
exuded from a particular tree (Borassus flabelliformis) still
found in Arabia, Media, and India. It bears a resemblance in
colour to myrrh. Others think the word denotes "pearls," or some
(Heb. tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Israel. It is
described as "flourishing" (Ps. 92:12), tall (Cant. 7:7),
"upright" (Jer. 10:5). Its branches are a symbol of victory
(Rev. 7:9). "Rising with slender stem 40 or 50, at times even
80, feet aloft, its only branches, the feathery, snow-like,
pale-green fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending from its top,
the palm attracts the eye wherever it is seen." The whole land
of Israel was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia,
i.e., "the land of palms." Tadmor in the desert was called by
the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i.e., "the city of palms." The
finest specimens of this tree grew at Jericho (Deut. 34:3) and
Engedi and along the banks of the Jordan. Branches of the palm
tree were carried at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). At
our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem the crowds took
palm branches, and went forth to meet him, crying, "Hosanna:
Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the
Lord" (Matt. 21:8; John 12:13). (See DATE T0000979.)
a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father,
Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab. On the death of
Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law,
who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which
Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to
whom Ruth was eventually married. She became the mother of Obed,
the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the
maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5). The story of "the
gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good
Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of
transferring property from one person to another, the working of
the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families;
but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love,
the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen
race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38:29; Matt. 1:3)
and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the
ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'"
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the
Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the
days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with
his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of
Moab. There he and his sons died (Ruth 1:2,3; 2:1,3; 4:3,9).
Naomi afterwards returned to Israel with her daughter Ruth.
id. (1.) A grandson of Esau, one of the "dukes of Edom" (Gen.
36:11, 15, 42).
(2.) A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the
east," frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was noted
for the wisdom of its inhabitants (Amos 1:12; Obad. 1:8; Jer.
49:7; Ezek. 25:13). It was divided from the hills of Paran by
the low plain of Arabah (Hab. 3:3).
oracle town; sanctuary. (1.) One of the eleven cities to the
west of Hebron, in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:49; Judg.
1:11-15). It was originally one of the towns of the Anakim
(Josh. 15:15), and was also called Kirjath-sepher (q.v.) and
Kirjath-sannah (49). Caleb, who had conquered and taken
possession of the town and district of Hebron (Josh. 14:6-15),
offered the hand of his daughter to any one who would
successfully lead a party against Debir. Othniel, his younger
brother (Judg. 1:13; 3:9), achieved the conquest, and gained
Achsah as his wife. She was not satisfied with the portion her
father gave her, and as she was proceeding toward her new home,
she "lighted from off her ass" and said to him, "Give me a
blessing [i.e., a dowry]: for thou hast given me a south land"
(Josh. 15:19, A.V.); or, as in the Revised Version, "Thou hast
set me in the land of the south", i.e., in the Negeb, outside
the rich valley of Hebron, in the dry and barren land. "Give me
also springs of water. And he gave her the upper springs, and
the nether springs."
Debir has been identified with the modern Edh-Dhaheriyeh,
i.e., "the well on the ridge", to the south of Hebron.
(2.) A place near the "valley of Achor" (Josh. 15:7), on the
north boundary of Judah, between Jerusalem and Jericho.
(3.) The king of Eglon, one of the five Canaanite kings who
were hanged by Joshua (Josh. 10:3, 23) after the victory at
Gibeon. These kings fled and took refuge in a cave at Makkedah.
Here they were kept confined till Joshua returned from the
pursuit of their discomfited armies, when he caused them to be
brought forth, and "Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged
them on five trees" (26).
terrors, a warlike tribe of giants who were defeated by
Chedorlaomer and his allies in the plain of Kiriathaim. In the
time of Abraham they occupied the country east of Jordan,
afterwards the land of the Moabites (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:10).
They were, like the Anakim, reckoned among the Rephaim, and were
conquered by the Moabites, who gave them the name of Emims,
i.e., "terrible men" (Deut. 2:11). The Ammonites called them
heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob
and Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they
entered with each other (Gen. 31:47, 48). This was the name
given to the "heap" by Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name
Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or
Syriac). Probably Nahor's family originally spoke Aramaic, and
Abraham and his descendants learned Hebrew, a kindred dialect,
in the land of Canaan.
a nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal
Canaanite city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on
the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had
a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL T0000554.)
(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26)
by "a man who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is
identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.
The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into
the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this
name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for
the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He
repelled the invasion, slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.).
The goad was a formidable sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten
feet long. He was probably contemporary for a time with Deborah
and Barak (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).
apple-region. (1.) A town in the valley or lowland of Judah;
formerly a royal city of the Canaanites (Josh. 12:17; 15:34). It
is now called Tuffuh, about 12 miles west of Jerusalem.
(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:8). The "land"
of Tappuah fell to Manasseh, but the "city" to Ephraim (17:8).
(3.) En-tappuah, the well of the apple, probably one of the
springs near Yassuf (Josh. 17:7).
built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a
small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from
Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also
Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer. 48:31,
36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE
STONE T0002586), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel,
and fought successfully for the independence of his kingdom.
After this Jehoram, king of Israel, in seeking to regain his
supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance with Jehoshaphat,
king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three kings led
their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge
in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then
took his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and
offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in
the sight of the allied armies. "There was great indignation
against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to
their own land." The invaders evacuated the land of Moab, and
Mesha achieved the independence of his country (2 Kings
a "stroke" of affliction, or disease. Sent as a divine
chastisement (Num. 11:33; 14:37; 16:46-49; 2 Sam. 24:21).
Painful afflictions or diseases, (Lev. 13:3, 5, 30; 1 Kings
8:37), or severe calamity (Mark 5:29; Luke 7:21), or the
judgment of God, so called (Ex. 9:14). Plagues of Egypt were ten
(1.) The river Nile was turned into blood, and the fish died,
and the river stank, so that the Egyptians loathed to drink of
the river (Ex. 7:14-25).
(2.) The plague of frogs (Ex. 8:1-15).
(3.) The plague of lice (Heb. kinnim, properly gnats or
mosquitoes; compare Ps. 78:45; 105:31), "out of the dust of the
land" (Ex. 8:16-19).
(4.) The plague of flies (Heb. arob, rendered by the LXX.
dog-fly), Ex. 8:21-24.
(5.) The murrain (Ex.9:1-7), or epidemic pestilence which
carried off vast numbers of cattle in the field. Warning was
given of its coming.
(6.) The sixth plague, of "boils and blains," like the third,
was sent without warning (Ex.9:8-12). It is called (Deut. 28:27)
"the botch of Egypt," A.V.; but in R.V., "the boil of Egypt."
"The magicians could not stand before Moses" because of it.
(7.) The plague of hail, with fire and thunder (Ex. 9:13-33).
Warning was given of its coming. (Compare Ps. 18:13; 105:32, 33).
(8.) The plague of locusts, which covered the whole face of
the earth, so that the land was darkened with them (Ex.
10:12-15). The Hebrew name of this insect, "arbeh", points to
the "multitudinous" character of this visitation. Warning was
given before this plague came.
(9.) After a short interval the plague of darkness succeeded
that of the locusts; and it came without any special warning
(Ex. 10:21-29). The darkness covered "all the land of Egypt" to
such an extent that "they saw not one another." It did not,
however, extend to the land of Goshen.
(10.) The last and most fearful of these plagues was the death
of the first-born of man and of beast (Ex. 11:4, 5; 12:29,30).
The exact time of the visitation was announced, "about
midnight", which would add to the horror of the infliction. Its
extent also is specified, from the first-born of the king to the
first-born of the humblest slave, and all the first-born of
beasts. But from this plague the Hebrews were completely
exempted. The Lord "put a difference" between them and the
Egyptians. (See PASSOVER T0002864.)
swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond
Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deut. 3:8, 16).
This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in
the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about
80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly
opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now
called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites extended from the
Arnon to the Jabbok.
(Heb. tsepharde'a, meaning a "marsh-leaper"). This reptile is
mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of
the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Ex. 8:2-14; Ps.
In the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev. 16:13,
where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only
species of frog existing in Israel is the green frog (Rana
esculenta), the well-known edible frog of the Continent.
a line (or natural boundary, as a mountain range). (1.) A tract
in the land of Edom south of the Dead Sea (Ps. 83:7); now called
(2.) A Phoenician city, not far from the sea coast, to the
north of Beyrout (Ezek. 27:9); called by the Greeks Byblos. Now
Jibeil. Mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
An important Phoenician text, referring to the temple of
Baalath, on a monument of Yehu-melek, its king (probably B.C.
600), has been discovered.